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Headteacher & NLE Cori Bateman shares how she's used coaching & what difference it's made to her, her school & another school she supported, eg Combined reading, writing & maths from 37% to 64% in 1 Year, less stress and getting people to take responsibility for solving their own problems rather than constantly bringing trivial things to her! Sometimes I wonder if I've landed in a bizarre parallel universe where up means down and leaving no child behind actually means failing most children. Among a bevy of other issues, in this zone, the definition of a "highly qualified" teacher has morphed to include people who only passed a computer exam to receive their professional teaching credentials. Far from its stated goal of placing well-trained, professional teachers in our nation's schools, provisions in the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) regarding "highly qualified" teachers advance an agenda that includes an over-reliance on high-stakes tests for teachers and ultimately threatens to lower the quality of teachers entering our classrooms. Most people agree that students deserve to be taught by highly qualified, competent teachers.
This need is especially great in poorer urban districts and schools where classroom overcrowding, lower pay scales, and a lack of resources make it difficult to recruit and retain qualified teachers. A 2002 analysis of school and staffing data also done by the Education Trust found that schools in high-poverty schools were 77 percent more likely to have classes taught by out-of-field teachers and that schools with a majority non-white population were 40 percent more likely to have teachers assigned to classes out of their fields of expertise. NCLB's rhetorical call for a highly qualified teacher in every classroom draws on the desperate reality we face in our schools today. NCLB lays out several provisions regarding "highly qualified" teachers and provides a broad and seemingly simple definition of what constitutes a "highly qualified" teacher: Anyone with a bachelor's degree who has been certified as a teacher and can demonstrate content knowledge through coursework or testing is deemed "highly qualified" under the law. On paper, at least, states are given leeway to interpret how they will meet the federal standards for "highly qualified" teachers, but the reality is that states are being forced to substitute a federal definition of "highly qualified" for their own. The implementation of the teacher-quality provisions of NCLB has run into technical difficulties. Similar problems have arisen for teachers who teach across multiple subject areas in special education programs and middle school classes, where it is oftentimes impossible for those teachers to be considered "highly qualified" in every single subject they teach. Many states currently use high-stakes tests like the Praxis I or II for teacher certification, or they rely on other subject-matter exams for teachers to prove their content expertise.
Second, the Praxis, which is produced by the Educational Testing Service, also appears to be just as discriminatory as the college entrance SAT exams.
As sinister as it sounds, many proponents of vouchers and privatization are involved in developing the Bush Administration's policy regarding "highly qualified" teachers.
The ABCTE's "Passport" represents a political move to deregulate and circumvent state certification standards and state control of teacher education programs. Kate Walsh, also on the ABCTE's board of directors and on staff with the National Council on Teacher Quality (NCTQ), recently co-edited a book with Andrew Rotherdam of the Progressive Policy Institute, a right-wing think tank.
While mainly a conversation among policy wonks and academics, this web of conservative policy power players shows that the fight over defining who is and who is not a "highly qualified" teacher is a deeply political fight.
There is a deeper inherent contradiction at play here for highly qualified teaching professionals as well. Professional contradictions aside, the responsibility for recruiting, educating, and retaining teachers rests on the whole chain of public education—from local schools and districts, to teacher education programs, to state departments of public instruction, to the federal Department of Education.
Rather than provide the substantial financial and institutional support necessary to get a certified teacher in every classroom, the NCLB takes the same stance toward schools and teachers that it has toward students: Fit into the narrowly conceived federal definition of "successful" or face dire consequences.
In the case of teachers and teacher education, the consequences mean fewer teachers of color, potential deregulation of often rigorous state standards for teaching credentials, and the circumvention of existing schools of education through alternative, for-profit certification programs like the ABCTE's "Passport to Teaching." The real folly, however, is that NCLB, with its rigidly imposed definitions and mandates, is actually so focused on keeping track of "highly qualified" teachers' credentials that it has very little to do with keeping track of quality teaching.
