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Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, the German political scientist contributes the famous model called “Spiral of Silence”. The one view dominated the public scene and others disappeared from the public awareness as it adherents became silent. In a company, the managing director decides to increase their working hour from 8 to 10 and send e-mail to all employees. 3.   “Fear of Rejection” By rejecting their personal opinion from the public will help to avoid fight. 1.    Spiral of silence theory describe as a dynamic process, the predication about public opinion in mass media which gives more coverage for the majorities in the society and gives very less coverage for minorities.
2.    In this social environment, People have fear of rejection to express their opinion or views and they known well what behaviors will make a better likelihood. 4.    Sometimes the minorities withdraw their expressed opinion from public debates to secure themselves from the majority.
5.    Maximum numbers get more vocal space in the society and lesser number become less vocal space or become silent. 3.    Spiral of silence theory – which helps to raise question about considering the role and responsibility of media in the society. I think this theory not work when minority has power of media specially they are opinion leader. Actually, if you read the theory, it isn’t based on actual minority or majority, it is based on perceived minority. Thanks to Elisabeth Noelle Neumann for her efforts to come up with the Spiral of silence theory because it is indeed true in as far as public opinion formation is concerned. According to this theory public opinion formation is based on the majority’s perspective about a paricular issue of public interest and thus the minority do not have a stake in the so called public opinion.
However this is a perception about the distribution of opinion and not the actual opinion climate and therefore i think that this is only a perceived minority but not actual minority and I therefore think that public opinion is very misleading and is not tnot to be trusted.This is because those that form their opinions based on the perceived majority’s opinion only adjust their actual opinion to match with that of the perceived majority for fear of isolation accruing from the perception that they hold a lonely opinion but this does not change their actual or real opinion about the issue in question! I do think that the spiral of silence theory is gradually dying out as a communication theory.
In 1944 Paul Lazarsfeld, (1901-1976) an American Social Researcher, Bernard Berelson (1912 – 1979) and Hazel Gaudet was introduced The Two-Step Flow of Communication in the book called “The people’s choice: How the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign.
The purpose of the study was focused on Presidential election Campaign and the people decision-making process towards the campaign. Opinion Leader is a leader for a certain group who gives details and information to lesser active persons in the group. Katz and Paul seems “the flow of media messages from radio and print to opinion leaders and then the leaders leads the messages to lesser active users in the population”. Note: The Opinion leaders have enough voice only in structured social groups not in an isolated individual in the population. Carol watching News in ANB Channel they flash the headlines with “Research reveals some toys are leads the children’s aggressive and Violent”. The Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a theory proposed by Abraham Harold Maslow in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation. According to Maslow, each person had a different set of needs at different point of time in his life. Physiological needs: This level of needs deals with the basic necessities of human survival like food, clothing and shelter. Safety: Once the first level needs are met, a person feels the need to have a life of security where safety in all aspects of life is ensured. Social needs: This deals with the innate need to feel as if one belongs in a chosen social group and in various other relationships that are a part of human life. Esteem: Deals with the need to feel good about oneself and getting recognition from others. The levels are presented in the form of a triangle or a pyramid with the largest and most fundamental levels of needs at the bottom tier, and the need for self-actualization at the top. The limitations with this theory lie in the fact that different cultures may cause people to have different hierarchies of needs.


