Drugs change your eyes,training courses for quantity surveyors,the secret circle a book - For Begninners

Here’s a look into four types of drugs and their effect on the brain as shown in snapshots of fMRI scans or infographics. It’s important to keep in mind that some of the images look at the brains of chronic users, while others look at the brains of people who have used only a few times or at the brains of lab animals.
Recent research suggests that tripping on magic mushrooms may change the mind by quieting traditional brain activity and jump-starting new connections between areas of the brain that previously didn’t communicate with one another. Say you were to represent the brain as a circle, with various sections of the brain as smaller colorful circles along the bigger circle’s edges. And while these sparks of activity may seem erratic, the research suggests things aren’t quite that simple. In other words, if the information in your brain was shared across an interconnected and heavily-trafficked system of highways, psilocybin doesn’t simply take different ways through them — it builds new ones. If you were to peek inside the brain of someone who regularly smoked marijuana, you’d find several notable differences between it and the brain of a nonsmoker. First, you’d see that the orbitofrontal cortex, a critical part of the brain that helps us process emotions and make decisions looked smaller, as if it had shrunk. In a recent study, scientists used a combination of MRI-based brain scans to get one of the first comprehensive, three-dimensional pictures of the brains of adults who have smoked weed at least four times a week, often multiple times a day, for years. If heavily using marijuana is causing the orbitofrontal cortex to shrink, smokers could be developing thicker cross-brain connections as a means of compensating, the scientists write in their paper.
One recent study, for example, found that children as young as 12 who had smaller orbitofrontal cortices were significantly more likely to start smoking weed by the time they were 16 — a hint that the brain differences came first. You know drinking can blur your vision, slur your speech, mess with your memory, and make you slower to react. In a recent study, scientists had two groups of people — binge drinkers and people who drank regularly but never binged — take a test of their working memory while they looked at their brains under an fMRI scanner. While both groups performed the same, the binge drinkers showed significantly more activity across their brains than the non-bingers, especially in regions of the brain that the non-bingers didn’t use.
Why would binge drinkers and non-binge drinkers use different parts of their brains for the same task?
In a 2014 study comparing people dependent on alcohol with those who weren’t, the dependents took far more time to do the same task with the same level of accuracy. Whether it’s snorted, smoked, or injected, cocaine enters the bloodstream and penetrates the brain in a matter of seconds. The part of the brain cocaine affects the most includes key memory centers that help us recall where the source of pleasure came from. In mice who’ve been dosed with cocaine, repeated exposure to the drug unleashes a host of changes in the brain cells in the prefrontal cortex (a region that helps with decision making and inhibition). Almost all of the mice picked the chamber where they’d been given the cocaine instead of the one whose smell they liked better.
While mice don’t have the same complex brain structure humans do, their brains still have enough in common with ours to make them a useful model. Decades of research suggest that the brains of chronic ecstasy users — people who pop a couple pills every weekend for years, or those who indulge in 10-20 pills in a weekend — have been fundamentally altered in a disturbing way.
Several key regions which are vibrantly active in non-users appear far quieter, as if dulled. A 2013 study, for example, found that activity (measured using PET scans of glucose metabolism, a popular way to gauge action in the brain) in two key areas was much lower in the brains of frequent ecstasy users than it was in the brains of people who rarely or never used.
Since those regions are actively involved in learning and memory, the researchers also used a standard memory quiz to see how these chronic users fared at recalling information compared with the people who didn’t use the drug. Not surprisingly, the chronic users performed far worse on the test compared with the non-users. More importantly, however, their scores on the quiz lined up surprisingly well with the brain changes the researchers observed.
The perfect test would assess the same people before and after years of use to account for individual variability and other confounding factors, but such studies are nearly impossible in drug users. And these findings square with other research, including a 2006 study of former chronic ecstasy users who had since stopped taking the drug. Away from the town, it’s easy to get a glimpse of life the real life of almost all the Zanzibarian people in the villages dotted along the coast and among the forests. So, this may not be the right destination if you’re need something a little bit more than sun, sand and sea.
Trips out into the bay however, either to snorkel or to swim with dolphins, are also on sale quite cheaply, as are excursions out to visit Johanzi National Reserve or the old spice routes across the island. Small restaurants and bars are everywhere along the beach, as well as the more established food and drink of the hotels.
For those willing to brave a little adventure, Jambiami really does guarantee a picture perfect holiday spot. The craze for green tourism might be old news, but being an ethical traveller isn’t just about being kind to Mother Earth.
With nine rooms from $35 a night, Zenji prides itself on caring for the local community - providing on the job training to those with no qualifications at all, as well as donating to charities within the town.
Growing up in Stone Town, the island of Zanzibar’s biggest town, Suleiman saw first-hand how tourism could bring fresh life into the economy. Tucked away underneath the hotel is Zenji’s boutique, which supplies gifts and souvenirs from local producers. With awards from groups such as Hostel Bookers and Trip Advisor lining the walls, Zenji is now looking to expand out across the island – but not everything is set to change.
The Young Reporters Against Poverty winners are interviewed for Capital TV News during their first day in Dar es Salaam. The project, which received a contribution of 750,000.00 euros from the EU, is addressed to the female heads of the household, illiterate, poor and rural women, and has been implemented by Care Tz and Tanzania Media Women Association (TAMWA). But after almost four years since the start of the project and only a few months before the end (January 2012), are women an integral part of the society? When we arrived in Makunduchi, the men stood up and welcomed us, not the women, as if they were the representatives of the community.
Here, as it often happens in developing countries, the economical development is preferred over and above raising awareness on women’s rights. So the questions are: Where is the philosophical and theoretical background related to gender equality?