Reflective Practice is a modern term, and an evolving framework, for an ancient method of self-improvement. Essentially Reflective Practice is a method of assessing our own thoughts and actions, for the purpose of personal learning and development. For example, Reflective Practice is highly relevant and helpful towards Continuous Professional Development (CPD). Reflective Practice is essentially a very old and flexible concept, so it might be called other things. This alternative terminology, which includes some familiar words, can help us to understand and explain its principles and scope. Increasingly these principles, terminology, and underpinning theory are defined and conveyed within the term 'Reflective Practice' and its supporting framework of terminology and application. As such, 'Reflective Practice' is a theory by which modern and traditional self-improvement ideas can be more clearly defined, refined, expanded, adapted, taught, adopted and applied, for the purposes of personal development, teaching and coaching, and wider organizational improvement. Reflective Practice is also helpful for personal fulfilment (US-English fulfillment) and happiness, in the sense that we can see and understand ourselves more objectively. Reflective Practice enables clearer thinking, and reduces our tendencies towards emotional bias.
Incidentally, the term 'Reflective Practice' is generally shown here with capitalized initial letters. The capitalization also differentiates the term Reflective Practice from other general uses of the word 'practice' in referring to a person's work or practical things, which are clarified as such throughout this article.
The alternative spelling of 'practise' is not used here because traditionally this spelling refers to the verb form of the word, whereas Reflective Practice is a noun, (just as 'advice' is a noun and 'advise' is a verb). I am grateful to Linda Lawrence-Wilkes, an expert in Reflective Practice, for collaborating and contributing to the technical content of this free Reflective Practice reference guide, and related Reflective Practice self-assessment instruments. As with any theoretical concept, definitions of Reflective Practice convey a basic technical description of the subject. Definitions alone do not fully explain how and why something operates, nor teach us how to use it.
Definitions do however provide a useful basis for comprehension, and consistent terminology for discussion, especially for a subject open to quite different interpretations. Definitions also help establish firm meanings, for sharing ideas, adopting the methods, and understanding of how Reflective Practice can be used, alongside other developmental methodologies. The following various definitions convey their own distinct meanings, and also assist the reader in developing a quick general appreciation of Reflective Practice as a whole.
Reflection - Engagement in a deliberate mental process of thinking about, or contemplating, things that have happened, what was experienced and learned, from our own and from others' points of view. Reflexivity - Reflexivity is the process of 'stepping back' from a situation we are involved in, for a 'helicopter view' of ourselves. Critical Reflection - Critical Reflection is the adoption of a questioning stance to solve problems, challenge the 'status quo' and examine our own assumptions. Reflective Practice - Reflective Practice is the use of self-analysis to understand, evaluate and interpret events and experiences in which we are involved. Please note that the table above is an extremely concise summary, and is therefore very much open to debate.
We have already seen that terms such as reflection and critical thinking can mean different things to different people, and this variable characteristic features in the founding ideas of Reflective Practice. It's long been observed that different learning methods produce different types of learning. Rooted in Greek philosophy, critical thinking is based on a Socratic idea of a reasoned process of weighing up the evidence to decide whether something is believed to be true or false. Much later, the concept of reflection was taken up in the 18th Century enlightenment movement, a reaction against the turbulent and superstitious (and more oppressive) middle ages. Here are some of the important historical conceptual interpretations that have helped to shape modern definitions and development of Reflective Practice, and its related concepts.
Immanuel Kant - German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) is considered one of the founders of Western philosophy. Bertrand Russell - Bertrand Russell (1872-1970, 3rd Earl Russell of Kingston Russell), an English philosopher, mathematician and supporter of Kant's scientific approach, considered that knowledge is 'a belief in agreement with facts'. Crucially here, reflection is seen as more than impulsive thinking or day-dreaming with no purpose. Thus, reflecting on things that have happened in our lives can open up more options and enable sound reasons for action. Jean Piaget - Jean Piaget (1896-1980), a Swiss psychologist, proposed the theory that children mature in their thinking through different stages of development. David Kolb - David Kolb (b.1939), an American educationalist, produced seminal works on experiential learning theory (see Kolb Learning Styles).
Kolb proposed that if we become better at using all the stages of the learning cycle, notably including reflecting on experience, we will become better life-long learners. Kolb's concept is among many that advocates 'trial and error' (extending to reflection, conceptualization and experimentation) through our own direct personal experience, and asserts this ('trial and error' approach) as an important mechanism for successful learning.
