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Underwater wireless communication networks (UWCNs) include sensors and autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) that interact to perform specific applications such as underwater monitoring.
The unique characteristics of the underwater acoustic channel and the differences between such networks and their ground based counterparts require the development of efficient and reliable security mechanisms. The aquatic environment is particularly vulnerable to malicious attacks due to the high bit error rates, large and variable propagation delay, low bandwidth of acoustic channels in water. The above mentioned characteristics of UWCNs have several security issues associated like packet errors, eavesdropping, modification of packets, and many more. The different attacks possible are Jamming, Wormholes, Selective Forwarding, Sybil Attacks, etc. Open research challenges for secure localization, routing and time synchronization are mentioned. In this paper UWCNs is discussed, with emphasis on the possible attacks, countermeasures and further opportunities and scope for development in this direction to improve security of such networks. Underwater wireless communication networks (UWCNs) consist of sensors and autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) that interact, coordinate and share information with each other to carry out sensing and monitoring functions.
In last several years, underwater communication network (UWCN) has found an increasing use in a widespread range of applications, such as coastal surveillance systems, environmental research, autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) operation, oil-rig maintenance, collection of data for water monitoring, linking submarines to land, to name a few. By deploying a distributed and scalable sensor network in a 3-dimensional underwater space, each underwater sensor can monitor and detect environmental parameters and events locally.

Among the three types of waves, acoustic waves are used as the primary carrier for underwater wireless communication systems due to the relatively low absorption in underwater environments. Jamming is deliberate interference with radio reception to deny the target's use of a communication channel. A jamming attack consists of interfering with the physical channel by putting up carriers on the frequencies used by nodes to communicate. In frequency hopping, a device transmits a signal on a frequency for a short period of time, changes to a different frequency and repeats. Frequency-hopping schemes are somewhat resistant to interference from an attacker who does not know the hopping sequence. Coordination and information sharing between sensors and AUVs make the provision of security challenging. Achieving reliable inter vehicle and sensor-AUV communication is especially difficult due to the mobility of AUVs and the movement of sensors with water currents. Also since power consumption in underwater communications is higher than in terrestrial radio communications energy exhaustion attacks can reduce network life. Hence, compared with remote sensing, UWCNs provide a better sensing and surveillance technology to acquire better data to understand the spatial and temporal complexities of underwater environments. Many underwater sensor applications for environmental preservation, such as water quality monitoring, rely on the integrity of information.

Lack of availability due to denial-of-service attacks would especially affect time-critical aquatic exploration applications such as prediction of seaquakes.
For single-frequency networks, it is simple and effective, rendering the jammed node unable to communicate or coordinate with others in the network.
However, the attacker may be able to jam a wide band of the spectrum, or even follow the hopping sequence by scanning for the next transmission and quickly tuning the transmitter.
Jamming can be overcome by Spread Spectrum techniques, Wormhole detection is done with a visual modelling using Dis-VoW and other attacks can be countered by authentication, verification, and positioning. Present underwater communication systems involve the transmission of information in the form of sound, electromagnetic (EM), or optical waves. Since underwater acoustic frequency bands are narrow (from a few to hundreds of kilohertz), UWCNs are vulnerable to narrowband jamming. Localization is affected by the replay attack when the attacker jams the communication between a sender and a receiver, and later replays the same message with stale information (an incorrect reference) posing as the sender.

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