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Surveys in the Netherlands have shown that 57% of church members (Roman-Catholic and Protestant) and 55% of the unchurched believe in a life after death.
Even more remarkable is that in both categories more people believe in life after death than in God (40% among church members and 7% of non-members). All this appears to indicate a considerable degree of ?wishful thinking? among the unchurched on the one hand and a rather confused belief among many church members on the other. This seems to me sufficient reason to reconsider the question of life after death extensively and critically. Special attention is paid to the interim period between death and resurrection, a subject about which the Bible tells us little and on which most theologians remain silent. In the synoptic gospels there is ? compared to Paul ? a change in emphasis but not in content. Tertullian (circa 200), influenced by stoicism, sees the soul as an entity with many functional activities of which intellect and will are the highest. Clement of Alexandria (circa 200), under platonic influence, believes in a tripartite soul, consisting of one part intellect (nous, divine and immortal), one part passion, and one part desire.
Origen (circa 225), also a Platonist, assumes a unity of body, soul and mind, which brings him close to the thinking of Paul.
Gregory of Nyssa (circa 370) proceeds from the Aristotelian form of a soul with vegetative, animal and intellectual parts, independent of the body. Thomas Aquinas (1225-74) also believes that the soul is created and inserted in the body by God. Duns Scotus (1264-1308) emphasizes the will, divine as well as human, rather than the intellect as Thomas does. Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560), the most prominent theologian of the Lutheran movement, brings a nuance to sola fide by recognizing the need for cooperation between God?s Spirit and the human will in our conversion. At best one might conclude from Gen.3 that Adam and Eve through their disobedience lost the possibility of becoming immortal.
The question of what will happen to those who have not come to know Christ during their lifetime will be discussed in chapter 7, which deals with the interim period between death and resurrection. Whereas the Bible says little about the period between our death and the resurrection of the dead on the last day, there arose in the twelfth century the idea of purgatory. The Reformation eliminated ?the bookkeeping of the masses for the dead and letters of indulgence? but, because of the predestina¬tion doctrine, people were anxious to know whether they belonged to the elect or the damned.
The Enlightenment brought a new development, whereby the Church lost more and more influence and the ?secularization of death? arose.
In the twentieth century death is being ?professionalized? of death, in which physician and undertaker take over the helm from the pastor. Those who do not believe in the biblical message about death and the future life, or are not even aware of it, are inclined to feel a resistance against death. Nevertheless, the death of a young child or of a parent of young children through illness or accident, remains a tragic loss. The humanist philosopher Christa Anbeek, after the sudden loss of her partner, has searched for the meaning of death, apart from its biological necessity.7 In Zen Buddhism that teaches us to live without support, she found no consolation for her loss. She presents their thoughts about life and death tersely, but she also looks critically at their philosophies and compares them to her own experience. About the interim period between our death and resurrection the Bible remains virtually silent, presumably because Jesus and his disciples expected the return during their time.
Consider that church attenders, whenever they recite the Nicene Creed, affirm in the first line their belief in ?God, the Father, the Almighty? and in the last line their belief in ?the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come?. I consider therefore what we can learn from the so-called ?near-death experiences? about which there has been much discussion lately due to the work of scientists such as Pim van Lommel,3 whose recent book, Consciousness Beyond life: The Science of the Near-Death Experience, has received much attention. This further requires a discussion of the images that bible and science present of the human person. He worked as Anglican chaplain for English-speaking people in the Netherlands (1965-85), founding four congregations.


