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I could not agree more, however our local and city governments may not share our opinion of how important the relationship between teachers and students actually are. I find it disheartening that teachers may focus on student inadequacies rather than make efforts to improve the educational outcomes of their students. Teacher and student relationships are different today than they were when I was growing up in the late 70's and early 80's.
We need to get back to a time where we all want everyone child to prosper both educationally and socially. Most of people would feel that temperature in winter gets lower and the weather get colder. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.
This is Session 2 of the 2nd series of Video-Conferencing (VC) ELT (English Language Teaching) Lectures to Al-Quds Open University trainee teachers in Palestinian Territories.
Conversational Discourse The benchmark of successful language acquisition is almost always the demonstration o fan ability to accomplish pragmatic goals through Interactive discourse with other speakers of the language. Teaching Pronunciation Because the overwhelming majority of adult learners will never acquire an accent-free command of a foreign language, should a language program that emphasizes whole language, meaningful contexts, and automaticity of production focus on these tiny phonological details of language? Accuracy and Fluency In spoken language the question we face as teachers is: How shall we prioritize the two clearly important speaker goals of accurate (clear, articulate, grammatically and phonologically correct) language and fluent (flowing, natural) language? Affective Factors One of the major obstacles learners have to overcome in learning to speak is the anxiety generated over the risks of blurting things out that are wrong, stupid, or incomprehensible.
The Interaction Effect The greatest difficulty that learners encounter in attempts to speak is not the multiplicity of sounds, words, phrases, and discourse forms that characterize any language, but rather the interactive nature of most communication. Questions about Intelligibility A now outdated model of English language teaching assumed that intelligibility should be gauged by whether nonnative speakers are intelligible to native speakers. The Growth of Spoken Corpora The intelligibility issue is now being described as a rapid growth of readily available corpora of spoken language –one of the key developments in research on teaching oral production. Genres of Spoken Language Research on spoken language has recently attended to a specification of differences among various genres of oral interaction, and how to teach those variations. In beginning through intermediate levels of proficiency, most of the efforts of the students in oral production come in the form of conversation, or dialogue.
Redundancy The speaker has and opportunity to make meaning clearer through the redundancy of language.
Reduced Forms Contractions, elisions, reduced vowels, etc., all form special problems in teaching spoken English. Performance Variables One of the advantages of spoken language is that the process of thinking as you speak allows you to manifest a certain number of performance hesitations, pauses, backtracking, and corrections.
Colloquial Language Make sure your students are reasonably well acquainted with the words, idioms, and phrases of colloquial language and that they get practice in producing these forms.
Stress, Rhythm, and Intonation This is the most important characteristic of English pronunciation. Interaction Learning to produce waves of language in a vacuum –without interlocutors- would rob speaking skill of its richest component: the creativity of conversational negotiation. Imitative A very limited portion of classroom speaking time may legitimately be spent generating “human tape recorder” speech.
Intensive Intensive speaking goes one step beyond imitative to include any speaking performance that is designed to practice some phonological or grammatical aspect of language. Responsive A good deal of student speech in the classroom is responsive: short replies to teacher or student-initiated questions or comments. Transactional (dialogue) Transactional language, carried out for the purpose of conveying or exchanging specific information, is an extended form of responsive language. Extensive (monologue) Finally, students at intermediate to advanced levels are called on to give extended monologues in the form of oral reports, summaries, r perhaps short speeches. The second edition of the International Summer School on Communication and Teaching skills in Conservation and Science began on 15 July at the ICCROM headquarters in Rome. Participants reflect on how one might be limited by assumptions, and the meaning of being interdisciplinary in relation to conservation and science.
After course sessions, the team and participants meet at Villa Lante for a relaxed evening and to continue exploring innovative and effective modalities of both learning and teaching core concepts of conservation and science. In this ten week class I want to develop my abilities as an educator to improve my student’s literacy skills. The Autobiography of Malcolm X is a very important text in the canon of Historical literature. This is an excerpt from a Malcolm X speech in which he urged blacks to take up the ballot and vote.
Website Title: The website is called Kidblog and it allows teachers to create a class blog.
Website authors, funders, or organization: I could not find any information on the funders or authors of this site. Content areas that consider using this resource: I can see almost any content area using this format. I would use this website in my class when we are covering a very heated and controversial topic.
In my classroom my primary goal to teach students to dissect the important information from any source, whether it is written, oral, historical, or pop culture.
Purpose:The purpose of using wordsift in my classroom could be to get students ready for the upcoming unit of study.