Note: While this assertion stands alone as a learning model for many self-contained tasks and activities, of course we need more than personal experience to learn about the wider world. Donald Schon - Donald Schon (1930-1997) was an American philosopher, author, and Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Barbara Larrivee - Professor Barbara Larrivee is an American expert in teaching and Reflective Practice at the Department of Learning, University of California. Reflecting on action gives us time to look back at what happened in a more measured and objective way. Carl Rogers - Carl Rogers (1902-87) was a prominent American psychotherapist and author. Michel Foucault - Michel Foucault (1926-1984) was a French philosopher and social theorist. Karen Kitchener - Dr Karen Strohm Kitchener (born c.1950), is an American Counselling Psychologist and author, and Professor Emeritus at the University of Denver, having directed its counselling program for almost 25 years. Jack Mezirow - Jack Mezirow (1923-14) was an American sociologist and Emeritus Professor of Adult and Continuing Education at Teachers College, Columbia University. Significantly in Goleman's work, the use of self-reflection should be regulated by the situation, which acknowledges the potential of reflective techniques to open deep personal issues, which may not be appropriate. Stephen Brookfield - Dr Stephen Brookfield (b.1949) is an English educationalist, at the School of Education, University of St Thomas, Minneapolis. This is a sophisticated and multi-faceted perspective Reflective Practice, and illustrates the evolution of the concept from its simple 'reflection' origins. Critical reflection is viewed by many as the cognitive process linking theory and practical work, vital in critical thinking. Systematically using reflection to consider what theory has to offer for our own learning and professional work can help us move from thought to action. Reflexivity and reflective learning together empower critically reflective learners for continuous improvement in performance, at individual and organizational levels.
The nature of thought is obviously personal, being the product of our own brain, so our own thinking tends to be subjective to some degree.
If reflective thinking is to be useful for our learning and development, and for improving our actions and decisions in an environment, then this reflective thinking must include some objectivity. We should consider what experts have said about this, and how we might best allow for natural human tendencies towards subjective thinking within Reflective Practice. However, Schon and others have noted that even 'objective' evidence-based problem-solving methods can be flawed, if a habitual routine approach fails to question and challenge the status quo.
For example, a reasonable evidence-based reflection made in the 1970s would have concluded that a lack of computer skills was unlikely ever to be a serious obstacle to professional development (other than for computer scientists and programmers), whereas by 2000 it had become virtually impossible to maintain a normal domestic existence, let alone develop a career, without a good command of IT and online technology. Nudge theory, and the heuristics within it (especially the human tendency to place undue emphasis on 'evidence') are very useful in understanding why people can be misguided by apparent 'facts', and how this can have a huge effect on groups and society. Some types of subjective instinctive thinking is unhelpful, but other types can be tremendously effective in finding truth and solutions.
So we need to be more subtle in understanding what objectivity and subjectivity mean in relation to Reflective Practice. We can increase our objectivity by increasing our awareness of our assumptions and expectations. This approach is very much aligned with notions of metacognition, (awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes). We can also use objective evidence to support our reflections, and in this way reduce bias in interpreting events and experiences. So particularly when reflecting on human values and social relationships we can increase the validity of our reflections by using evidence.
Nevertheless subjective reflections can be valuable, provided we are aware of the dangers of bias. Moreover, while isolated reflections are often unreliable and transient, a collection of subjective reflections can produce a meaningful picture. Lawrence-Wilkes and Ashmore - Linda Lawrence-Wilkes and Dr Lyn Ashmore, teachers of professional development in higher education in northern England, collaborated to publish their research on Reflective Practice for learning, 'The Reflective Practitioner in Professional Education' (2014).
As we reflect on new ideas and knowledge, we can stand back to gain new insights as patterns emerge to create a more holistic picture.
Like seeing stars in the night sky - it can be difficult to see them at first - we see just a black sky - but when our eyes become sensitive to the stars, we see more and more of them.


So, like star-gazing, in adopting a critical attitude - we must allow the whole picture to develop.
Judgements are based on what is most reasonable, using contextualized evaluation to determine the validity of data.
