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Use the sample below to familiarise yourself with the answer sheets used in the IELTS exam. IELTS is jointly owned by the British Council, IDP: IELTS Australia and Cambridge English Language Assessment.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated to NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company. The paper's print version has the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the United States. Nicknamed for years as " The Gray Lady", The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record". The paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review (formerly the Week in Review), The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and .
The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851, by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond (1820–69), then a Whig Party member and later second chairman of the newly organized Republican Party National Committee, and former banker George Jones. The main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York Draft Riots sparked by the beginning of military conscription for the Northern Union Army now instituted in the midst of the Civil War on July 13, 1863. The newspaper's influence grew during 1870–1 when it published a series of exposes on William Magear ("Boss") Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" (from its early 19th Century meeting headquarters) — that led to the end of the "Tweed Ring's" domination of New York's City Hall. The New York Times is third in national circulation, after USA Today and The Wall Street Journal. In 2009, the newspaper began production of local inserts in regions outside of the New York area. In addition to its New York City headquarters, the newspaper has 10 news bureaus in the New York region, 11 national news bureaus and 26 foreign news bureaus. Because of its steadily declining sales attributed to the rise of online alternative media and social media, the newspaper has been going through a downsizing for several years, offering buyouts to workers and cutting expenses, in common with a general trend among print news media. The newspaper moved its headquarters to the Times Tower, located at 1475 Broadway in 1904, in an area called Longacre Square, that was later renamed Times Square in honor of the newspaper. A decade later, The New York Times moved its newsroom and businesses headquarters from West 43rd Street to a new tower at 620 Eighth Avenue between West 40th and 41st Streets, in Manhattan directly across Eighth Avenue from the Port Authority Bus Terminal. The paper's involvement in a 1964 libel case helped bring one of the key United States Supreme Court decisions supporting freedom of the press, New York Times Co. In 1971, the Pentagon Papers, a secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political and military involvement in the Vietnam War from 1945 to 1967, were given ("leaked") to Neil Sheehan of The New York Times by former State Department official Daniel Ellsberg, with his friend Anthony Russo assisting in copying them.
When The New York Times began publishing its series, President Richard Nixon became incensed. Discriminatory practices restricting women in editorial positions were part of the history, correlating with effects on the journalism published at the time. In February 2013, the paper stopped offering lifelong positions for its journalists and editors."The Approval Matrix", New York magazine, Feb. In 1896, Adolph Ochs bought The New York Times, a money-losing newspaper, and formed the New York Times Company. The Ochs-Sulzberger family trust controls roughly 88 percent of the company's class B shares.
Turner Catledge, the top editor at The New York Times from 1952 to 1968, wanted to hide the ownership influence. On January 20, 2009, The New York Times reported that Carlos Slim, Mexican telecommunications magnate and the world's second richest person, lent it $250 million "to help the newspaper company finance its businesses".
Dual-class structures caught on in the mid-20th century as families such as the Grahams of The Washington Post Company sought to gain access to public capital without losing control. News: Includes International, National, Washington, Business, Technology, Science, Health, Sports, The Metro Section, Education, Weather, and Obituaries. Features: Includes Arts, Movies, Theater, Travel, NYC Guide, Food, Home & Garden, Fashion & Style, Crossword, The New York Times Book Review, , The New York Times Magazine, and Sunday Review. Some sections, such as Metro, are only found in the editions of the paper distributed in the New York–New Jersey–Connecticut Tri-State Area and not in the national or Washington, D.C.
In March 2014, Vanessa Friedman was named the "fashion director and chief fashion critic" of The New York Times. When referring to people, The New York Times generally uses , rather than unadorned last names (except in the sports pages, Book Review and Magazine). Joining a roster of other major American newspapers in the last ten years, including USA Today, The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post, The New York Times announced on July 18, 2006, that it would be narrowing the width of its paper by six inches. The New York Times printed a display advertisement on its first page on January 6, 2009, breaking tradition at the paper.
