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The following handouts and worksheets are from my Tips and Tools for the Therapeutic Toolbox series by mental heath publisher, PESI. For book recommendations for clinicians as well as clients, see my recommended Bibliography page.
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Although PESI is a Continuing Education Provider for mental health professionals, anyone interested in mental health and self help can sign up and benefit from these practical life skills web casts (and the books below) that are geared towards therapists to help clients. The following psychotherapy resources are some examples of psychoeducational materials such as free therapy handouts and therapy worksheets that therapists can use and download for use with their clients. Since they are self-explanatory as stand alone resources, really anyone interested in self help can enjoy these various materials. Life skills are the common everyday skills you need to manage your life effectively and cope with life challenges. Below are some sample free therapy handouts, therapy worksheets, self-help quizzes and therapeutic group activities. For the public I offer personal development plans, stress management techniques, positive thinking strategies, practical life skill strategies, and more.
For counselors I offer psycho education strategies, counseling skills, social media for mental health professionals, making counseling groups innovative, and more. The authors would like to thank the following individuals who have supported the evaluation of the Spirit of a Warrior program: Doris Fortin (Programs Branch, CSC), Patti Tait (Aboriginal Initiatives, CSC), Randy Mason (Aboriginal Initiatives, CSC), Kathy Dafoe (Women Offender Sector, CSC), and Joan Dunajski (RHQ Prairies, CSC). Thank you to Native Counselling Services of Alberta, specifically Patti LaBoucane-Benson and Randy Sloan, for their support of this evaluation.
A special note of appreciation goes to the women participants of Spirit of a Warrior who participated in personal interviews and completed surveys.
Finally, thanks to the following individuals of the Research Branch of CSC for their contribution to data collection and data analysis: Kelley Blanchette, Kelly Taylor, Nicole Crutcher, Shannon Gottschall, Krista Richard, John Moore, and Ben Vuong. The Spirit of a Warrior Program is a violence prevention program for Aboriginal women offenders.
The evaluation of the Spirit of a Warrior program used a multi-method approach, consisting of an offender file review, pre and post program participant surveys, pre and post facilitator assessments, facilitator and participant interviews, and staff surveys. Based on participant and facilitator interviews, it was evident that there is a clear and unique purpose for the Spirit of a Warrior program. Program facilitators highly rated the facilitator training provided by the Native Counseling Services of Alberta. Not surprisingly, the effectiveness of the eight program components was rated higher from the perspectives of program participants and facilitators than uninvolved institutional staff. Based on the results of the facilitator assessment tool, participants demonstrated significant improvements in the mental, emotional, physical, and spiritual elements of healing. Participants were administered three standardized tests, pre and post program, to determine changes in the areas of self-esteem, anger and provocation, and personal efficacy and interpersonal control. There were four general areas of potential improvement to the program as suggested by facilitators and participants. Based on the results of the evaluation, some specific recommendations were put forth in order to improve upon the current success of the program. The preliminary evaluation results of the Spirit of the Warrior Program are extremely positive and encouraging. Resources: Are there adequate resources and support for establishing the Spirit of a Warrior program? Implementation: Are the activities of the program organized in a way that its goals can be achieved?
In 2001, the Spirit of a Warrior program was developed as a violence prevention program for Aboriginal women offenders. The importance of recognizing issues affecting Aboriginal women offenders is emphasized by their significant overrepresentation in the federal correctional system. Canada must take the measures needed to significantly reduce the percentage of Aboriginal people entering the criminal justice system, so that within a generation it is no higher than the Canadian average (Government of Canada, 2001). Consequently, Aboriginal healing within the context of the Correctional Service of Canada has been the subject of many discussions, and the importance of Aboriginal specific programming has been emphasized. A research report by Johnston (1997) demonstrated that Aboriginal offenders are most trusting of other Aboriginal people, especially spiritual leaders and Elders.
Moore, Low and Berland (2002) also emphasized the need for culturally relevant programming. Similarly, a study by Wormith and Oliver (2002) examined the factors contributing to attrition from correctional treatment. The 1989 Task Force on Federally Sentenced Women (Task Force on Federally Sentenced Women, 1990) noted that federally sentenced Aboriginal women were among the first to articulate the need for programs and services to be developed and delivered to Aboriginal offenders by organizations and communities. In order to create an Aboriginal specific program, a number of assumptions and beliefs that are inherent to the Aboriginal world-view need to be addressed (Native Counseling Services of Alberta (NCSA), no date).
The existing literature highlighting the need for Aboriginal specific programs, as well as the overrepresentation of Aboriginal offenders within the Canadian correctional system, has led to the Correctional Service of Canada recognizing the value in correctional approaches that are sensitive to the needs of Aboriginal people.
The importance of Aboriginal programs that target violence is underscored by the fact that a higher proportion of Aboriginal women offenders commit crimes of violence as compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts (80% vs.