Here 'contextualized' means that we consider data - subjective and objective - according to its context, so that facts and feelings are not seen in unreliable isolation. Building on these ideas, Lawrence-Wilkes and Ashmore propose an integrated model of critical reflection which acknowledges a social context. This requires a reflective approach that accepts and respects diverse perspectives, supported by evidence, and produces shared and inclusive knowledge. And at a personal level, someone who reflects on may progress to take action for change in wider society.
And at a personal level, someone who reflects on their personal and professional life may build on strengths and address development gaps to progress and take action for change in wider society. The Reflective Rational Enquiry diagram below supports critical reasoned reflection through an integrated reflective-rational approach. Knowledge and experience are interpreted and analysed through the filter of perception and context, using reflective activities to obtain new insights for independent thinking and action.
When we put Reflective Practice into effect we are actually seeking to make a change, by using subjective and objective data from experience, to plan and decide actions. This section seeks to convey some methods for using Reflective Practice - either for yourself, or to help others use the concept. It's helpful to revisit what reflection within Reflective Practice actually means, since reflection crucially assists us to make successful change. Jenny Moon - Jenny Moon is a Teaching Fellow and Associate Professor at Bournemouth University. Most of us reflect superficially all the time, about what we are doing during events or experiences in our daily lives.
This expression 'thinking on our feet' often refers to a lack of preparation or reacting to a suprising situation, although its deeper meaning is that we are reflecting about a situation 'in the moment', in a broad external sense, and also an internal personal sense. While reflecting 'in the moment' is valuable, and can produce effective immediate solutions, we might not develop these reflections beyond the event itself, and not retain these valuable pieces of reflective learning when we move on to other tasks.
If however we think more proactively, more deliberate reflection can generate conclusions and actions for making future improvements, preventing repeated mistakes, and other positive change. Put very simply, thinking about a task as we are doing it can lead to making changes to improve the outcome of the task. For example, if I put a bundle of white clothes in the washing machine and see that the water has turned a blue, I am thinking I might have left a blue sock in the bundle, or a blue pen that was in my shirt pocket. We can probably all recall times in our lives when we have failed to reflect on a negative experience, consequently failed to consider options for change - and so a repeat of the mistake becomes inevitable. It is a nuisance if all our white clothes eventually become blue, but if we fail to reflect and take corrective action in more serious areas, results can be catastrophic - for example in a busy hospital, or manufacturing aircraft components. We can start using Reflective Practice by simply (and mindfully, intentionally) thinking about things that have happened in our lives, whether in a personal or professional situation. We can reflect in lots of different ways on a range of different events or experiences that are important to us.
For example, on our journey home from work or study, (especially on public transport when we don't need to concentrate on traffic) we can devote a little time to consider things that happened during the day.
We can reflect while walking the dog, doing the washing-up or ironing, cutting the lawn, cleaning, and even when watching TV - you'll be surprised at how much time is spent sitting in front of a TV not actually engaged with what's on screen, just day-dreaming, in a trance.
We might think about one particular event or situation, or a series of events or experiences: what went well, what might not have gone quite so well, and what we could have done better or different to make our day more successful. We usually reflect to a degree about an event when it happens or very quickly afterwards, however by reviewing it later usually we can see it differently, and discover different feelings about it. Transactional Analysis, and its underpinning theory - offer very relevant details as to why and how our emotions can become heightened, so that our mood and attitudes distort from a more normal evenly balanced viewpoint. It's long been recognized that the quality of reviews in such situations can vary greatly, depending on how quickly the review follows the event.
During 'hot' reviews, Reflective Practice among trainees is typically greatly influenced by their emotions and reactions to the event's pressures (as in the expression 'in the heat of the moment'). Note that 'hot' reviews can themselves be very valuable - provided people understand that they are 'hot', and that people focus on how emotions can affect the way we behave. Moreover, if you are teaching people about Reflective Practice, then it can be very helpful to demonstrate the difference between 'hot' and 'cold' reviews, rather than merely avoiding 'hot' reviews altogether. Accordingly take extra care in facilitating group reflections wherever emotions are likely to distort people's views of their own behaviour and its consequences. In any situation, remember that emotions can significantly influence our perceptions about an experience, and timing (or reflection in relation to an event) can significantly influence our emotions.