We had heard the heavy noises from the generators during the last few nights, and the hotel receptionist had told us it was because of the power cuts. Ensuring a modern and sustainable energy in as many families as possible was one of the objectives of SEDC (Sustainable Energy and Development Centre), an organisation based in the suburbs of Dar es Salaam, and founded in 1994. Maybe the energy issue was not very close to us before, and I imagine that is because we are so used to our eastern commodities. With the purpose of solving this problem, SEDC has recently created a big battery that works with solar energy (a great natural resource in the country). El dia que hi vam anar ens va rebre en Fredrick Msigallah, amb la seva inseparable cadira de rodes, i el seu amigable somriure.
It wouldn’t be fair not talk about CCBRT (Comprehensive Community Based Rehabilitation in Tanzania) that we visited during our third day in Dar es Salaam. Life is full of coincidences: sitting next to me was an American doctor from Boston who saw my papers. The day we went to the hospital we were welcomed by Fredrick Msigallah, with his inseparable wheelchair, and his friendly smile. But even with the CEFA projects and the CCBRT facilities, the Tanzanian society lives far from its people living with disabilities.
Pero esto es África, y para lo bueno y para lo malo, las cosas no son como en Europa. Un buen ejemplo es el trabajo que CEFA, una organización no gubernamental italiana, realiza en Dar es Salaam. I didn’t really understand why we were going to visit so many projects about people with disabilities in Tanzania. A good example of this integration is the work that CEFA, an Italian non-governmental organisation does in Dar es Salaam.
Brain scans are also captured in the laboratory, which can’t exactly mirror real life scenarios. Shrooms’ key psychoactive ingredient, and the one responsible for these changes, is psilocybin. You could then show the brain’s activity (the sending and receiving of various messages from one region of the brain to another) as thin bands of blended color across the circle. But a brain on psilocybin, as shown in the illustration on the right, would look quite different.
They could also be responsible for giving magic mushrooms some of their antidepressant qualities, since they quiet activity in the part of the brain responsible for the sense of self, or ego. Only recently has the US government begun to loosen its restrictions on studying the medical uses of psychedelics. But if you were to look at that section more closely, you’d also see that the connections passing through it were also stronger and thicker. In it, you can see extra activity in the shrunken orbitofrontal cortices of regular smokers (bottom row) that isn’t present in the brains of nonsmokers with a normal-sized orbitofrontal cortex (top row).
Because the relationship could go the other direction (meaning having a naturally smaller orbitofrontal cortex could make someone more likely to smoke a lot of pot), or something else could be causing both the things the researchers observed (the shrunken brain region and the behavior of smoking).
The more drinks they took, the more abnormal brain activity they showed when completing the task. Activity in binge-drinkers is shown in red; activity in non-binge-drinkers is shown in green. Since the traditional brain regions can no longer accomplish the task alone, new areas are being recruited to take on part of the workload. Yet they had heightened activity in different regions of the brain that the non-dependents weren’t using to complete the task. When we experience a cocaine high, these brain areas form memories of our pleasurable experience and the places or people that were involved in our experience of getting the drug. The more they get the drug, the more likely they are to access it again when given the option. Mice with more spines were also more likely to use cocaine repeatedly, even if it meant leaving an environment they preferred. The next day, they were given cocaine and placed in the chamber that was not their preferred side with the door between the chambers closed. The study’s findings also appear to square with some existing studies of people addicted to cocaine. After playing an audio recording of 15 unrelated words, the scientists asked people in both groups to recall as many words as they could. And the more they used over their lifetimes, the more intense the changes and the worse they performed on the test. Red areas show the regions with decreased activity, purple areas show decreased activity in people who used the most over their lifetimes, and green areas show decreased activity in people who performed poorly on the test. Much larger than its neighbours, Paje and Makunduchi, Jambiami boasts not only a post office but an internet café and tiny supermarket. For anyone who can’t go a week without that adrenaline rush, parasailing is offered by a few companies up and down the coast.
For just how long the remote and peaceful beaches will remain untouched, however, is far less certain.
Suleiman Mohamed has been running the hotel for the past three years with his wife Anneloes. Even in this corner of Africa, most mementoes are still imported from Sri Lanka, India and Indonesia. With many parents still struggling to send their children to school, the hotel also offers to train and educate any of the staff at the hotel, who may start work with little or no skills.
In each group, two or three of them take money from a tin box, count bills and coins and then put them back.
It seeks to increase income and to overcome social, cultural and political barriers to rural women’s empowerment in four districts of northern Pemba and Southern Unguja in Zanzibar. Each woman puts a little of their weekly earnings in the box until a more substantial sum of money is put aside. The women are able to pay back the money they received and also begin to save money which would suggest that their business works. When we asked our questions, men were the first to answer and it was difficult to hear a female voice.

