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American School of Genealogy, Heraldry and Documentary Sciences - Program DescriptionsA MODULE DESCRIPTIONSA. 1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography.
G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c. The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. The properties of liquids are intermediate between those of gases and solids but are more similar to solids. Intermolecular forces determine bulk properties such as the melting points of solids and the boiling points of liquids.
Intermolecular forces are electrostatic in nature; that is, they arise from the interaction between positively and negatively charged species. Because each end of a dipole possesses only a fraction of the charge of an electron, dipole–dipole interactions are substantially weaker than the interactions between two ions, each of which has a charge of at least ±1, or between a dipole and an ion, in which one of the species has at least a full positive or negative charge. Thus far we have considered only interactions between polar molecules, but other factors must be considered to explain why many nonpolar molecules, such as bromine, benzene, and hexane, are liquids at room temperature, and others, such as iodine and naphthalene, are solids. The formation of an instantaneous dipole moment on one He atom (a) or an H2 molecule (b) results in the formation of an induced dipole on an adjacent atom or molecule. Instantaneous dipole–induced dipole interactions between nonpolar molecules can produce intermolecular attractions just as they produce interatomic attractions in monatomic substances like Xe. For similar substances, London dispersion forces get stronger with increasing molecular size. The polarizability of a substance also determines how it interacts with ions and species that possess permanent dipoles, as we shall see when we discuss solutions in Chapter 13 "Solutions". All molecules, whether polar or nonpolar, are attracted to one another by London dispersion forces in addition to any other attractive forces that may be present.
Arrange n-butane, propane, 2-methylpropane [isobutene, (CH3)2CHCH3], and n-pentane in order of increasing boiling points. Determine the intermolecular forces in the compounds and then arrange the compounds according to the strength of those forces.
The four compounds are alkanes and nonpolar, so London dispersion forces are the only important intermolecular forces.
Molecules with hydrogen atoms bonded to electronegative atoms such as O, N, and F (and to a much lesser extent Cl and S) tend to exhibit unusually strong intermolecular interactions. These plots of the boiling points of the covalent hydrides of the elements of groups 14–17 show that the boiling points of the lightest members of each series for which hydrogen bonding is possible (HF, NH3, and H2O) are anomalously high for compounds with such low molecular masses. Why do strong intermolecular forces produce such anomalously high boiling points and other unusual properties, such as high enthalpies of vaporization and high melting points?
Each water molecule accepts two hydrogen bonds from two other water molecules and donates two hydrogen atoms to form hydrogen bonds with two more water molecules, producing an open, cagelike structure. Because ice is less dense than liquid water, rivers, lakes, and oceans freeze from the top down. B Of the compounds that can act as hydrogen bond donors, identify those that also contain lone pairs of electrons, which allow them to be hydrogen bond acceptors. A Of the species listed, xenon (Xe), ethane (C2H6), and trimethylamine [(CH3)3N] do not contain a hydrogen atom attached to O, N, or F; hence they cannot act as hydrogen bond donors. B The one compound that can act as a hydrogen bond donor, methanol (CH3OH), contains both a hydrogen atom attached to O (making it a hydrogen bond donor) and two lone pairs of electrons on O (making it a hydrogen bond acceptor); methanol can thus form hydrogen bonds by acting as either a hydrogen bond donor or a hydrogen bond acceptor. Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. In contrast to intramolecular forces, such as the covalent bonds that hold atoms together in molecules and polyatomic ions, intermolecular forces hold molecules together in a liquid or solid.
Liquids boil when the molecules have enough thermal energy to overcome the intermolecular attractive forces that hold them together, thereby forming bubbles of vapor within the liquid. Like covalent and ionic bonds, intermolecular interactions are the sum of both attractive and repulsive components. If the structure of a molecule is such that the individual bond dipoles do not cancel one another, then the molecule has a net dipole moment.