So where appropriate, delaying our reflection usually enables us to see things more clearly, minimising distortions caused by emotions. The excellent Fisher theory of personal transition is also a very useful aid to understanding how time alters our feelings about events, especially our reactions to a pressure for change. While written records are helpful and memorable, especially for personal individual reflection, reflections do not always have to be in writing.
This is particularly so where a group (or more than one person) is involved in Reflective Practice, so that reflections can be shared through discussion. Reflect at the right time - Reflect at appropriate times in relation to any experiences which are stressful or intense (intense experiences need a cooling-off period before 'cold' reflection is possible). Balance subjective and objective reflection - Be aware of the difference between your subjective reflection and your objective reflection - both are useful and relevant, but you must understand what is subjective and what is objective, and you must strive to balance each in arriving at the most helpful and clear overall understanding. Seek external clarifications - Refer to external references, advice, information, clarifications, facts, figures, etc., especially where you believe that your thinking is not factual enough, or you are not fully informed about situations.
Activities such as walking, swimming, yoga, and exercising can also produce dramatic shifts in thought patterns. Various experts have produced Reflective Practice models to help people use Reflective Practice more deliberately, proactively, and effectively.
First, this very simple and memorable model offers a very flexible process for using Reflective Practice, and especially for getting started and experimenting with the concept. The Gibbs' reflective cycle, inspired partly by Kolb's learning cycle, enables us to focus especially on our own and others' feelings, views and perceptions. Develop your footballers’ skills on and off the pitch with a weekend of football training with FA qualified coaches.
There’s expert skills training and the chance to play in a tournament as well as the added bonus of PGL adventure activities which help develop those all-important teambuilding and leadership skills. Offer applies when you confirm your booking and pay first deposits by 30 June 2016.Prices shown are per person and are subject to availability. The coaching programme focuses on developing a range of techniques and movements as well as strong personal skills to deal with life on and off the pitch – every player is challenged to learn and apply new skills.
Exciting adventure activities are designed to help improve team spirit, social skills and peer support.
Presentations and seminars, plus a coaching workshop for teachers, complete the experience – and your weekend concludes with prize-giving on the final day. With coaching from FA qualified coaches, your footballers will develop their skills and gain a deeper understanding of the game. There is an intensive focus on team building and essential skills such as effective communication and mutual support during adventure activities led by members of the PGL centre team. Above all, football coaching weekends are fun and challenging; your footballers bond as a team and go home inspired by their achievements.
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Minutes from the M4, near Swindon, the convenient location makes it one of our most popular centres. Close to the Welsh border town of Hay-on-Wye and situated on the edge of the stunning Brecon Beacons, giving immediate access to the mountains. Conveniently close to London but in a countryside setting, there’s plenty of adventure in the wooded grounds and beyond for your students to discover. There’s direct access to the beach, thrilling watersports on the sea at the nearby Portland Bay, as well as a range of exhilarating adventure activities. Enjoy canoeing the picturesque River Wye at this beautiful centre in the heart of the Black Mountains.
Situated on the eastern side of the Isle of Wight with access to a sheltered sandy beach, plus indoor and outdoor swimming pools and land-based adventure activities. Located in the scenic Sussex Downs, close to the coast and not far from London, it’s a popular destination for secondary school groups. It's the NCLB Zone, where rhetorical promises of educational equality are regularly transformed into policies of educational inequality.
The students who need the most resources and best teaching possible to be successful are often being taught by teachers with little to no experience, many of whom hold emergency or temporary teaching credentials. In July 2001, The New York Times reported that 50 percent of the teachers in urban schools leave teaching within their first five years.
The question is, will NCLB's policies shepherd us to the promised land of schools teeming with "highly qualified" teachers?
As the law stands, all states have to have their core subject classes of History, English, Math, and Science be taught by "highly qualified" teachers by the end of the 2005-06 school year. The definition that Washington imposes is arbitrary and often contradicts local conditions and needs. At least 12 states have loosened their teacher certification requirements in response to NCLB's restrictive definitions.