In 2002, the Spirit of a Warrior program was first piloted with women offenders incarcerated in the co-located unit in Saskatchewan Penitentiary2.
The Spirit of a Warrior program is a high-intensity violence prevention program that was designed specifically to address the needs of Aboriginal women. The program attempts to guide women back to a more natural and non-violent way of life through ceremonies and cultural rituals.
The Spirit of a Warrior healing program contains a possible 92 separate sessions varying in length from 1 to 2 hours.
Family of Origin Awareness: This component addresses childhood experiences, family members and roles, family relationships and their influence on the self, and sources of family conflict. Self-awareness: This component addresses the inner child, expression of feelings, interpersonal relationships, adolescent experiences, abandonment, Aboriginal and cultural identity, and personal boundaries and limits. Individual Skill Development: This component addresses the development of a self- care plan, the identification and expression of feelings, accountability, empowerment, empathy, self-talk, self-control, and grieving. Group Skill Development: This component addresses program expectations, development of personal goals, and development of a comforting and safe environment through trust and self-disclosure. Cultural Awareness: This component addresses the role of spirituality in the healing process, the importance of ceremony, the medicine wheel, usage of culturally appropriate rituals and symbols, and the role of the Elder. Cognitive Learning: This component addresses self-care, the process of change, journal writing, the inner child, boundaries, self-esteem, and the impact of labeling, racism, prejudice, and stereotypes. Each day of the program begins with a sweetgrass ceremony (or the appropriate ritual for those participating) and an opening prayer. The evaluation of the Spirit of a Warrior program followed the framework developed by Flight (2003). Offender file information from the Offender Management System (OMS) of the Correctional Service of Canada was reviewed. Participant surveys were administered to all voluntary program participants prior to program commencement and following program completion in order to examine self-reported areas of change. Four standardized measures were selected and included in the participant surveys based on their application to the Spirit of a Warrior program goals and targets. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) is a ten item self-report measure used to assess personal perceptions of self worth (Rosenberg, 1965).
The Novaco Anger Scale (NAS) consists of two parts; assessing two anger dimensions (Novaco, 1994). The Spheres of Control Scale (SCS) is a three-dimensional battery of measures pertaining to the domains of personal efficacy, interpersonal control, and sociopolitical control (Paulhus, 1983). The Paulhus Deception Scale (PDS) is a self-report questionnaire designed to measure two forms of socially desirable responding, Self-Deceptive Enhancement (SDE), and Impression Management (IM) (Paulhus, 1991). The overall completion rate for both the pre- and post-participant surveys was 100%; meaning that every woman who completed a pre-test also completed a post-test.
Although 10 sessions of Spirit of a Warrior have been delivered since 2002, participant surveys were distributed to participants for only four sessions of the program. The facilitator assessment tool represents a short assessment instrument that was designed and utilized by the Native Counseling Services of Alberta (NCSA) to evaluate the effectiveness of the In Search of Your Warrior program for male offenders. The assessment tool was completed by the program facilitators for each woman prior to the program beginning and again after its completion to detect changes in the four areas of functioning. In-person interviews were conducted with program facilitators and program participants of the Spirit of a Warrior program.
During site visits to three women?s institutions, interviews with participants of the program were conducted by two researchers of the Research Branch of CSC. A staff survey was created to distribute to non program staff in the women?s institutions where the Spirit of a Warrior program has been delivered. The results of the present study are presented below following the evaluation issues and questions outlined in the evaluation framework prepared by Flight (2003).
There are two central issues related to the need for a program such as Spirit of a Warrior.
Based on interviews with program facilitators and participants, it was ascertained that the Spirit of a Warrior program is different from other available programs and thus serves its own purpose. Beyond the claim that the Spirit of a Warrior program is different from other programs, both facilitators and participants conceded that the program produced positive results above and beyond that of required programs.
According to program facilitators, the screening criteria for potential participants of the Spirit of a Warrior program can be based on three factors. Given that the Spirit of a Warrior program is intended to target Aboriginal women with high intensity anger and violence, five of the six facilitators agreed that the appropriate women were targeted and selected for participation in the program. Between February 2002 and September 2005, 51 women had successfully completed7 the program. With the exception of two women, all of the program completers were Aboriginal (First Nations n=41, M?tis n=8). Of the six facilitators interviewed, all of them received formal training by Native Counselling Services of Alberta (NCSA) for the facilitation and delivery of the Spirit of a Warrior program.
Based on interviews with program facilitators, it is suggested that there are certain facilitator experiences and characteristics which may contribute to successful program facilitation and delivery.
External program support involved the support facilitators and participants receive from non-program staff. The issue of implementation referred to the extent to which the program met the participants? needs in terms of program content and quality, and the level of support and communication between participants and facilitators. The utility, length, and quality of program sessions are an important indication of meeting the participants? needs, as well as serving the function of a correctional intervention.
