Communication theory paper,time management classes denver metro,training mask uk,miracle mind secrets of the ancients xkcd - PDF 2016

Design and communication has traditionally been viewed only as an extension of a development program, and when visual communication is employed, designers, artists, communication planners, and program managers neglect the needs of their audience. There is a need for group, age, gender-specific communication material for a rural context. Code is defined as the rules of communication between an encoder (a “writer” or “speaker”) and a decoder (a “reader” or “listener”) using agreed upon symbols.
Information theory terms and ideas applied to DNA are not metaphorical, but in fact quite literal in every way.
This question hinges on the definition of “code” and whether it is metaphorical when applied to DNA or whether it is technically identical to its use in human language.
Examples of code include English, Chinese, computer languages, music, mating calls and radio signals. Since all the above are derivatives of DNA, my challenge to naturalists is to cite a single example of coded information that occurs naturally – outside the realm of life, outside the realm of DNA. The book Information Theory, Evolution and the Origin of Life is written by Hubert Yockey, the foremost living specialist in bioinformatics. The definition of code I have provided is sufficient and applies whether the code is arbitrary or not. The information in DNA is independent of the communication medium insofar as every strand of DNA in your body represents a complete plan for your body; even though the DNA strand itself is only a sequence of symbols made up of chemicals (A, G, C, T). Environment most definitely has a role to play in the development of any biological organism.
Likewise, a strand of Aunt Mildred’s DNA uniquely specifies that she is a woman, that she has RH Negative Blood Type, two arms, two legs etc.
I just read the recent Scientific American article on m-RNA splicing – and I’d like to know what man-made code contains several different messages, obtained by excising introns in different ways? Earlier, I replied that the genetic recombination of DNA from male and female is an example of an encoding process; and this does fit the dictionary definition of encoding. Which is to say the process is entirely biochemical, no less mechanical and no more intelligent than the flow of water. Go ahead and show me, by analogy, how DNA is like a code, then I will just as easily show you how gravity (or any other natural phenomenon) is like a code. Again, read Yockey – in the application of DNA’s code for the growth of an organism, p. DNA is a replicator , not a decoder or transmitting medium.
That is quite incorrect, Read Yockey , or my above where he describes the encoding, transmission and decoding within the cell and its analogue to a recording tape. Communication is meaningful only if transmitted between two entities that understand the code. A strand of DNA in a skin cell that falls from your body contains a plan for a human being (you), even though neither the skin cell nor the strand of DNA are human beings. GENETIC CODE: the biochemical instructions that translate the genetic information present as a linear sequence of nucleotide triplets in messenger RNA into the correct linear sequence of amino acids for the synthesis of a particular peptide chain or protein. DNA contains coded information because it is a system of symbols used by an encoding and decoding mechanism which transmits a message (a plan, an idea, instructions for assembling a complete organism). The decoding of the human genome is the interpretation of DNA’s base pairs, mapping them to specific biological functions. A water molecule does not contain coded information because it represents nothing other than itself.
Chaos produces patterns (snowflakes, sand dunes, stalactites, hurricanes, tornados) naturally, but chaos does not not produce symbols or coded information. This is a conflation, which is a great source for humor, as one can mine the language for interesting uses, but it is invalid as a logical proof.
This is neither conflation nor fallacy of equivocation, because both 3 and 4 in the dictionary are consistent with my original definition of coded information as “A system of symbols used by an encoding and decoding mechanism, which transmits a message that is independent of the communication medium.” DNA and computer languages alike fit this definition, while purely physical phenomena like snowflakes do not. Given a source with probability space [Omega, A, p(A)] and a receiver with probability space [Omega, B, p(B)], then a unique mapping of the letters of alphabet A onto letters of alphabet B is called a code.
Here p(A) is the probability vector of the elements of alphabet A and p (B) is the probability vector of the elements of alphabet B. If, as you have already inferred, DNA uniquely determines any phenotype characteristic at all, then it does qualify as a code. Perry unfortunately has been mislead by the word code (and probably by anti-evolutionary material about Information Theory). DNA is not communicating with anything else, it’s just making copies of itself and controlling the cell. Instructions, by definition, require a mapping from probability space A to probability space B.
My self replicating machine would not be in communication with any other machines or any people. Parts of the machine must still communicate with other parts, to read and carry out the instructions. DNA does not specify the geometry of a plant, or the shape of the optical centers of a cat, and it cannot control the events leading to the death of an organism.
There are thousands of cats, thousands of oak trees, and DNA doesn’t uniquely determine any particular cat or oak tree.
The DNA for a particular cat uniquely determines that one cat in the exact same sense that a crime scene investigator uses DNA to uniquely identify one criminal.