In October of 2003, Paige announced that the Department of Education would be giving the American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence (ABCTE) a $35 million, five-year grant to support its efforts in building the corps of "highly qualified" teachers. Many of the same national figures that support school vouchers and other forms of public school privatization are intertwined with the ABCTE and, by extension, the Department of Education. Their book cites claims that teacher certification programs have absolutely no positive effect on student achievement. It is a set of ideas that can be used alongside many other concepts for training, learning, personal development, and self-improvement. This is for clarity and style - the term can be shown equally correctly as 'reflective practice', or 'Reflective practice'. Over 2,500 years ago the ancient Greeks practised 'reflection' as a form of contemplation in search of truth, and this ancient meaning of reflection features in several modern definitions. The earliest historical records demonstrate the great interest which humanity has had in itself. Metacognition can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving. There is a broad correlation between metacognition (being aware of one's own thinking) and conscious competence (being aware of one's own capability) - because, for example, we can't go beyond our limits until we know what our limits are. Reflection here means looking beneath the surface to find the truth about something, to draw conclusions for building new knowledge.
Here we examine ourselves to gauge our values, assumptions, behaviour and relationships, and thereby monitor our learning and develop our intra-personal and inter-personal skills (equating to self-management, and external relationships).
This extends to consideration of wider socio-political perspectives and other relevant diverse contexts, theory and professional activity.
This extends to being able to form a theoretical view or analysis, as would allow clear explanation to others, if required. You will see below the increasing sophistication of the ideas, from basic reflection, to critical thinking, to critically Reflective Practice.
Kant wrote the 'Critique of Reason' in 1781, which supported ideas for a scientific logical and rational thinking approach, enabling reasoned thinking, being superior to dogma and other received opinion from authority. He asserted that to believe in something with no evidence is inadequate, and instead we should check if there are accurate and agreed supporting facts, and who agreed them (1926). He is seen as the founder of experiential education, linking reflection and action, so as to enable new experience and knowledge.
He asserted that experience, concept, reflection and action are the foundation by which adult thought is developed (1969).


In his 1984 book, 'Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development', Kolb extended the ideas of Kurt Lewin, Jean Piaget and others, about adult learning, to produce an experiential learning concept - often represented by Kolb's Learning Process Diagram.
In other words, if we learn better and have better outcomes, we will be more successful in life. He produced a series of books on learning, Reflective Practice, and significantly, the development of reflective practitioners.
This builds on Dewey's (1933) concept of a purposeful reasoned process, delaying impulsive action to allow reflective judgement for action (US-English judgment). Significantly his view was mainly of society, and saw personal reflection as an aspect of societal health. Dr Kitchener is internationally renowned for her work on adolescent development and reflective judgment, and ethics in psychology. For example, in the context of work-based management training, EQ-driven self-awareness should be explored safely within agreed professional boundaries, so as to avoid being too personal or introspective.
In his book on 'Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher' (1995) he takes a wider view of critical reflection. Theory, and especially research and evidence-based facts - help us to understand the world beyond our own experience.
After all, theory based on solid research evidence is largely recycled 'best practice' from the relevant field of study. These powerful implications for learning suggest that the reflective practitioner can transcend basic training and knowledge transfer, to instead facilitate real growth in people and in groups, and the fulfilment of human potential (US-English fulfillment).
This has been suggested from the start of its modern appreciation, among others, notably in the work of Immanuel Kant and Bertrand Russell. Where our thinking is very subjective, for example when we feel very emotional about something, this subjectivity can become unhelpful, especially if we are stressed or angry, or upset, which can substantially distort interpretations. This is an extreme example of how reliance on 'evidence' or 'facts' can produce an unreliable reflection, and also highlights how subjective reflections based on feelings can change according to mood, circumstances, time, etc. Or put another way, we will reliably increase our objectivity in Reflective Practice by recognising our assumptions and expectations, and being able to differentiate this data from objective facts and evidence.
