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This is a€?Factors Influencing the Promotion Mix, Communication Process, and Message Problemsa€?, section 11.3 from the book Marketing Principles (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book.
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For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. A marketing manager from one company might decide to focus on social media, whereas a marketing manager from another company might decide to focus her companya€™s efforts on television commercials. Do you use TiVo or a digital video recorder (DVR) to record movies or television shows so you can watch them when you want without television commercials? Think about what else you are doing when you watch television, when you are studying, or when you are listening to the radio. The same thing happens when you are watching a television show, reading a magazine, or studying for a test. The communication process illustrates how messages are sent and received, as shown in Figure 11.6 "The Communication Process". Youa€™re ready to go home on a Friday afternoon and you hear someone mention an upcoming event on Saturday. InterferenceAny distractions or noise that senders and receivers face during the transmission of a message., or noise, can distort marketing messages.
Purchasing a product provides the sender with feedbackMeans of telling sellers you saw their information and wanted to try their product., which often tells the seller that you saw information and wanted to try the product. We tend to purchase products and remember information that has some relevance to our personal situation or beliefs. Many factors, such as a firma€™s marketing budget, the type of product, regulations, target customers, and competitors, influence what composes the promotion mix. Explain the communication process and factors that can interfere with interpretation of messages.
See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Why do companies select different types of media for what may be perceived as similar messages?
For many companies, the budget available to market a product determines what elements of the promotion mix are utilized.
In order to select the best methods to reach different target markets, organizations need to know what types of media different targets use, how often they make purchases, where they make purchases, and what their readiness to purchase is as well as characteristics such as age, gender, and lifestyle. Wea€™ve already explained that different types of consumers prefer different types of media. Do you ever use the remote to skip the commercials or zap (change channels) to look at different shows? The source (or sender) encodesSenders must translate or convert benefits and value of a product or service into a message for the message channel selected., or translates, a message so that ita€™s appropriate for the message channela€”say, for a print advertisement, TV commercial, or store displaya€”and shows the benefits and value of the offering. However, you did not listen to all the details and assume the event is the next day, not the following Saturday.

Factors such as poor reception, poor print quality, problems with a server, or a low battery can interfere with your getting messages.
If you use any coupons or promotions when you buy a product, the advertiser knows which vehicle you used to get the information. If you have no need for a product or service, you might not pay attention to or remember the messages used to market it.
Depending on what medium is used, marketers use the communication process to encode or translate ideas into messages that can be correctly interpreted (decoded) by buyers.
You may also download a PDF copy of this book (19 MB) or just this chapter (2 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). As Figure 11.5 "Factors That Influence Selection of Promotion Mix" shows, a number of factors affect the choice of promotion mix elements. Products in the introductory stages typically need a lot more promotional dollars to create awareness in the marketplace. Very technical products and very expensive products (high involvement) often need professional selling so the customer understands how the product operates and its different features. Some people are early adopters and want to try new things as soon as they are available, and other groups wait until products have been on the market for a while. In terms of target markets, college-aged students may prefer online, cell phone, mobile marketing, and social media more than older consumers do. For example, laws in the United States prohibit tobacco products from being advertised on television. The top-rated television shows and Super Bowl ad slots, for example, often sell out quickly. Think about which television shows you choose to watch, which magazines you read, which radio stations you select. With so many different types of distractions and technology (such as recording devices), imagine how difficult it is for an advertiser to get you to pay attention much less remember the message.
The receiver (customer or consumer) then decodesReceivers interpret messages., or interprets, the message.
Since you already made other plans for the next day, you dona€™t even consider showing up the following Saturday. Interference includes any distractions receivers and senders face during the transmission of a message. However, marketers must determine how to get consumersa€™ attention and avoid as much interference and noise as possible.
By contrast, advertising is often relied upon to sell convenience goods and products purchased routinely (low involvement) since customers are familiar with the products and they spend relatively little time making purchase decisions. Some consumers might not have the money to purchase different products, although they will need the product later.
Media preferences have been researched extensively by academics, marketing research companies, and companies to find out how consumers want to be reached. In some Asian countries, controversial products such as alcohol cannot be advertised during Golden (prime) time on television.
Magazines tend to have a longer lead time, so companies must plan far in advance for some magazines. The perceptual processThe way in which people select the information they are exposed to, pay attention to it, interpret it, and retain it. If youa€™re listening to the music or talking to a friend at the beach while youa€™re listening to the radio, do you hear or pay attention to the commercials?
For effective communication to occur, the receiver must interpret the message as the sender intended.

For example, when you were growing up did you see commercials for toys such as the pogo ball, which appeared to be so easy to use but when you tried to jump up and down on it, you found out it was extremely difficult?
Perceptual processes include how a person decides what to pay attention to and how to interpret and remember different things.
More communication is needed in the beginning of the product life cycle to build awareness and trial. The hope is that by advertising late at night, young children do not see the advertisements. By contrast, because of the number of radio stations and the nature of the medium, organizations can often place radio commercials the same day they want them to be aired.
Do you know your friendsa€™ phone numbers and e-mail addresses or do you just find their names on your contact list? The same thing may happen if youa€™re studying for an exam while youa€™re talking on the phone. For example, many smaller companies may lack the money to create and run commercials on top-rated television shows or during the Super Bowl.
Social media and online media may be immediate, but users must be careful about what they post and their privacy. By selecting a magazine, a television show, or even an elective class in school, youa€™re selecting what youa€™re exposed to and deciding what gets your attention.
If youa€™re with a friend and hear someone else say your name, do you pay more attention to the person talking about you than to your friend? To increase retention, advertisers may repeat the same message multiple times in different places, but they must be careful that consumers dona€™t get so tired of the message that there is a negative effect. If you do not hear someone correctly, misread information, or misinterpret a message, you might think a product or service provides different benefits or is easier or harder to use than it really is.
In a weak economy, some organizations use more sales promotions such as coupons to get consumers into their stores.
However, your selection does not insure youa€™ll either pay attention or remember or correctly interpret what you see or hear.
If a friend tells you a story, then you tell another friend, and that person tells someone else, will the message be the same after it is relayed to multiple people? Other firms such as McDonalda€™s may come up with creative ways to reach different target markets.
The risk is that consumers may begin to expect coupons and not want to buy items without a special promotion. For example, when a disaster occurs, TV stations often cut advertisements to make way for continuous news coverage. For example, McDonalda€™s targeted college students with a special promotion that it filmed live in a Boston University lecture. If there is a crisis or disaster and your company is in the middle of a promotion being advertised on TV, you will likely have to scramble to reach consumers via another medium. Not only must advertisers try to present consistent messages (IMC), they must also try to ensure that you interpret the message as they intended.

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