You literalist, don’t you know that when biology textbooks use words like “code”, they’re just dumbing down complex ideas for unsophisticated people? I went through a literal stack of biology textbooks at the Oak Park IL library yesterday, just to make 100% sure my terminology is consistent with scientific convention.
A review of the literature quickly shows that this terminology has been standard for over 40 years. DNA is a set of instructions only in the same sense that chemistry itself is a set of instructions. The bits and bytes on your hard drive don’t “know” anything either, they simply obey the laws of physics.

Sorry, but I just don’t agree that DNA is a code in the same sense that Morse Code, language etc. You’ll have to take that up with Yockey , Shannon, and the biology textbooks and publishers of the journals. With DNA, male and female contribute half the genetic material to create a new individual. Every packet of data that has ever traversed the Internet, every sentence spoken in a noisy room. Even identical twins are not 100% identical, therefore DNA doesn’t uniquely specify a phenotype. Perry, I wish you’d stop quoting text books and definitions and actually start having a discussion with us.
Unfortunately, it is not possible for us to have a productive discussion without a proper definition of terms.
The genetic code is a set of 64 base triplets (nucleotide bases, read in blocks of three). Genetic Code: The sequence of nucleotides, coded in triplets (codons) along the messenger RNA, that determines the sequence of amino acids in protein synthesis. Information only exists in our imagination, but it does not have any independent, objective existence outside of the human mind. The coded information in the sequence of base pairs directs the growth of a zygote into the form of a full adult.
If your computer is set to turn the monitor off after 30 minutes of non-use, then the monitor turns off. Your code definition is not general enough to be used in this discussion because DNA and molecules can’t communicate symbolically. DNA obeys a host of rules as well, and as Yockey points out, these rules obey the laws of physics but are not derivable from them. There are many codes in molecular biology besides the genetic code since every molecular machine has its own code.
It’s good to see now, after six weeks, that everyone finally agrees that DNA really does contain a code. If there’s still anyone who asserts that DNA is not a code, take up this issue with the authors and publishers of these books – Oxford University Press, Yale University Press, Francis Crick, George Gamow , etc. I agree with you, and Yockey , that the process of transcription, translation and protein folding is equivalent to the decoding of a code. On the other hand Yockey’s representation of transcription as an encoding process is more of a stretch.
Because pure stochastic processes have never been observed to create codes and coding systems, and only in exceedingly rare circumstances do they improve them. Yockey explains how DNA contains code, but he doesn’t go so far as to call this a higher level communication as in two humans communicating via a consciously created code. The transmission of a code begins with a sender’s message that is changed to a different format by the sender, transmitted, received, decoded (returned to its original form) and read.
Designers create one-size-fits-all messages, and communication managers follow professional communication strategies. In other words, the information theory argument for design is not based on analogy at all. There is no coded information associated with them – unless you measure their size, in which case you have created information to describe the pebbles, based on your chosen symbols and units of measurement. It also plays a role with my computer – someone could walk into the room and smash your computer with a big rock. If you narrowly consider a mathematical definition of code, then DNA is obviously not a code any more than gravity is.
If DNA is the transmitting medium, then there ought to be a decoder at the other end- where is it? The genome, or the ensemble of genetic messages, is generated by a stationary Markov process and recorded in the DNA sequence, which is isomorphic with the tape in a tape-recording machine (Turing, 1936).
The plans, ideas and instructions are independent of the communication medium, because the DNA molecule represents something other than itself. According to the explanatory chart in the beginning, all caps indicates the two terms are synonymous cross references. Through chaos, water can form steam or clouds or condensation or snowflakes, depending entirely on the conditions. When you shift to definition 3, a system of symbols for communication obviously has a designer. As a result we observe that, so far as anyone knows, coded information only exists in the realm of conscious minds and living things; there is no purely materialistic explanation for its origin.
Marshall is uninformed about evo-devo and epigenetics . I shall explain the relation of these codes to the genetic code in the following discussion. Each amino acid except Trytophan and Methionine has more than one codon . As Yockey states in this one example (and there are others), it does.
The genome, or the ensemble of genetic messages, is generated by a stationary Markov process and recorded in the DNA sequence, which is isomorphic with the tape in a tape-recording machine (Turing, 1936). A sequence of symbols only has to uniquely determine one thing in order to qualify as a code. Please carefully re-read my previous post, quoting Yockey : “Information, transcription, translation, code, redundancy, synonymous, messenger, editing, and proofreading are all appropriate terms in biology. I have thoroughly demonstrated, based on precise definitions and authoritative sources, that DNA is a code in the same sense as other codes. And all English sentences specify particular books, poems, songs, speeches, conversations etc. Also note that it takes a pretty elegant process to produce a new document that is a beautiful, functional combination of its two parent documents.