Our initial struggle to see a single star naturally resolves, as we absorb more detail, so that we can eventually discern increasingly complex patterns, and eventually vast constellations. We must be open to an evolving picture - to adopt a questioning stance, and to look beyond the surface to find truth. She has written much on reflective learning and the use of learning journals to support professional development. Some call this 'thinking on our feet' (a metaphor based on thinking while acting, which contrasts with more deliberate concentrated thought). And then extending my reflective thinking, besides checking pockets properly, I may reflect on other methods to get an even whiter wash. This emotional sensation, usually very subjective, naturally happens due to the production of stress and action hormones in our nervous systems. The discussion can then lead to collective agreement about future actions, changes and improvements. The Emergent Knowledge concept, in which a person's location can have a dramatic effect on thinking, and aid the stimulation of different attitudes or unlock feelings. For example, taking exercise is proven to reduce stress levels, especially in countryside or green spaces, and this is certainly beneficial for reflection. In 2000, Kati Haycock of the Education Trust found that students in high-poverty schools were more than twice as likely to have teachers who weren't certified in the subject areas they were teaching and that students in schools that had a population of 90 percent or more African-American and Latino students were twice as likely to have teachers without certification at all. These staggering figures demonstrate the glaring need for highly qualified, certified teachers in low-income schools and schools predominated by students of color. In many cases the definition does not represent an upgrade of existing state standards for teacher credentialing.
Under the law, science teachers in these places would have to major in or have passed subject-matter tests in every single science coursework area.
This loosening makes it easier for out-of-state teachers to transfer between states, lowers test-score minimums, or adjusts how those scores are counted (by composite averages instead of by individual test scores).
First, it makes understanding the processes of teaching and learning take a back seat to knowing the facts of your subject area. Berry, Ga., has found that in the year 2000 in Georgia, 93 percent of the white teacher candidates passed the Praxis II, whereas only 73 percent of the African-American candidates passed the same test. The ABCTE, which started in 2001, offers the "Passport to Teaching." If you have a bachelors' degree, can pass a computer exam, clear a criminal background check, and pay a $500 fee, you too can become a certified teacher. Noted voucher proponent Diane Ravitch sits on the ABCTE's National Advisory Panel, and privatization stalwarts Frederick Hess and Chester Finn, former assistant secretary of education under Ronald Reagan, sit on its board of directors. It is a clear attack on teacher education programs, and it is one that blatantly ignores a significant amount of research demonstrating that teacher education and certification matter greatly in student achievement. Will "highly qualified" teachers, with bachelor's degrees, certifications (alternative or traditional), and content expertise, be happy teaching to the battery of tests required in many school districts? Funding inequality and achievement gaps based on race and class exist up and down the whole line. He is a Rethinking Schools editorial associate and is on the steering committee of the National Coalition of Education Activists. There are references also to the power of reflective learning in the writings attributed to ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius, around 460BC. Human self-reflection invariably leads to inquiry into the human condition and the essence of humankind as a whole. The process of Reflective Practice seeks to enable insights and aid learning for new personal understanding, knowledge, and action, to enhance our self-development and our professional performance. In 1910, he wrote a book for teachers titled 'How We Think', in which he described critical thinking as reflective thought, moving reflection beyond contemplation. This suggests that reflection is needed for learning, and connects reflection with action, to underpin critically reflective thinking for new understanding and knowledge.
Köhler expanded the notion of simple 'trial and error' to suggest a mental process which visualises a problem and considers a solution before taking action, triggering 'aha' or 'light-bulb' moments. His seminal work 'The Reflective Practitioner' (1983) focused on professional Reflective Practice and the role of the reflective practitioner.
Professor Larrivee agrees that insightful experience can trigger changes in outlook, necessary for critical Reflective Practice.
In his work 'The Use of Pleasure: The History of Sexuality' (Vol 2, 1992 pp8-9, published posthumously), which built on his original 1976 'History of Sexuality' book, he discussed the value of using reflection to consider how to go beyond the limits of our existing knowledge, in order to work towards intellectual growth and freedom. Foucault's ideas prompt us to see very easily that Reflective Practice is ultimately a tool by which society and civilization can improve, far beyond notions of individual self-improvement and professional development. He wrote the best-selling 1996 book 'Emotional Intelligence' and is jointly acknowledged as originating and defining the EQ concept.
Emotional Intelligence is a good example of a highly complementary theory to use alongside Reflective Practice.
Reflecting on theory - combined with personal experience - offers a potent basis for inspiring new ideas to put into effect, to achieve continuous improvement and development. Organizational theory is mainly drawn from studies in the workplace, and specifically for example, the management theorist Meredith Belbin's research into management teams has created a body of knowledge and understanding about team dynamics and effectiveness.