In the spring of 1935, the nation still in the trough of the Great Depression, Roosevelt set out upon the Second Hundred Days, focusing more on relief than on industrial recovery. Words such as “depression” “plan” “Roosevelt” and “unprecedented” showed up the most, as well as “new” and “deal” from “the New Deal”. I would introduce the lesson and then project my desktop screen at the front of the classroom. The student work does not incorporate multiple sources as described on page 9 of the text, but it does incorporate the lexicon of history on a very basic level when discussing racial pride among African American’s during the Harlem Renaissance. The text deals with homosexuality in Harlem during the Harlem Renaissance and it is remarkably different from the pedagogical text and the student work. I was surprised that most respondents said that motivating students was rarely a challenge or usually not a challenge. We asked you for your questions related to behavior and autism over on the Pre-K Pages Facebook page and selected the area that received the most requests for help — communication. Whether a child is flapping his arms to say he is excited or throwing a toy to say he is over-stimulated and needs a break—he is communicating! Remember: even verbal children have moments of frustration, excitement, or overstimulation when they can’t find the words to communicate and revert to inappropriate behaviors. Aided language boards can be very effective tools to help model appropriate communication and eliminate certain behaviors. When using aided language boards, start with words the students are attempting to communicate through behavior like “all done”, “more”, “help”, “break”, “like” and “don’t like”. With aided language boards, nonverbal and limited language learners can share wants, needs, desires, and knowledge, helping them become active members of their preschool classroom. PrAACtical AAC has some wonderful printable examples as well as further explanation of the use of aided language boards. Over time you can increase vocabulary with the help of activity or center-specific language boards, mini language books, and PODD communication books. BIO: Lindy McDaniel is the author of Considerate Classroom where she shares her expert techniques for helping young children develop communication skills and self-regulation through the use of visual expectations, prompts, social stories, and individual schedules. About Vanessa LevinVanessa is the creator of Pre-K Pages and author of the book A Fabulous First Year and Beyond: A Practical Guide for Pre-K and Kindergarten Teachers.
Todaya€™s financial shortcomings that are the result of the 2007 recession are affecting our budgets in such a way many school systems are suffering (Huffington post, 2012). I agree that teachers should for a relationship with the students because they are with their teacher more than they are with their parents.
Because of the language ego that informs others that “you are what you speak”, learners are reluctant to be judged by hearers.
Conversations are collaborative as participants engage in a process of negotiation of meaning. Materials, technology, and teacher education programs are being challenged to grapple with the issue if intelligibility, and to adopt new standards of “correctness” and new attitudes toward “accent” in order to meet current global realities. As the size and scope of corpora expand, so our understanding of what people really say is informed by empirical evidence.


As you plan and implement techniques in your interactive classroom, make sure your students can deal with both interpersonal and transactional with whom they are quite familiar. Learners can organize their output both cognitively and physically through such clustering.
Students who don’t learn colloquial contractions can sometimes develop a stilted, bookish quality of speaking that in turn stigmatizes them.
One of your tasks in teaching spoken English is to help learners achieve an acceptable speed along with other attributes of fluency. The stress-timed rhythm of spoken English and its intonation patterns convey important messages. 7.Monitor your own oral production and use various strategic devices (pauses, fillers, self-corrections, backtracking) to enhance the clarity of the message. Accomplish appropriately communicative functions according to situations, participants, and goals.
Imitation of this kind is carried out not for the purpose of meaningful interaction, but for focusing on some particular element of language form.
Intensive speaking can be self-initiated, or it can even form part of some pair work activity, where learners are “going over” certain forms of language.
Conversations, for example, may have more of a negotiative nature to them than does responsive speech.
Implies that one does not actually teach conversation, but rather that students acquire conversational competence, peripherally, by engaging in meaningful tasks. This two-week training session has brought together professionals from a variety of countries and backgrounds to explore the potential of different didactic approaches, approaches to learning about conservation and science, and revisiting existing practices.
They also explored their teaching methods and discussed how teaching and learning go together, and what makes learning engaging.
After a short lecture by Darius Arya on social media at ICCROM headquarters, participants went to the Isola Tiberina. I want to gain a thorough understanding of why students struggle with basic literacy skills and how to help them overcome those challenges. This text details the life of a very important, and very controversial civil rights leader. If the government took measures to prevent them from voting, it might be necessary to take up arms.
This song would be very useful in my class because it would add both an artistic and human element to the material. As long as the teacher has a reason to provide the students with an outlet to share their thoughts, whether that be math problems, social issues, or literary analysis. For example, if we were learning about Malcolm X, I would have the students look at sources in which Malcolm X decries the injustices white society has inflicted on blacks, and emphasizes black independence rather than racial integration. Whenever we encounter a statement in the textbook that is value laden, unsupported, or biased, I will pose a reflective question about it. Though I am the person to ask the question initially, the students have to respond to that question and justify their answers to the class.
Aided more by his wife Eleanor than by a clear plan, Roosevelt set out on a series of experiments that restored some confidence, if not prosperity.