Internal support for the program consisted of support, cooperation, and trust between the facilitators and participants. Several indicators were used to determine the effectiveness of the Spirit of a Warrior program. The program objectives of the Spirit of a Warrior program were developed using a holistic framework under an Aboriginal paradigm. Facilitators were asked about changes in the participants? four dimensions of healing, while participants were also asked to self-report the presence of these changes. The achievement of program objectives was quantitatively assessed using an assessment tool developed by the Native Counselling Services of Alberta (NCSA, no date). The results from the facilitator assessment tool indicated that participants experienced significant changes in the mental, emotional, physical, and spiritual elements of healing.
The Spirit of a Warrior program heavily concentrates upon women understanding their emotions and thoughts related to anger and violence, and developing effective strategies to resolve and cope with such experiences.
Of those participants who responded to the interview question (n=27), all of them stated that their way of understanding and thinking about situations or people has changed as a result of the program.
Just being able to accept the person for who they are, giving them a chance to talk and express what they are feeling. They recognize their patterns of behaviour, their cycles, why they occurred and how they developed, what works and what doesn?t anymore and then when they become aware of these things, they are able to decide what they want to change. I do everything in a positive way, like self-care and?journal writing, being able to deal with my anger in a positive way instead of putting myself down.
Well before I wouldn?t ask questions, I would just go and start fighting someone?but now I?ll go and I?ll ask them to [talk]?and I?ll explain how I?m feeling and if there is a problem then I?ll try and resolve it without dealing with it how I used to?I?ve done that like five times already.
I never took time off for me, and that?s how I got a relapse because I thought I?d failed, but now with the program, everything I do in life is for me, and that boosted my self-esteem.
Due to the nature of group sharing within the Spirit of a Warrior program, the women?s relationships with others served as an important area of inquiry. My relationship with them is much stronger because you know at the beginning I was kind of pulled back from everybody, but now whenever I need to talk to one of them, I go see them whenever I can. There was much more acceptance of each other, and a level of understanding and compassion from where each woman came from.
I believe they became more supportive and the trusting of each other ?they had a strong level of respect for each other. So when I found out I had to draw a comic strip for the #NHBPM, I was worried I would not be able to convey the joke properly since I’m so used to gag cartoons.
I hope you enjoyed my Mental Health Humor Family Stew cartoon strip, I hope you get the joke.
Last updated: 16 Nov 2012Views expressed are those solely of the writer and have not been reviewed.
Miss M: There are a lot of people making money off of stifling the lives of these people, including myself. There is strong evidence to link biological, behavioural, psychological, and social variables to health, illness and disease.
This aim of the present article is to initiate a concerted effort to develop a standardised curriculum for BS in Pakistan. Published literature on the role of BS in medical training is scanty and largely from developed countries. The WHO definition of health clearly defines that a complete state of health cannot be achieved without 'social well being'.14 This adds huge responsibility for medical trainers to prepare doctors competent to recognise and deal with social influences of healthcare. There are many misconceptions among health professionals about the concept of mental health.Some confuse it with mental illness and therefore focus on the domain of 'Psychiatry'. Interestingly, Behavioural Sciences is the only subject which helps link these three domains of 'physical', 'mental' and 'social' with each other. The recommendations made above are based on the authors' experience of teaching BS to medical students in developed and developing countries. This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics. Here is a video I made for PESI to introduce my books and offer some practical tips and tools you can use with your clients. Although the following links are no substitute for therapy, they can reinforce important life skills concepts and can provide structure and practice between sessions. Since we are not born with instruction manuals about life, and formal schooling focuses much more on academics than personal adjustment, learning life skills is essential to developing our emotional intelligence, resilience, work-life balance, and much more. Visit back soon as more links are added to help you fill up your mental health life skills and therapy toolbox!
Clients go to therapy wanting to change, but often they have no inherent knowledge of how to change. The program is based on cognitive-behavioural theory that targets attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to violence and anger.


Evaluation questions focused on program rationale, resources, implementation, effectiveness, and unintended effects. The program was described as different from other available programs because of its holistic approach of spirituality and healing, its strategy of group sharing, and its intense and deep exploration of real life experiences.
The majority of program participants conceded that the facilitators had sufficient training to deliver the program. According to program facilitators, Wardens and Elders provided the highest degree of program support. The most effective components, according to facilitators and participants, were self-awareness, anger awareness, and cultural awareness. As measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the participants? level of self-esteem increased from pre to post testing. Many participants reported the unanticipated but positive effects of increased closeness and openness, greater understanding of relationships and behaviours, and increased positive feelings and emotions.