He suggested that reflection does not sit easily within a modern Western culture based on scientific reasoning (1998). This might be simply standing rather than sitting, or moving to a different part of the room, or relocating greater distances. Secretary of Education Rod Paige regularly points out that during the 1999-2000 school year, roughly 50 percent of the nation's middle and high school teachers would not have been considered "highly qualified" by the Department of Education's standards. That would mean requiring a different teacher for biology, chemistry, and physics, or requiring that one or two teachers pass tests in all science subject areas. Because elementary schools are multidisciplinary, they aren't required to have "highly qualified" teachers for every subject. Apparently what's good for the goose is good for the gander: In the NCLB Zone, rote memorization of subject matter is what counts for both students and teachers alike. The over-reliance on high-stakes tests like the Praxis to determine who is a "highly qualified" teacher mirrors existing race and class inequities and ultimately denies many teachers of color entrance into the field. Several states including Idaho, Pennsylvania, and Florida have agreed to accept the ABCTE's certified teachers.
When put up against the testing regime of NCLB, the provisions for "highly qualified" teachers might be more aptly renamed as provisions for "highly qualified" proctors. Federal and state funding of education is so paltry that working and learning conditions in many schools are just plain unhealthy. This higher-level cognition was given the label metacognition by American developmental psychologist John Flavell (1979). In his model, learning to reflect in action (RIA) and look back on action (ROA) together form a reflective process for decision-making and professional growth.
For example; seeing another person's point of view (colleagues, manager, customer) and reflecting through the lens of theory (books, internet, TV, training and development).
The business world has used this wider knowledge to understand how to minimize errors in recruitment and team working, and to improve team effectiveness for improved productivity and growth. From this perspective, reflective activities may be seen as too subjective and not sufficiently rooted in evidence, which is considered to be a more valid effective way to find truth. Mindful of these possible effects, it's very important to conduct a 'cold' review sufficiently later than the event when emotions have cooled (which may be in addition to, or instead of, the 'hot' review immediately after the event). Smaller schools that may have only eight or even 15 teachers just don't have the resources to hire teachers for every single subject area. But a school that holds only grades 5-8 is considered to be a middle school and is required to have a "highly qualified" teacher in each subject. The net result is that less-qualified teachers are being defined as "highly qualified" as more states scramble to meet NCLB's demands. Schools of education are churning out a teaching corps that is almost 90 percent white and not prepared to enter a school system that, in 2001, included 40 percent students of color. The term metacognition literally means cognition about cognition, or more informally, thinking about thinking.
Experiencing surprise or uncertainty during reflection in action could be described as 'light bulb' moments, as in Köhler's earlier insight studies.
He regarded critical reflection as vital for promoting learning and self-assessment, enabling us to identify and evaluate our skills and development needs.
Here Reflective Practice is potentially a highly complementary concept alongside Nudge Theory, and The Psychological Contract. EQ significantly alludes to and contrasts with IQ (Intelligence Quotient), because EQ theory tends to regard IQ as a highly limiting way to measure human intelligence, and especially to judge broader human capability. Dewey supported the idea of theory drawn from practical experience and applied back to practical action - a loop of reflection and action, for learning and development. This 'cold' review process enables Reflective Practice that is clearer, more balanced, and objective.
The terms are used commonly in academic or technical writing, when describing or reporting on reflective methods and activities.
He presented this 'insight' as reflective thought, which equates to the 'reflective observation' stage in Kolb's learning cycle. This in turn leads to more proactive personal and professional development planning and continuing professional development (CPD). Among more recent influences, Goleman referenced and developed some very old ideas in developing EQ principles, notably those of Greek philosopher Socrates, dating from 400BC. Self reflection helps us to develop problem solving skills and find solutions in planning action for behaviour change.
The Socratic 'know thyself' became a modern theory of self-awareness and emotional growth through the development of intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and social relationships.
In reflecting on experiences, we can understand how we learn, start to observe our own progress in learning, limits of understanding, and develop more effective critical thinking skills by questioning and analysing our own and others' behaviour.



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