I remember one of the first conversations we’ve ever had as a group in the MPC program: we groaned about how many of our friends and family didn’t understand what communications was. Now, two years after this initial conversation and one year after starting Hey Receiver, we have a much deeper understanding of what communications is as a field and our roles in it, but the quest to clearly define communications never really ends.
Posted on January 29th, by Debbie Kwan in Communication Theory, Education, Employment, Professional Communication. Posted on December 13th, by Nima Naik in Communication Theory, Opinion, Visual Communication.
I have absolutely no doubt in my mind that the worst print advertisements I have ever seen have been while riding the TTC*. Posted on November 16th, by VinHeney in Advertising, Communication Planning, Communication Theory, Media, Social Media, Social Web. Paid and owned media are fairly easy to understand: You either purchase favorable publicity (paid) or you project it (owned). Posted on October 20th, by Nima Naik in Communication Theory, Media, Opinion, Social Media. Everett Rogers, a communications scholar and sociologist, developed a theory based on the levels of diffusion of particular innovations (which, in this case, can be applied to technological adoption). Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising.
Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. In 1947 Neumann and her husband found “Public Opinion Organization” in German and also she was a President of “World Association for Public Opinion Research” in 1978 to 1980. In other words, the people fear of separation or isolation those around them, they tend to keep their attitudes to themselves when they think they are in the minority.  This process is called “Spiral of Silence”.
Majority of them accept this time changes and few employees are not satisfied with his decision.
People loss their confidence and silent or mute to express their views because of the fear of isolation or they feel alone or unsupported. In some cases the person may feel the majority’s ideas or opinion is much better than his own view.
In german also they are minority but the settled very well and they were not shows any interest towards the poor german and nation. I think it is important to understand that it is true that human beings fear isolation and will do what it takes to make sure that they gain acceptance and not neglected since we are not solitary animals and that is why St. This is due to how media is practised currently in the world thanks to the technological determininsm theory which allows for active participation from all sides of people.
All three researchers were wanted to find out practically whether the mass media messages affect direct influence in voting decision among the people. In office, the managing director is an opinion leader and in public, a political leader is an opinion leader. Through this transformation of message, the leaders may add their opinion on the actual content which may affects the low active users. That day Carol calls her little son and went for shopping and carol warn her son some toys are not good and made skin allergy which leads her son to avoid those toys. Lazarsfeld and his associates in the 1940 election study were unable to determine the specific flow of influence.
Especially opinion leaders role in the society as well as in home to which helps to improve the market with less efforts.
There is a need to be accepted or otherwise people are prone to negative effects like depression & loneliness. According to Maslow physiological, security, social, and esteem needs are deficiency needs or D-needs that arise because of deprivation. People necessarily may not satisfy one level after another and may have other needs not mentioned in the list and may be ready to sacrifice some needs. We even admitted that we weren’t completely sure ourselves what exactly we would be studying in a Master of Professional Communication program.


I hate them because it’s always annoying to discover that I don’t fit neatly in any of the categories offered, and I love them because they are insightful enough to be fun, and, sometimes I need a questionnaire to remind me of my strengths and weaknesses.
Sorting through my goals and qualifications, while looking for an opportunity that matched them, was overwhelming. The assessment is based on Kolb’s theory of Experiential Learning, which describes learning as a cycle composed of four stages: concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation. Transit messaging fails on numerous levels but most notably in visual communication and in rhetorical appeals. Diffusion, in this context, refers to the process through which a new idea or product is accepted by the mass market. Through this Spiral of Silence theory Neumann indirectly explains the Jews status during World War II under Nazi’s control. For instance, i wouldnt share my views on a particular theory like this if not for advancement in technology and the view that it’s a free platform where one may chose to accept or reject my view. Unexpectedly they found the media messages (like radio and newspapers) are very less influence then an informal, personal communication on voting behavior. In some cases the Opinion leaders are filtering the actual content ensures the information is needed by the people. Our conversations are diverse in topic, focus and perspective, and they embrace how communications could relate to everything from branding to job searching to technology.
So I admit, in my worst period of uncertainty and self-doubt, I turned to David Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory (LSI) to get validation of what I believed were my strongest abilities (okay, I also retook the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator).
In other words, people learn by encountering an experience, observing and reflecting on it, conceptualizing theories about it, and then applying the theories to new situations. Something about the poor graphics, cheesy stock photography, and comically bright colour ways make the aesthetics of transit advertisements appear utterly ridiculous and unprofessional upon first glance. According to Rogers, for any given idea, product, or innovation there are five distinct categories of adopters: innovators, early adopters, the early majority, followed by the late majority, and lastly the laggards. Here, Adolf Hitler dominated the whole society and the minority Jews became silent due to the fear of isolation or separation. According to this theory onee forms his opinion on a particular issue based on the dominant or salient opinion about the same issue in the view not to be isolated from the majority for thinking that they are holding a lonely opinion. Based on this researched data, The Two Step Flow Communication Theory of Mass Communication was developed by Katz and Paul Lazarsfeld. Some people may have dominant needs at a particular level and thus never move through the entire hierarchy.
As a contributor, I felt just as free to explore subjects without obvious practical applications as subjects that aligned with current industry best practices. Taking mass transit can be a sensory overload, yet transit advertisements complicate matters by being busy, unstructured, and honestly, ugly, promotional material. But, as is the case with just about everything, the social web is re-writing the media rules.
So, before I say goodbye to this blog, I will take one more opportunity to ruminate over how simple answers are not always available in the field of communications. Regardless of how transit advertisements look, they also use very basic elements of rhetoric in their most extreme forms in an attempt to persuade the viewing public. No, I just choose to be a part of the late majority (and there is nothing wrong with that!).
However, the one aspect of rhetoric where transit advertisements really falter is with ethos. Take the City of Toronto’s “Waste Wizard” campaign, how can I take these messages seriously when the organization has clearly does not care about their credibility or their public perception?



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