Recommended program improvements included extending the program length, adding sessions to the program content, improving the privacy of the program environment, and ensuring the appropriate selection of facilitators and Elders.
These recommendations focus upon the program screening criteria, facilitator training, facilitator selection, program support and communication, program targets, and the role of Elders.
The holistic healing and incorporation of cultural ceremonies appear to reinforce the benefits of this program.
This program attempts to achieve the mandate of the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) through the provision of a culturally sensitive and women specific program that will assist in the reintegration of women offenders into the community. Aboriginal people represent approximately three percent of the total Canadian population (Statistics Canada, 2001), but account for approximately 19% of the federally incarcerated population, and approximately 28% of federally incarcerated women (Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada (PSEPC), 2004). Research pertaining to Aboriginal programming is often anecdotal in nature and points to the need for continued empirically based studies in this area. Johnston further argued that Aboriginal offenders constitute an exceptionally spiritual group, placing a high value on their traditions and culture.
Structured interviews with 64 M?tis male offenders, querying their needs in the institution, revealed that over half felt the need for more knowledge or awareness of their M?tis culture, more than one-quarter reported the need for more M?tis-specific programs, and a further 28% reported the need for M?tis program facilitators. Participants included 93 violent offenders who had been referred to an intensive treatment program at the Regional Psychiatric Center in Saskatoon. The Task Force argued that only Aboriginal people can design and deliver programs that will appropriately address the needs of Aboriginal people and create a trusting environment in which to do so. Holism, for example, is a concept that is shared by many different Aboriginal groups and communities throughout Canada. The Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA, 1992) mandates the provision of programs and practices that respect and respond to gender and cultural differences, and the provision of equitable opportunities to practice and revitalize cultural traditions and customs.
The program is based on cognitive-behavioral rehabilitative strategies that target attitudes, beliefs and behaviors.
From an Aboriginal perspective, the term ?Warrior? in the program name represents a cultural metaphor. The framework outlined the proposed research questions and methodology for the present investigation. A profile of successful program completers was developed including a description of socio-demographics, offence characteristics, and criminal history. Program facilitators distributed and collected the surveys from participants and mailed the confidential sealed packages to the Research Branch. The instruments include the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Novaco Anger Scale (NAS), the Spheres of Control Scale (SCS), and the Paulhus Deception Scale (PDS).
The scale is a global measure of self-esteem that is predictive of behavior across a range of situations. Part A is a 48-item questionnaire which provides statements describing things that people think, feel, and do. For the purposes of this evaluation, only the first two subscales were utilized: personal efficacy and interpersonal control. Self-Deceptive Enhancement refers to the tendency of respondents to give honest but inflated self-descriptions. This included the delivery of the program at Burnaby Correctional Centre for Women (2003), Edmonton Institution for Women (2003), Edmonton Institution for Women (2004), and Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge (2004). The assessment instrument utilizes goal attainment scales in order to evaluate individualized longitudinal change for each woman in four different areas of functioning: physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual. The tool was completed following the pre-program interview, or during the first week of the program.
The interview schedule consisted of open-ended questions inquiring about the program structure and delivery, program support, facilitator and Elder roles, effectiveness, unintended effects, and recommendations for improvement. The interview posed questions to facilitators regarding program structure and delivery, participant selection, facilitator training, facilitator characteristics, program support, the Elder role, effectiveness, unintended effects, and recommendations for improvement.
The staff survey asked questions about their knowledge and support of the program and the various impacts of the program on the institution and program participants. For example, some offenders completed pre- and post-participant surveys but were unavailable to participant in an interview5.
First, it was important to assess whether the program has its own place and function within the institution. Program facilitators described the Spirit program as different from other programs for three reasons. In their opinions, women who participated in the program were well suited or appropriate for the Spirit program because they had similar backgrounds or life experiences, they were motivated and willing to change, and they wanted to learn about their Aboriginal culture. In addition, seven women had been classified as suspended8, six as incomplete9, and one as unsuccessfully complete10. The first area was program facilitator training including the content and quality of training for the Spirit of a Warrior program and the selection of individuals for facilitation of the program. However, all of the facilitators received training using the In Search of Your Warrior manual. Three participants stated that only one of the program facilitators had sufficient training, and three reported that neither of the facilitators had sufficient training.
This issue was explored from the perspective of the facilitators and participants themselves, as well as from institutional staff. The other proportion of women had to balance the Spirit program with other correctional programs, school, work, or other activities.
Overall, facilitators provided an average rating of 3.8 for their satisfaction with the support received by non-program staff. On average, participants rated the level of support higher than the facilitators (see Table 2).