In addition, the attractive interaction between dipoles falls off much more rapidly with increasing distance than do the ion–ion interactions we considered in Chapter 8 "Ionic versus Covalent Bonding". Compounds with higher molar masses and that are polar will have the highest boiling points. The first compound, 2-methylpropane, contains only C–H bonds, which are not very polar because C and H have similar electronegativities. Even the noble gases can be liquefied or solidified at low temperatures, high pressures, or both (Table 11.3 "Normal Melting and Boiling Points of Some Elements and Nonpolar Compounds"). This question was answered by Fritz London (1900–1954), a German physicist who later worked in the United States. On average, the two electrons in each He atom are uniformly distributed around the nucleus. Thus London dispersion forces are responsible for the general trend toward higher boiling points with increased molecular mass and greater surface area in a homologous series of compounds, such as the alkanes (part (a) in Figure 11.6 "Mass and Surface Area Affect the Strength of London Dispersion Forces"). In general, however, dipole–dipole interactions in small polar molecules are significantly stronger than London dispersion forces, so the former predominate.
These forces are generally stronger with increasing molecular mass, so propane should have the lowest boiling point and n-pentane should have the highest, with the two butane isomers falling in between.
These result in much higher boiling points than are observed for substances in which London dispersion forces dominate, as illustrated for the covalent hydrides of elements of groups 14–17 in Figure 11.7 "The Effects of Hydrogen Bonding on Boiling Points". The answer lies in the highly polar nature of the bonds between hydrogen and very electronegative elements such as O, N, and F. The structure of liquid water is very similar, but in the liquid, the hydrogen bonds are continually broken and formed because of rapid molecular motion.
In fact, the ice forms a protective surface layer that insulates the rest of the water, allowing fish and other organisms to survive in the lower levels of a frozen lake or sea. Compounds such as HF can form only two hydrogen bonds at a time as can, on average, pure liquid NH3.
If a substance is both a hydrogen donor and a hydrogen bond acceptor, draw a structure showing the hydrogen bonding. Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre.
As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt. Similarly, solids melt when the molecules acquire enough thermal energy to overcome the intermolecular forces that lock them into place in the solid. Because electrostatic interactions fall off rapidly with increasing distance between molecules, intermolecular interactions are most important for solids and liquids, where the molecules are close together. For more information on the dissolution of ionic substances, see Chapter 4 "Reactions in Aqueous Solution" and Chapter 5 "Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions".) dipole–dipole interactions, London dispersion forces, and hydrogen bonds. Molecules with net dipole moments tend to align themselves so that the positive end of one dipole is near the negative end of another and vice versa, as shown in part (a) in Figure 11.3 "Attractive and Repulsive Dipole–Dipole Interactions". It should therefore have a very small (but nonzero) dipole moment and a very low boiling point. In 1930, London proposed that temporary fluctuations in the electron distributions within atoms and nonpolar molecules could result in the formation of short-lived instantaneous dipole momentsThe short-lived dipole moment in atoms and nonpolar molecules caused by the constant motion of their electrons, which results in an asymmetrical distribution of charge at any given instant., which produce attractive forces called London dispersion forcesA kind of intermolecular interaction (force) that results from temporary fluctuations in the electron distribution within atoms and nonpolar molecules. Because the electrons are in constant motion, however, their distribution in one atom is likely to be asymmetrical at any given instant, resulting in an instantaneous dipole moment. The strengths of London dispersion forces also depend significantly on molecular shape because shape determines how much of one molecule can interact with its neighboring molecules at any given time. As a result, neopentane is a gas at room temperature, whereas n-pentane is a volatile liquid.
Of the two butane isomers, 2-methylpropane is more compact, and n-butane has the more extended shape. Methane and its heavier congeners in group 14 form a series whose boiling points increase smoothly with increasing molar mass. The large difference in electronegativity results in a large partial positive charge on hydrogen and a correspondingly large partial negative charge on the O, N, or F atom. If ice were denser than the liquid, the ice formed at the surface in cold weather would sink as fast as it formed.
Consequently, even though their molecular masses are similar to that of water, their boiling points are significantly lower than the boiling point of water, which forms four hydrogen bonds at a time. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight.


A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene.
These interactions become important for gases only at very high pressures, where they are responsible for the observed deviations from the ideal gas law at high pressures.