In August 2014, The New York Times decided to increase their use of the term "torture" in stories about harsh interrogations, shifting from their previous description of the interrogations as "harsh" or "brutal". The New York Times has established links regionally with 16 bureaus in the New York region, nationally, with 11 bureaus within the US, and globally, with 26 foreign news bureaus. The New York Times has had a web presence since 1996, and has been ranked one of the top websites. In September 2005, the paper decided to begin subscription-based service for daily columns in a program known as TimesSelect, which encompassed many previously free columns. Falling print advertising revenue and projections of continued decline resulted in a paywall being instituted in 2011, regarded as modestly successful after garnering several hundred thousand subscriptions and about $100 million in revenue .
The paper's website was hacked on August 29, 2013, by the Syrian Electronic Army, a hacking group that supports the government of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. In 2008, The New York Times created an app for the iPhone and iPod touch which allowed users to download articles to their mobile device enabling them to read the paper even when they were unable to receive a signal.
In 2010, the newspaper also launched an App for Android smartphones, followed later by an App for Windows phones. The site’s initial success was interrupted in October that year following the publication of an investigative article by David Barboza about the finances of Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao’s family. The website's "Newsroom Navigator" collects online resources for use by reporters and editors.


Because of Strike action, the regular edition of The New York Times was not printed during the following periods:The New York Times (2016). According to a 2007 survey by conservative-leaning Rasmussen Reports of public perceptions of major media outlets, 40% saw the paper as having a liberal slant, 20% no political slant and 11% believe it has a conservative slant. In mid-2004, the newspaper's then public editor (ombudsman), Daniel Okrent, wrote an opinion piece in which he said that The New York Times did have a liberal bias in news coverage of certain social issues such as abortion and permitting Same-sex marriage. In a December 19, 2012, column published in the left-leaning Huffington Post, economics professor and former bank regulator William K. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has greatly expanded its lay-out and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials, sports, and features.
At "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond, owner and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with "Gatling" (early machine, rapid-firing) guns, one of which he manned himself. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical. The newspaper is owned by The New York Times Company, in which descendants of Adolph Ochs, principally the Sulzberger family, maintain a dominant role. Beginning October 16, 2009, a two-page "Bay Area" insert was added to copies of the Northern California edition on Fridays and Sundays. In 1854, it moved to 138 Nassau Street, and in 1858 to 41 Park Row, making it the first newspaper in New York City housed in a building built specifically for its use. The top of the building now known as One Times Square is the site of the New Year's Eve tradition of lowering a lighted ball, that was started by the paper. The new headquarters for the newspaper, known officially as The New York Times Building but unofficially called the new "Times Tower" by many New Yorkers, is a skyscraper designed by Renzo Piano.
The newspaper's first general woman reporter was Jane Grant, who described her experience afterwards. The Ochs-Sulzberger family, one of the United States newspaper dynasties, has owned The New York Times ever since. Any alteration to the dual-class structure must be ratified by six of eight directors who sit on the board of the Ochs-Sulzberger family trust.
Arthur Sulzberger routinely wrote memos to his editor, each containing suggestions, instructions, complaints, and orders. Dow Jones & Co., publisher of The Wall Street Journal, had a similar structure and was controlled by the Bancroft family but was later bought by News Corporation in 2007, which itself is controlled by Rupert Murdoch and Murdoch family through a similar dual-class structure.
It stayed with an eight-column format until September 7, 1976, years after other papers had switched to six, and it was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography, with the first color photograph on the front page appearing on October 16, 1997. In an era of dwindling circulation and significant advertising revenue losses for most print versions of American newspapers, the move, which would result in a 5 percent reduction in news coverage, would have a target savings of $12 million a year for the paper.
Accessing some articles requires registration, though this could be bypassed in some cases through Times RSS feeds. It was also the first newspaper to offer a video game as part of its editorial content, Food Import Folly by Persuasive Games. In March 2013, The New York Times and National Film Board of Canada announced a partnership entitled A Short History of the Highrise, which will create four short documentaries for the internet about life in highrise buildings as part of the NFB's Highrise project, utilizing images from the newspaper's photo archives for the first three films, and user-submitted images for the final film.