Of those who indicated a positive relation, the participant-facilitator relationship was characterized by open communication and sharing (63%), trust and respect (33%), close bond (33%), and encouragement and support (17%). Facilitators and staff in general were asked to what degree, on a five point scale, was each component effective for the majority of the program participants. All of the facilitators (n=6) observed changes in the women participants in all four components of healing. Facilitators rated each participant, pre- and post-program, on mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual healing. As such, participants and facilitators were asked to report the extent to which participants? understanding and thinking changed, and the ways in which their problem solving or coping skills improved. If they need to talk about something, having that open mind, and just respecting their boundaries and having them respect your own.
They?d look at a woman and say ?Wow, now I know your story; you?re not just a person that lived on the dark side?. We are over the halfway point for November’s blog party.  To be honest, I have been dreading drawing this cartoon all month.
Mind-body interactions: To learn about the interaction between biological, behavioural, psychological and social factors which contribute to health issues.
Patient behaviour: To understand behaviours that put patients at risk and help them develop interventions for behaviour change. Physician role and behaviour: To highlight how the doctor's personal background, beliefs and attitude influences patient care. Physician-patient interaction: To learn effective communication with patients and their families. Social and cultural issues in health care: To provide appropriate care to patients with differing social, cultural, and economic backgrounds. Explain psychological factors that contribute to illness, the course of the disease and the success of treatment.
Explain sociological factors that contribute to illness, the course of the disease and the success of treatment.
Explore issues relating to health inequalities, the links between socio-economic factors and health. Communicate clearly, sensitively and effectively with patients, their families, and colleagues. Communicate clearly, sensitively and effectively with individuals regardless of their age, socio-cultural backgrounds or their disabilities. Communicate appropriately in difficult circumstances, such as when breaking bad news, and when discussing sensitive issues, such as sexual practices, smoking or obesity. Discuss and apply the principles of medical ethics with special emphasis on cultural issues. Demonstrate awareness of the clinical, administrative and social responsibilities of the doctor. Respect all patients regardless of their age, gender, lifestyle, beliefs, religion, culture, disability, ethnicity or socio-economic status. Understand ethical responsibilities involved in protecting and promoting the health of individual patients and community including vulnerable groups.
The need for formal training to do so is well established.11 To foster a holistic approach towards their patients, doctors should be able to deal with emotional reactions of patients. They do this via bodily systems, such as the neuroendocrine and immune systems or via health behaviour. If doctors are not taught to think about their ethical responsibilities, then there is little to curb an assumed right to do whatever they want. As a result, public health aspects especially issues relating to prevention and promotion of mental health are neglected in everyday medical practice.
Naturally, it is to be expected that other teachers and healthcare professionals may wish to include other topics, not mentioned here, or to de-emphasise some of the suggestions we have made.27 That is only to be expected and is welcome. Health professionals for a new century: transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world. Improving medical education: Enhancing the behavioural and social science content of medical school curricula.
Patients' perception and actual practice of informed consent, confidentiality and privacy are neglected. Medical ethics in surgical wards: Knowledge, attitude and practice of surgical team members in Karachi.
The global burden of disease: A comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020.
These free downloadable therapy handouts, worksheets, self help quizzes and life skills activities provide psychotherapeutic resources that ensure continued growth and personal development.
Skill building through these free downloadable Cognitive Behavior Therapy worksheets and Communication handouts help your clients put to practice what they learn in the therapy session. It’s up to the therapist to build a well-stocked toolkit of life skills and psychoeducational strategies. Our much appreciated thanks is also extended to the program facilitators of the Spirit of a Warrior program: Jane Whiting, Giselle Wong, Vicki Whalen, Kelly Parnett, Holly Fossenauve, Sheree Thomson, Darlene Rude, Lisa Rainville and Nicki Franks.
The healing component of the program helps women explore their acts of violence, and understand intergenerational issues of violence. Both facilitators and participants claimed that the Spirit of a Warrior program produced results above and beyond those offered by other programs. Both facilitators and participants agreed that the strengths of facilitators were knowledge and understanding of Aboriginal culture, effective program facilitation skills, similar life experiences to program participants, and personality characteristics such as honesty and respect. There was some level of resistance to the program as reported by program facilitators and institutional staff.
The results of the participant interviews reiterated these positive changes with the emotional domain once again showing the most change. Results from the Novaco Anger Scale demonstrated that the type and level of anger experienced by participants decreased following the completion of the program.
The negative unintended effects of the program as reported by three participants were described as unexpected conflict and incidents among the group.
These results provide further evidence that correctional programs must be responsive to both gender and culture. This report examined various process and outcome variables to determine the program?s effectiveness as a correctional intervention for women offenders. Furthermore, the majority of Aboriginal women (80%) are serving time for violent offenses (PSEPC, 2004). Nonetheless, existing literature suggests that mainstream programming, which has proven appropriate for non-Aboriginal offenders, may be inadequate for Aboriginal offenders. In turn, there is a high degree of participation in native cultural activities, a more positive attitude during participation, and a desire for increased opportunity in this area.