The DNA sequence of a gene can be used to predict the mRNA sequence, and the genetic code can in turn be used to predict the amino acid sequence. This defines a code, regardless of the nature of the symbols, be they alphabetic letters, voice sounds, dots and dashes, DNA bases, amino acids, nerve impulses, or what have you.
That proposal spurred Francis Crick and his colleagues to examine the coding problem more critically and to use knowledge gained from genetic experiments to test the possible validity of Gamow’s scheme and its variants.
The information that commands this to happen is just as real as the monitor, and just as real as event of the monitor turning off. A hypothetical DNA strand with completely randomized sequence of base pairs contains no semantical content and builds no real organism; A DNA strand for a mouse has semantical instructions for the building of a mouse. I have presented not only volumes of material evidence that DNA is a code, I have also provided proof based on formal mathematical definitions. My computer automatically getting virus updates from the Internet also fits this definition.
However, there is a blatant disconnect between the sender of visual messages ? who are typically urban, educated professionals ? and the receiver of the message ? who are often rural, illiterate villagers ? in development programs. There is no source, no receiver, no probability space, no unique mapping, and most of all, no letters or alphabets in DNA. The rocks and sticks do not weigh any more than they did before, but now they possess coded information whereas they didn’t before. And Yockey acknowledges that the source of the original encoding is unknown, a question which naturalistic theories cannot answer.
Even if the topic of the book is paper or ink chemistry, or instructions for printing books, it still contains plans and ideas independent of the paper and ink it’s printed on.
But unlike DNA, water molecules contain no code or instructions which specify in advance what any of these larger forms will take.
A designer is a creator, so when you capitalize his name, the designer of DNA is the Creator, or God. Every code, as the term is used in this book, can be regarded as a channel with an input alphabet A and an output alphabet B. I won’t attempt to explain this since it takes a number of book sized documents to describe the process adequately.
Science textbooks and papers are written very literally, and the word genetic code in biology is just as literal as the word protein. This is not a matter of opinion, this is a matter of rigorous definitions from information theory.
Different combinations of codons specify the amino acid sequence of different polypeptide chains, start to finish.
This structure immediately suggests that genetic specificity, the “information” that distinguishes one gene from another, resides in the sequence of nucleotides. Codes are generally expressed as binary relations or as geometric correspondences between a domain and a counterdomain; one speaks of mapping in the latter case. It’s the same television show regardless of which TV you watch it on, and whether it came to you through the antenna or the cable company. Note that this does not describe the origin of the information, only the corruption of information after it exists.
Those objects represent only themselves; there is no encoding and decoding mechanism within these material objects, such as there is in DNA. The question of where the molecule and chemicals came from is an important one, but outside the scope of this thread. Furthermore, we know from chaos theory that it’s sometimes impossible to determine these forms in advance. The sloppy terminology designating the genetic code as degenerate is responsible for most of the misunderstanding of the genetic information processing system.
Scientists and biologists use these terms in an analogous way to explain to non scientific people what DNA does. Gravity, by itself uniquely specifies nothing in advance, and by all formal definitions in information theory, cannot be defined as a code .
Thus, in the International Morse Code, 52 symbols consisting of sequences of dots and dashes map on 52 symbols of the alphabet, numbers and punctuation marks; or in the genetic code, 61 of the possible symbol triplets of the RNA domain map on a set of 20 symbols of the polypeptide counterdomain. But direct observation tells us that only conscious minds create coding systems in the first place.
By that criteria many other things are codes too: The spatial distribution of the sizes of pebbles below a rapids, the pattern and orientation of sand dunes, the layers inside a hailstone, and tree rings.
If someone says the layers of a hailstone are an encoding mechanism, I reply that there is no convention of symbols, nor is there a decoding mechanism.
It enables us to change the code (thereby changing the creature), understand how biology works, achieve specified goals. That’s why one snowflake is different from the next, even though the water molecules are identical.
DNA of itself does nothing but act something like a template, but not exactly like a template. Pierce to the end you are using texts that are making a comparison, not expressing the actual idea.
They say that DNA is the basis for genetic code, and that it contains real, measurable information, and that the code uniquely determines real proteins. The information on your computer cannot be reduced to so many pounds of magnetic material or silicon. All contain the transformation of one representation (time, for example) into another (tree rings). They represent Excel spreadsheets and programs and photos of Uncle Herman and Aunt Mildred. An image of Barbara Walters is not glass, it’s not air, not wire.

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