The paywall was announced on March 17, 2011, that starting on March 28, 2011 (March 17, 2011 for Canada), it would charge frequent readers for access to its online content. The SEA managed to penetrate the paper's domain name registrar, Melbourne IT, and alter DNS records for The New York Times, putting some of its websites out of service for hours.
In April 2010, The New York Times announced it would begin publishing daily content through an iPad app. An international edition was printed, and a weekend edition replaced the Saturday and Sunday papers.
In December 2004, a University of California, Los Angeles study by former fellows of a conservative think tank gave The New York Times a score of 63.5 on a 100-point scale, with 0 being most conservative and 100 being most liberal. He stated that this bias reflected the paper's cosmopolitanism, which arose naturally from its roots as a hometown paper of New York City. The mob now diverted, instead attacked the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.[2]. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland (former Mayor of Buffalo and Governor of New York State) in his first presidential campaign.
The newspaper commenced production of a similar Friday and Sunday insert to the Chicago edition on November 20, 2009. The building is also notable for its electronic news ticker popularly known as "The Zipper" where headlines crawled around the outside of the building. She wrote, "In the beginning I was charged not to reveal the fact that a female had been hired". Later, she interviewed major political leaders and appears to have had easier access than her colleagues did.
After the publisher went public in the 1960s, the family continued to exert control through its ownership of the vast majority of Class B Voting interest.
When Catledge would receive these memos he would erase the publisher's identity before passing them to his subordinates. Although this acquisition made him the largest shareholder in the company, it does not give him the ability to control the newspaper, as his stake allows him to vote only for Class A directors, who compose just a third of the company's board. Aside from a weekly roundup of reprints of editorial cartoons from other newspapers, The New York Times does not have its own staff editorial cartoonist, nor does it feature a comics page or Sunday comics section. In the absence of a major headline, the day's most important story generally appears in the top-right column, on the main page.
The change from the traditional broadsheet style to a more compact 48-inch web width (12-inch page width) was addressed by both Executive Editor Bill Keller and The New York Times President Scott Heekin-Canedy in memos to the staff. The newspaper promised it would place first-page advertisements on only the lower half of the page.
To avoid this charge, bloggers often reposted TimesSelect material, and at least one site once compiled links of reprinted material.
In 2010, The New York Times editors collaborated with students and faculty from New York University's Studio 20 Journalism Masters program to launch and produce The Local East Village, a hyperlocal blog designed to offer news "by, for and about the residents of the East Village". The third project in the series, "A Short History of the Highrise", won a Peabody Award in 2013.


Further specific collections are available to cover the subjects of business, politics and health.
The validity of the study has been questioned by organizations, including the liberal media "watchdog" group Media Matters for America.
Okrent did not comment at length on the issue of bias in coverage of other "hard news", such as fiscal policy, foreign policy, or civil liberties. As of February 2013, the paper reported a circulation of 1,317,100 copies in weekdays and 1,781,100 copies on Sundays.
The inserts consist of local news, policy, sports, and culture pieces, usually supported by local advertisements. In it, the United States Supreme Court established the "actual malice" standard for press reports about public officials or to be considered defamation or . Even those who witnessed her in action were unable to explain how she got the interviews she did.Robertson, Nan, The Girls in the Balcony, p. Class A shareholders are permitted restrictive voting rights while Class B shareholders are allowed open voting rights. In September 2008, The New York Times announced that it would be combining certain sections effective October 6, 2008, in editions printed in the New York metropolitan area.
Keller defended the "more reader-friendly" move indicating that in cutting out the "flabby or redundant prose in longer pieces" the reduction would make for a better paper.