The Works Progress Administration and the Social Security Administration provided unprecedented support for Americans in need, while organized labor set out upon a successful campaign to bring in new union members and to use that power to win concessions from industry. Roosevelt’s plans helped ease hunger and hopelessness, but did not lift the nation out of the Depression. This will give students an idea of what concepts we are about to deal with, and set the stage for the what they can expect from this unit. I would tell the students that I am about to enter a block of text from their textbook which gives an overview of the upcoming unit. The student work goes beyond the actual events to discuss the significance of those events, which is one of the primary goals of social science.
It does not provide sources to back up its conclusions, which chapter 2 specifically states is one of the primary characteristics of historical study.
Unlike the previous works, the scholarly text does not speak with an omniscient, authoritative tone. Aided language boards are a low tech Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) system. I would use the language board above and point to “you don’t like”, “you want all done” as I verbally say the same words.
As they begin using the technique, often times their verbal output increases and becomes more functional, rather than gibberish or echolalia (repeating), which decreases behavior and increases engagement. Your local speech language pathologist is also a great resource for information and use of aided language boards.
She has more than two decades of teaching experience and enjoys helping kids and teachers through her professional development sessions.
Social psychologists feel the relationship between teacher and student can impact the development on the individual (Schneider, Gruman, & Coutts 2012. Following this further, it is important to avoid Social categorization, a so-called opposing position between teacher and student. Take for instance a headline I read this morning, it stated a€?Chicago to close 61 schools to trim $1B deficita€? (USA Today, 2013).
If the student and the teacher have a good relationship the student will feel comfortable with openly communicating with their teacher. While fluency may in many communicative language courses be an initial goal in language teaching, accuracy is achieved to some extent by allowing students to focus on the elements of phonology, grammar, and discourse in their spoken output.
Our job as teachers is to provide the kind of warm, embracing climate that encourages students to speak, however halting or broken their attempts may be. So, for the learner, the matter of what to say is often eclipsed by conventions of how to say things, when to speak, and other discourse constraints. Of special interest to teachers of English worldwide is the wider range of language varieties that are now available through such projects as the International Corpus of English, which contains data from the spoken Englishes of Hong Kong, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Nigeria, the Caribbean, and others. As research more accurately describes the constraints of such genres on spoken language, we will be better able to pinpoint models of appropriateness for students’ specific purposes in learning English. For example, in English our “thinking time” is not silent; we insert certain “fillers” such as uh, um, well, you know, I mean, like, etc.
3.Produce English stress patterns, words in stressed and unstressed positions, rhythmic structure, and intonational contours. 8.Use grammatical word classes, systems, word order, patterns, rules, and elliptical forms. Use appropriate registers, implicature, pragmatic conventions, and other sociolinguistic features in face-to-face conversations.
Direct approach: involves planning a conversation program around the specific microskills, strategies, and processes that are involved in fluent conversation. Learning is taking place through interactive sessions both in the classroom and around Rome. There they had fun finding creative ways to communicate the island’s history, relate it to their own field and engage their target audience.
Literacy is the foundation for all learning and is essential for students to continue their education. The only weakness of this text is that some students might not have the requisite reading skills for it.
This text is successful, as far as any history textbook can be successful, in that it provides students with a quick snapshot of history. I have used songs before in my class and they always prove effective in triggering student engagement. I would use the Autobiography of Malcolm X in conjunction with the information from the textbook so that the students can compare the textbook perspective on The Civil Rights movement with what Malcolm X says about it. I would have the students write blog post either agreeing or disagreeing with Malcolm X’s points. Not only do they need to be able to understand the main points of the source, but they should be able to analyze elements such as bias and value judgements.
I believe it is necessary for me to ask these questions in the beginning because they may not know what they should be asking as they read. The Hundred Days saw unprecedented activity in the federal government and the creation of powerful new “alphabet” agencies. The president’s plans were hurt by his attempt to expand the Supreme Court, damaging his reputation and costing his plans momentum.


We are about to talk about events that were new and unprecedented in United States history up to this point.
After entering the text and getting the wordsift results I would ask the students to write down the biggest and most noticeable words, and tell me what they think it means about the upcoming unit. However, the text, much like the student work, uses the vocabulary specific to the discipline.
A communication partner points to words on a visual communication support (the board) and says the words. Think about how long we model expressive language to a newborn baby before she ever speaks her first words… usually 11 to 14 months!!
If we don’t give children a ‘voice’, they will resort to kicking screaming, biting, and throwing to communicate.
Not only do language boards support students who are nonverbal, but they also facilitate language and progress for students who are learning English as a second language or have speech delays. Many pathologists use Boardmaker to create aided language boards for specific students or specific activities. I have spent more than two decades teaching young children in public programs for at-risk English language learners.