That is the burden of duties that a couple should share rather than weighing only on the women’s shoulders. Desgraciadamente, pasar 8 horas sin electricidad se ha convertido en una cosa poco rara, sobre todo en las áreas rurales.
Almost 20 years of working towards an easy energy access in Tanzanian houses where nowadays, just 15% of the population has electricity access. Unfortunately, staying 8 hours without power in Tanzania had become something very common, especially in the rural areas. Of course, buying one of these instruments is quite expensive, but it has become an entrepreneurial business in some rural areas, where Tanzanian people pay a few shillings in order to charge their mobile phones near home.
Treballa a CCBRT donant suport i recomanacions als projectes i campanyes que realitza el centre. Trabaja en CCBRT dando apoyo y recomendaciones a los proyectos y campañas que realiza el centro. I didn’t read much about CCBRT before the trip, so during my flight to Tanzania, I decided to take a look at some papers about the project I had printed at home. He couldn’t avoid telling me that CCBRT was a well known hospital, one of the best for the treatment of disabilities. People with disabilities tend to be marginalised and kept apart from a society that in many cases still doesn’t understand the importance of their inclusion. The snapshots below are only a clue into how these substances affect our brains as a whole.
The regional circles along the edges would be darker to represent the uptick in activity inside each of them. Then, they had to press a button when the number that was shown was the same number that had been shown two numbers before. The sensation of pleasure is so powerful that some lab animals, when given a choice, will choose cocaine over food until they starve to death.
This is why going back to the original spot where you’ve used cocaine — or simply seeing pictures of someone else using — can trigger a desire to use. Green arrows show where new spines have grown, blue arrows show where spines have decayed, and yellow arrows show where spines have remained stable.
Heading to Zanzibar’s east coast after the cramped and bustling streets of Stone Town is like stepping into another world. The nearest ATM however, is still roughly an hour’s journey by car, so make sure you have money to spare unless you want to make the long trip back to Stone Town.
After a long day of sunbathing, swimming, and generally doing nothing, campfires are lit along the beach for drinks, African dancing and drumming underneath the stars. In some of the more budget hotels, a constant supply of water might even be too much to ask- this is a very poor, rural area, and as you step on to the golden sands of the beach, it’s only too easy to forget that. Years of British rule and mass immigration from India also means that chips and chapattis are seen as very much part of the national cuisine.
With only around 20 per cent of Tanzanians in formal employment, making souvenirs can be a crucial lifeline for a business.
Of course, for us it's really hard work to take someone off the street and then train them. The box has three locks; each key is given to a different woman so that the box can only be opened when all three key holders are present. Islam is strong in Zanzibar, almost all the women in Stone Town, the biggest town of the island, wear the burqa.
Now the groups have male members too who, according to the rules, do not have decision-making roles. When we got an answer from the women about what they are doing with their savings, it was a slight disappointment. The same old story, also in Zanzibar, that the women are paying the cost of their independence.
Especially if women become the only actors to create social and economical growth through their earnings.
And, is it wise not to renew funding to the WEZA project after only four years of activity when there is so much more to be done? But something as simple as re-charging your phone with a plug can be a nightmare in the rural areas of the country, where access to electricity is not very common (just 2% of houses have electricity). Usually, a hospital is a dark and sad place for us, and so we expected our visit to be like that.
Y des de Europa, tener que convivir con una silla de ruedas o nacer con sordera, son problemas que han sido integrados en nuestra sociedad. And from Europe, having to use a wheelchair or to born deaf are problems that have been integrated into our society.
Any small progress made in this area is more than welcomed by people who live with disabilities. According to CEFA, 40% of these young people succeeded in getting a job after this period of time. The walls of the boutique are lined with necklaces, each bead individually handmade by a female Zanzibari entrepreneur. Similar scenes take place around the whole island of Zanzibar as part of WEZA, Women Empowerment in Zanzibar.
Amb el temps, les persones que els pateixen han trobat facilitats per poder desenvolupar una vida normal. Con el tiempo, las personas que lo padecen han encontrado facilidades para poder desarrollar una vida normal. Over time, people who suffer these disabilities have found facilities to develop a normal life. Similar to what happens in Stone Town, the women in the smaller villages are also not allowed to be part of society.
In Europe the fight for gender equality started hundreds of years ago and in some cases we still cannot say that women have the same rights as men.

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drugs change your eyes

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