The thinking at the time was strongly influenced by Greek philosophy, successively Stoicist, Platonist and Aristotelian. The soul is for him localized in the heart, while the body is merely the instrument of the soul.
The will serves to maintain order in the rebellious nature of humans that is corrupted through the Fall. Further¬more, we should consider that Gen.2 and 3 are mythical stories and thus we should be cautious about drawing literal conclusions from them. Very little is said in the Bible about the interim period, probably because Jesus and his disciples expected the last day to occur in their time. After all, we believe that Christ is the Son of God and then his resurrection is to be expected: the divine cannot remain in the fetters of death.
Here the dead are subjected to horrible tortures in order to purge them from the sins committed during earthly life.3 This is described in lurid detail in the journeys to the hereafter of St. The hereafter became less frightening, hell retreated to the background and the eschatological meeting with loved ones became more important than meeting God.
Palliative care and eutha¬nasia, at home or in a hospice, and mourning care make their entrance. She then sought counsel from the existential psychotherapy of the American psychiatrist Irvin Yalom, the classical art of life of Joep Dohmen and Wilhelm Schmid, the writings of philosopher Patricia de Martelaere, the authors Kristien Hemmerechts and Anna Enquist, cardiologist Pim van Lommel on near-death experiences, the poets Rutger Kopland and Thich Nhat Hanh, and the atheist evo¬lutionary biologist Richard Dawkins.
This is particularly true for the letters of Paul and for the synoptic gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke. Since the interim period has now already lasted 2000 years, it is important to pay attention to it (ch.7).
The mortality of all living beings is, however, required for the evolution from protocell to human. The authors' research shows that these spiritual experiences offer hope, love, and comfort for thousands of people. It appears to provide information about the interim period between death and resurrection, a subject about which the Bible tells us little and on which most theologians remain silent. Since his return to the Netherlands in 1993 he has mainly occupied himself with the science-theology dialogue, publishing 6 books and 106 papers.
But the resurrection of the human dead ? who are not divine ? does not necessarily follow from the resurrection of Christ. Bandan and Tondalus, 4 and particularly of Dante Alighieri.5 These stories were probably conceived in order to frighten simple believers into improving the quality of their lives.
Where the ?in memoriam? card, common in Roman-Catholic circles, was traditionally composed by the priest and included a request to pray for the repose of the soul of the deceased person, it is now usually a farewell message written by the next-of-kin or the undertaker. Our mortality is, however, a natural phenomenon that is necessarily connected with the evolution of life. The death of an elderly person, even though this may be the immediate result of illness, is the inescapable consequence of our mortality. For the Hebrew word leb Paul uses the word kardia (heart), meaning personality, inner life, and seat of intellectual and spiritual activities, in other words the human mind. Tertullian sees the soul as an entity with several functional activities, particularly intellect and will, localized in the heart.
Included are more than 350 first-hand accounts of those whose lives have been changed and even protected by messages or signs from the deceased. In this context, I also discuss reincarnation belief that has come to us from eastern religions and that is accepted by 25% of church members in the Netherlands. Thomas accepts free will, but states that it cannot be addressed to God unless God converts it to himself.
In my opinion our resurrection derives from the doctrine of creation, which tells us that the world and all living creatures, including humans, were created out of love by God. The funeral service is now more directed at the relatives than at the deceased person and is now often conducted without a pastor at the funeral center rather than in church.


Without the mortality of all living beings, natural selection could not operate and the evolution of life from protocell to humans could not have taken place.
It is an event for which we should prepare ourselves during our lifetime and about which we may know on biblical grounds that it will lead to a new life that knows no more death.
His ascribing human resurrec¬tion on the last day to the resurrection of Christ is logically not strong: the rising of Christ, the divine Son of God, is a unique event that need not necessarily lead to our resurrection. It is an event for which we should prepare ourselves during our lifetime and about which we know from the biblical message that it will lead to a new life without death.
Leggett ? In the West, relations between science and religion have tended to be uneasy, periods of relatively peaceful coexistence being punctuated by periods of acute tension. For Paul pneuma and nous are the thinking, reasoning, reflecting, and purposeful aspect of the human self, the mind, while the body (soma) is the self and the object of these activities.
Through his death and resurrection Christ opened the heavenly kingdom to all believers (Eph. The mortality of all living beings was necessary to enable the evolution of life from protocell to humans. A healthier tendency, particularly in Anglican circles, is to make the funeral service a cele¬bration of the life of the deceased person.
Thus it has been ordained by God, who created us through evolution in order to grant us eternity life6 at the completion of his creative work. Clement of Alexandria believes in a tripartite soul with one part for the intellect, one for passion, and one for desire.
It can, however, be said that through our belief in Christ we shall participate in his resurrection. Thus it has been ordained by God who created us through the evolutionary process and who will give us eternity life upon the completion of his creative work. Two such times which immediately spring to mind are those associated with Galileo in the early sixteen hundreds and with Charles Darwin half way through last century. In 1985 he returned to the US as a scientific consultant for NASA in designing biological research facilities for the International Space Station (1985-93). In 1Cor.15 Paul says that our resurrection awaits the return of Christ (parousia) that will lead to the transformation of this world into the new kingdom.
The doctrine of creation also tells us that God is bringing his creation to perfection, to the new world.
Gregory of Nyssa proceeds from a soul with vegetative, animal and intellectual parts, independent of the body.
In the 20th century death became ?professionalized?: physician and undertaker replace the priest, the funeral center replaces the church.
This will include the raising of the dead and their entrance into the new world, where there is no more mortality but eternity life.
He believes the soul to be created by God, but transferred from parent to child, through which he confirms Origen?s doctrine of original sin.
He accepts free will, but claims that it cannot be addressed to God unless God converts it to himself. Duns Scotus sees humans as a unity of body and soul in a unique individual, the soul being capable of intuitive knowledge of the spiritual life. The human will serves, according to Aquinas, to keep order in the rebellious human nature that is debased through the Fall.



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