These results suggest that a substantial proportion of M?tis offenders place importance on culturally sensitive programming in the institutions. Results revealed that very high- risk Aboriginal offenders were dramatically less likely than equally high- risk non-Aboriginal offenders to complete treatment (20% versus 67%, respectively). Furthermore, it was argued that existing mainstream programs could not reach Aboriginal women and that only Aboriginal people can truly know and understand the experiences of Aboriginal people. It refers to a world-view that acknowledges the interdependence of all aspects of life, all things being connected.
Accordingly, CSC has facilitated spiritual and cultural ceremonies in the institutions such as pipe ceremonies, religious fasting, sweat lodge ceremonies, and the burning of sweet grass, sage and cedar. Following the success of In Search of Your Warrior, a violence prevention program that proved effective with Aboriginal men at Saskatchewan Penitentiary, it was decided to create a women specific model, Spirit of a Warrior.
As such, it is a healing program for women who are interested in exploring their acts of violence and in understanding how violence has shaped their lives.
The notion of ?Warrior? suggests inherent strength or resilience and a willingness to tap into this strength and to shield against one?s heredity and experiences. The subject matter represented in the evaluation design was determined by a number of sources. Pre- and post-program variables were also extracted to demonstrate change among the participants? behaviour. The surveys were based largely on those utilized by Eljdupovic-Guzina & Blanchette (1997) and Richardson and Blanchette (2001) with additional questions designed specifically for the present evaluation framework.
It is important to note that while some standardized measures have been utilized with Aboriginal samples, many have not.
Each item on the scale is rated on a four point Likert scale with ratings ranging from ?strongly agree? to ?strongly disagree?. The first part measures three domains, each with four sub-scales: Cognitive (Attentional Focus, Rumination, Suspicion, Hostile Attitude), Arousal (Intensity, Duration, Somatic Tension, Irritability), and Behavioral (Impulsive Reaction, Verbal Aggression, Physical Confrontation, Indirect Expression). Each subscale consists of 10 items rated on a seven point Likert scale, from ?strongly disagree? to ?strongly agree?.


The Self-Deceptive Enhancement items express an unusual degree of self-assurance and self-confidence (e.g.
In the case of missing data, if more than 20% of the data were missing, the scale was removed from the analysis. From the four sessions of the program, a total of 27 women completed both a pre- and post-participant survey.
The instrument consists of 23 items, each scored on a five point Likert scale ranging from a score of -2 to +2. Either both program facilitators completed the tool for each woman together, or each program facilitator completed the tool for half of the participants. With the assistance of Elders, a total of 10 women have facilitated the program since its inception. Surveys were distributed in person to a convenience sample of staff members during site visits to Edmonton Institution for Women and Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge. Others only participated in an interview due to data collection timeframes for the participant surveys6. Further to this point, there was a need to examine whether the program targets the appropriate population given its purpose as a correctional program.
Potential participants must also be willing to engage in Aboriginal spirituality by participating in ceremonies and teachings.
However, one facilitator identified a case in which a woman was inappropriately selected due to her lack of motivation and experiences with core issues discussed in the group.
With the exception of this one property case, it appears that women were appropriately selected for the program given that a violent offence history is a selection criterion for the program.
Following this, it was necessary to assess the level of support between facilitators and participants, and the degree of support received by non-program staff.
According to the participants11, facilitators had sufficient training because they demonstrated positive personality characteristics or qualities, they were trained using experiential methods, they had similar life experiences, or they had a good teaching method. Their strengths included knowledge and understanding of Aboriginal culture and history (5 facilitators), similar life experiences and background to the participants (3), personality characteristics such as compassion, honesty, and respect (3), and strong facilitation skills (2). Of these participants, they rated the ease at which they were able to balance the program with other activities at an average rating of 4.3 out of a possible 5 (very easy). Facilitators reported that different types of institutional staff considered the program important to varying degrees. Participants suggested additional topics such as abandonment, prostitution, and street life, whereas facilitators recommended topics such as Aboriginal culture, defense mechanisms, resistance, shame, and guilt.
The average rating for level of trust was slightly lower for participants than facilitators, while there were slight differences in average for level of cooperation.
Participants also rated the availability of facilitators as high, with an average rating of 4.5 based on a five point scale. Hence, the four dimensions of life include the mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual elements of one?s self. Furthermore, mean scores for each dimension (4) and for individual items (23) of the tool showed significant differences from pre- to post-program (see Table 4) with the greatest amount of change occurring in the emotional dimension.
I told my girls this month I would draw them and this gave me the opportunity to include Belly. There is a general accord that a simple disease-based model of clinical practice is inadequate and that there is need to change the approach of doctors to include a better understanding of behavioural issues.