On September 17, 2007, The New York Times announced that it would stop charging for access to parts of its Web site, effective at midnight the following day, reflecting a growing view in the industry that subscription fees cannot outweigh the potential ad revenue from increased traffic on a free site. Two months into the strike, a parody of The New York Times called Not The New York Times was given out in New York City, with contributors such as Carl Bernstein, Christopher Cerf, Tony Hendra and George Plimpton. In the New York City metropolitan area, the paper costs $2.50 Monday through Saturday and $5 on Sunday. After nine years in its Times Square tower, the newspaper had an annex built at 229 West 43rd Street. The malice standard requires the plaintiff in a defamation or libel case prove the publisher of the statement knew the statement was false or acted in reckless disregard of its truth or falsity. Because of her gender, promotions were out of the question, according to the then-managing editor.
Similarly, Keller confronted the challenges of covering news with "less room" by proposing more "rigorous editing" and promised an ongoing commitment to "hard-hitting, ground-breaking journalism".
In addition to opening almost the entire site to all readers, The New York Times news archives from 1987 to the present are available at no charge, as well as those from 1851 to 1922, which are in the public domain. This plan would allow free access for occasional readers, but produce revenue from "heavy" readers.
Across the gutter, the Op-Ed page editors do an evenhanded job of representing a range of views in the essays from outsiders they publish – but you need an awfully heavy counterweight to balance a page that also bears the work of seven opinionated columnists, only two of whom could be classified as conservative (and, even then, of the conservative subspecies that supports legalization of gay unions and, in the case of William Safire, opposes some central provisions of the Patriot Act). On April 21, 1861, The New York Times departed from its original Monday–Saturday publishing schedule and joined other major dailies in adding a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. After several expansions, the 43rd Street building became the newspaper's main headquarters in 1960 and the Times Tower on Broadway was sold the following year. Because of the high burden of proof on the plaintiff, and difficulty in proving malicious intent, such cases by public figures rarely succeed. That day the Post received a call from the Assistant Attorney General, William Rehnquist, asking them to stop publishing. She was there for fifteen years, interrupted by World War I.Grant, Jane, Confession of a Feminist, in The American Mercury, vol.
Clifton Daniel said, "After I'm sure Konrad Adenauer called her up and invited her to lunch.
This change also included having the name of the Metro section be called New York outside of the Tri-State Area.
Digital subscriptions rates for four weeks range from $15 to $35 depending on the package selected, with periodic new subscriber promotions offering four-week all-digital access for as low as 99?. It was announced in Seattle in April 2006 by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr., Bill Gates, and Tom Bodkin. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone.Cornwell, 2004, p. It served as the newspaper's main printing plant until 1997, when the newspaper opened a state-of-the-art printing plant in the College Point section of the borough of Queens. The presses used by The New York Times allow four sections to be printed simultaneously; as the paper had included more than four sections all days except Saturday, the sections had to be printed separately in an early press run and collated together. The changes will allow The New York Times to print in four sections Monday through Wednesday, in addition to Saturday. Some content, such as the front page and section fronts will remain free, as well as the Top News page on mobile apps.
In December 2013, the newspaper announced that the Times Reader app would be discontinued on January 6, 2014, urging readers of the app to instead begin using the subscription-only "Today's Paper" app. Covering world leaders' speeches after World War II at the National Press Club was limited to men by a Club rule. When women were eventually allowed in to hear the speeches, they still were not allowed to ask the speakers questions, although men were allowed and did ask, even though some of the women had won Pulitzer Prizes for prior work.Robertson, Nan, The Girls in the Balcony, pp.
Sullivan announced that for the first time in many decades, the paper generated more revenue through subscriptions than through advertising.Margaret Sullivan, "A Milestone Behind, a Mountain Ahead", ''The New York Times, January 19, 2013. Airplane Edition" was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. On June 30, 1971, the Supreme Court held in a 6–3 decision that the injunctions were unconstitutional prior restraints and that the government had not met the burden of proof required. While it was generally seen as a victory for those who claim the First Amendment enshrines an absolute right to free speech, many felt it a lukewarm victory, offering little protection for future publishers when claims of national security were at stake.



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