Both parties need to be cooperative in a team like matter to help their educational goals to be successful (Schneider, Gruman, & Coutts. I read further into the article and learned the city of Chicago has experienced such debt it has a one billion dollar debt gap that must be closed. Once a relationship is developed that child is more than likely to remember that teacher for a lifetime. 9.Produce speech in natural constituents in appropriate phrases, pause groups, breath groups, and sentences.
Convey links and connections between events and communicate such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalization, and exemplification.
For me, teaching is as much about the subject content as it is about providing students with the tools they will need to achieve their life goals. However, in terms of content, this text can enrich the lesson in ways that no textbook could ever do. However, the weakness of this book is that it teaches history as a single narrative in an omniscient tone. I would use the speech and the song after some analysis of the previous two sources to give a human face to the issues we are discussing in the unit. The textbook describes the bravery of the Americans as the Japanese hid in their tunnels and took shots from cover.
Over time, they will start to understand how they need to think while reading a document and they will begin to ask their own questions. Additionally it would provide an opportunity for me to see what words my students know or don’t know so I can fill gaps in the students vocabulary knowledge before we begin the unit.
The prevalence of the word depression suggests that we will be dealing with the issues of the Great Depression throughout this unit. After some discussion about the word diagram I would give some sources to the students from the source findings below the diagram and have the students work in groups to summarize key points from those sources. The textbook merely makes a statement as if it were the truth, but the scholarly text addresses competing claims, and then uses both primary and secondary source evidence to support conclusions. Consequently, I focus a great deal on making connections between the content and the student’s lives. This system provides an alternative way for students to communicate who are otherwise nonverbal or have limited language. It could take just as long or longer for a child with a developmental disability to learn how to communicate functionally with aided language boards. Here at Pre-K Pages, you can find hands-on lessons, themes, activities, and printables for preschool, pre-K, and kindergarten classrooms.
Since the students are with the teachers 5 days a week, they become part of the students life. When being an effective manager in the classroom, research has shown when a teacher uses commonsense plans, it can lead to the prevention of discipline problems between teacher and student (Slavin 2003.
Use facial features, kinesics, body language, and other nonverbal cues along with verbal language to convey meanings. Social science is a medium that I can use to impart interdisciplinary skills to my students, one most important being strong communication skills. The book provides personal insight on the Civil Rights Movement as well as opportunities for students to analyze the effect of personal bias and perspective on the author’s interpretation of historical events. This text does nothing to promote multiple source analysis; rather it treats its omniscient narrative as fact.
This text casts aside the bland historical analysis of the textbook in favor of explosive language.
Students that are struggling with English should not have a problem understanding the lyrics. I believe the speech will be much more powerful after students know something about Malcolm X.
I might ask the students what strategy they would have used if they were the Japanese, or whether American soldiers even had a choice but to push through. I will randomly select students instead of asking for volunteers because I do not want students to feel like they can avoid the hot seat.
Students will be able to recognize this since we have already talked about the beginnings of the Great Depression. Develop and use a battery of speaking strategies, such as emphasizing key words, rephrasing, providing a context for interpreting the meaning of words, appealing for help, and accurately assessing how well your interlocutor is understanding you. This textbook is useful to provide students with a broad overview of history, chronology, people, and places. This text would be useful to either read aloud, listen to an actual audio file, or read in groups. In that regard, this source is much more accessible than some of the more complicated texts we might read.
Additionally, the song will have greater impact when students have learned about the struggle of the Civil Rights Movement. By allowing students to write for an authentic audience they will hopefully show more interest and increase the quality and depth of their analysis. I will give the students an opportunity to think and then draw their names randomly and call on students for answers. I would use excerpts from this text to provide a contrast with the textbook information when we are studying the Civil Rights Movement. This text makes history understandable for students who are struggling with English because the language is more elementary than what you would find in most secondary historical sources. The weakness is that it does not provide nearly as much historical information as something like the Autobiography of Malcolm X. If they listen to the song first, they will not appreciate the pain that inspires such art. If students think they might be next then they will actually think about the question and formulate their best response, even if I do not end up calling on them.
I do not assume that my students will be any more interested than I was unless I am effective in conveying to them why this subject matters. In my class, where there are many ethnic minorities, I know that this material will strike a chord with them.
Opening up the discussion to volunteers after a few random selections will give students the opportunity to contribute after they have had a moment to think about their responses.
Considering that many teachers thought their students were lacking in discipline specific vocabulary and prior knowledge, I wonder why think students will be engaged in the topic.
I use it as a reference for the material that I need to cover in the California standards, and I also use it to quickly refresh my memory of basic information about each unit. Malcolm X was incredibly articulate and this could present some difficulty for EL students. If students do not have the necessary disciplinary knowledge to understand the content, we cannot make that content relateable, and therefore we cannot ignite students interest in the subject.



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