Graduates will respect patients' right to hold religious or other beliefs, and take these into account when relevant to treatment options. To do this, simple forms of essential psychological interventions (counselling techniques) and other common intervention (Reattribution Technique, introduction to Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy etc) should also be incorporated.
It, therefore, provides the scientific framework for an integrated bio-psycho-social curriculum. The WHO pointed out that smoking, an unhealthy diet and physical inactivity are the modifiable risk factors for the huge burden of non communicable diseases in south Asia.16 Therefore, training in strategies to modify behaviour is essential.
Let us, once again, refer to the definition of health which clearly implies that mental health is an integral part of health.14 As with physical health, mental health is also more than just the absence of mental illness.
We repeat that our main aim is to start a discussion so that medical practice in Pakistan can become even more holistic and humane. Stress management activities and techniques, counseling worksheets, counseling activities for individuals as well as group counseling sessions, all provide valuable life skills information and opportunities to practice new skills. For those interested in group therapy activities, there is also a couple sheets here that are perfect for interactive group activities. Their dedication and support of the program is profound and the cornerstone of its success. Through the use of culturally sensitive intervention strategies, it aims to help women develop appropriate and healthy alternatives to violence. Conversely, there was a strong presence of internal program support among facilitators and participants. The Spheres of Control Battery detected a significant increase in the participants? internal locus of control upon program completion. Further research efforts may include more culturally sensitive measures, and post program follow up in terms of recidivism and other reintegration measures. This evaluation was based upon an evaluation framework developed by the Research Branch of the CSC (Flight, 2003). More specifically, the literature suggests that these programs are less successful at attracting Aboriginal offenders, that Aboriginal offenders are less likely to complete them, and less likely to demonstrate positive results from their completion.
Such findings invoked concerns about a program?s capacity to accommodate responsivity issues inherent in the cultural heritage of its clientele. More specifically, holism is a paradigm that acknowledges the mental, physical, emotional and spiritual parts of every individual and suggests that all parts of the self affect and are affected by each other. The development of Aboriginal healing lodges such as Okimaw Ohci for women and Willow Cree for men, and Aboriginal specific programs such as Spirit of a Warrior for women and In Search of Your Warrior for men, provide evidence for this evolution.
The program views finding the roots of one?s violence as being the initial step to healing and learning alternative ways of dealing with one?s anger. In the fifth week of the first and second phase, it is intended that the participants participate in Bridge week activities such as crafts or one-on-one counseling.
First, the Spirit of a Warrior program manual was reviewed which consequently prompted a number of important questions regarding the implementation of the program. Static and dynamic factors were considered: security classification, risk to re-offend, need for correctional programming, motivation for intervention, reintegration potential, and individual need domains. Furthermore, none of the standardized measures have published normative data for Aboriginal samples.
These items are rated on a three point Likert scale ranging from ?never true? to ?always true?. Definitions are provided for each item including indicators of success and rating guidelines.
The facilitator assessment was distributed to program facilitators for completion for four sessions of Spirit of a Warrior.
Those offenders who completed the pre- and post?test surveys would also have a facilitator assessment completed for their participation in the program. Second, it is non-traditional or unconventional in its program delivery in that group sharing is practiced rather than academic lecturing. In some cases, the sentence length of a woman may be a determining factor whereby those with short sentence lengths or Accelerated Parole Review (APR) cases may not be permitted participation in the program. Despite the participation of two non-Aboriginal women, participation selection typically includes women who are actively engaging in Aboriginal spirituality. However, the details surrounding this particular case are unknown, and therefore a history of violence may have been present. Three facilitators suggested that the manual could be expanded to include topics such as healthy relationships, healthy sexuality, female gangs, positive community support, defense and coping mechanisms, relational theory, and social learning theory.
In contrast, poor facilitator characteristics and qualities and weak program delivery methods were also the reasons for insufficient facilitator training. The facilitators interviewed had an average of 7 years experience working with women offenders.
The results indicated that facilitators and participants, on average, rated the effectiveness of the program components higher than non-program staff (see Table 3). According to this perspective, healing and healthy change can only occur if all four dimensions are affected and found to be in balance of one another. More specifically, Figure 1 presented below depicts the particular changes within each dimension according to both facilitators (F) and participants (P). The need to integrate Behavioural Sciences as an integral component of medical training is well recognised. Some of these issues have been addressed in a recent textbook by Humayun & Herbert7 which focused on training and learning in BS in a Pakistani context. Chur-Hansen, et al,13 studied the challenges for BS teaching and concluded that there is 'domination of the biomedical model without a corresponding recognition of psychology as science' around the world. Students must understand the basic principles governing ethical aspects of clinical practice, their application and limitations. Such a discussion should involve not only current medical educators but other professional bodies with a potential interest in the area. Ratings of support, cooperation, and trust between facilitators and participants were considerably high. As such, the importance of an increased sensitivity to cultural factors to reduce treatment attrition in Aboriginal offenders was noted. When applied in the context of healing, holism asserts that healing cannot occur in one dimension only; in order to affect real and sustainable change in an individual, one must address all parts of ones? life concurrently and not in isolation (Krawll, 1994). It was designed to provide Aboriginal women with an opportunity to gain insight into how violence evolves and how it is passed from generation to generation, with the ultimate goal of reducing and ultimately eliminating violent behavior.
The program is based on the concept that all individuals have a warrior within that provides them with strength and courage, however through life experiences many individuals have lost touch with their warrior. At this time a consultation group meets and provides updates and strategies for the following phase.
Second, individuals from the Aboriginal Initiatives Committee were contacted to contribute feedback regarding the different methods of evaluation. For this reason, results were interpreted with caution, and used simply to supplement other sources of information. High scores indicate a high internal locus of control and low scores indicate a high external locus of control. Impression Management refers to a tendency to present oneself favorably in order to impress others. However, only two sessions (Edmonton Institution for Women (2004) and Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge (2004))4 could be used for data analysis which resulted in pre- and post-facilitator assessments being completed for only 15 participants. Third, the intensity and depth of the program content encourages the sharing of and coping with the ?real life? experiences of the women participating in the program.
Two facilitators commented that the language used in the hand-outs and exercises was difficult for some participants to understand. The average ratings of participants and facilitators differed in the degree of effectiveness for individual and group skill development. In sum, all four dimensions of healing appeared to be positively affected by the program, and consequently a balance of the elements was demonstrated. PMDC initiated these efforts in 2005 but since then little progress has been made towards developing a core curriculum. We have not made any comments on teaching methodology because we are well aware of the diverse variation of resources in different medical institutions but we have made an active effort to maintain a patient-centred approach throughout this curriculum.
We, too, need to recognise the potential contributions of psychologists as health care professionals and work towards developing a multi-disciplinary faculty for teaching BS.
In our view, duties and responsibilities of medical students and doctors need to be addressed in the curriculum.
Participants described their relationship with the facilitators as positive, including the availability of facilitators to meet with the program participants when required. Third, assessment issues and measures that are traditionally used in program evaluations (Posavac & Carey, 1992) were considered and incorporated where applicable. Part B is a 25-item questionnaire3 which focuses on the amount of anger the participant would feel if a specific situation were to happen. The responses provided by program participants were parallel to the reasons explained by the program facilitators. Overall, program facilitators were quite satisfied with the training provided by NCSA with an average rating of four based on a five point scale. Fairly equal and high ratings were given by facilitators and participants for the components of self awareness, cultural awareness, and anger awareness. Pour arriver ici, rien de plus simple, les internautes bibliophiles ont recherche par exemple Communication Skills for Mental Health Nurses - Mo .
This aim of the present article is to initiate a concerted effort towards this direction in Pakistan. This acts as a break for participants and facilitators from the intensive program and as an incentive for participants to remain involved in the program.
The current study chose a moderate evaluation option which encompassed offender file review, pre- and post-participant surveys (including standardized measures), pre- and post-facilitator assessments, facilitator and participant interviews, and staff surveys. There are currently no published normative data on the SCS specifically for Aboriginal offender populations. Four of the six facilitators reported that more time was needed during training to learn and teach the sessions in the manual. Issues related to research, financial matters and dealing with pharmaceutical industry should also be emphasised.
In theory, the program delivery time is estimated at 15 weeks, however, this timeframe does not include pre-program interviews and consultation or post-program report writing. However, it has been normed with females and utilized previously with federally sentenced women offenders (Taylor & Blanchette, 2001). The PDS offers two separates subscales to measure these aspects of social desirability, in addition to providing a total score. Similar to above, it was reiterated that more topics needed to be explored in addition to having more time to discuss the current material. Communication Skills for Me… a bas prix, mais egalement une large offre autres livres vous sont accessibles a prix moins cher sur Cdiscount ! The PDS consists of 40 self-referential statements that are scored on a five point Likert scale ranging from ?not true? to ?very true?.
In addition, two facilitators suggested that the training should also include instruction on facilitation skills rather than solely on program content. Finally, two facilitators expressed concerns regarding the appropriateness of the facilitators chosen for training. In these cases, it was reported that the emotional stability of some individuals participating in the training was unclear and presented an obstacle to an effective training environment and ultimately to effective program delivery. Cdiscount ce sont aussi des promotions, reductions et ventes flash quotidiennes sur les meilleures ventes et derniers coups de c?ur des clients en . Les dernieres nouveautes et surtout les meilleurs prix sur vos articles preferes, voila pourquoi Cdiscount est le numero 1 pour votre achat autres livres Communication Skills for Mental Health Nurses - Mo et !



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