The first two are often described collectively as van der Waals forcesThe intermolecular forces known as dipole–dipole interactions and London dispersion forces.. These arrangements are more stable than arrangements in which two positive or two negative ends are adjacent (part (c) in Figure 11.3 "Attractive and Repulsive Dipole–Dipole Interactions").
As shown in part (a) in Figure 11.5 "Instantaneous Dipole Moments", the instantaneous dipole moment on one atom can interact with the electrons in an adjacent atom, pulling them toward the positive end of the instantaneous dipole or repelling them from the negative end. The reason for this trend is that the strength of London dispersion forces is related to the ease with which the electron distribution in a given atom can be perturbed. For example, part (b) in Figure 11.6 "Mass and Surface Area Affect the Strength of London Dispersion Forces" shows 2,2-dimethylpropane (neopentane) and n-pentane, both of which have the empirical formula C5H12.
Consequently, we expect intermolecular interactions for n-butane to be stronger due to its larger surface area, resulting in a higher boiling point.
This is the expected trend in nonpolar molecules, for which London dispersion forces are the exclusive intermolecular forces.
Bodies of water would freeze from the bottom up, which would be lethal for most aquatic creatures.
The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light. Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself. As a result, the C–O bond dipoles partially reinforce one another and generate a significant dipole moment that should give a moderately high boiling point. The net effect is that the first atom causes the temporary formation of a dipole, called an induced dipoleA short-lived dipole moment that is created in atoms and nonpolar molecules adjacent to atoms or molecules with an instantaneous dipole moment., in the second.
In small atoms such as He, the two 1s electrons are held close to the nucleus in a very small volume, and electron–electron repulsions are strong enough to prevent significant asymmetry in their distribution.
Neopentane is almost spherical, with a small surface area for intermolecular interactions, whereas n-pentane has an extended conformation that enables it to come into close contact with other n-pentane molecules.
In contrast, the hydrides of the lightest members of groups 15–17 have boiling points that are more than 100°C greater than predicted on the basis of their molar masses.
Because a hydrogen atom is so small, these dipoles can also approach one another more closely than most other dipoles.
The expansion of water when freezing also explains why automobile or boat engines must be protected by “antifreeze” (we will discuss how antifreeze works in Chapter 13 "Solutions") and why unprotected pipes in houses break if they are allowed to freeze.
It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot. And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. Because molecules in a liquid move freely and continuously, molecules always experience both attractive and repulsive dipole–dipole interactions simultaneously, as shown in Figure 11.4 "Both Attractive and Repulsive Dipole–Dipole Interactions Occur in a Liquid Sample with Many Molecules". Thus a substance such as HCl, which is partially held together by dipole–dipole interactions, is a gas at room temperature and 1 atm pressure, whereas NaCl, which is held together by interionic interactions, is a high-melting-point solid. Acetone contains a polar C=O double bond oriented at about 120° to two methyl groups with nonpolar C–H bonds. In larger atoms such as Xe, however, the outer electrons are much less strongly attracted to the nucleus because of filled intervening shells.
Within a series of compounds of similar molar mass, the strength of the intermolecular interactions increases as the dipole moment of the molecules increases, as shown in Table 11.2 "Relationships between the Dipole Moment and the Boiling Point for Organic Compounds of Similar Molar Mass". The C–O bond dipole therefore corresponds to the molecular dipole, which should result in both a rather large dipole moment and a high boiling point. A hydrogen bond is usually indicated by a dotted line between the hydrogen atom attached to O, N, or F (the hydrogen bond donor) and the atom that has the lone pair of electrons (the hydrogen bond acceptor).
The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters.
Using what we learned in Chapter 9 "Molecular Geometry and Covalent Bonding Models" about predicting relative bond polarities from the electronegativities of the bonded atoms, we can make educated guesses about the relative boiling points of similar molecules. The ease of deformation of the electron distribution in an atom or molecule is called its polarizabilityThe ease of deformation of the electron distribution in an atom or molecule.. Because each water molecule contains two hydrogen atoms and two lone pairs, a tetrahedral arrangement maximizes the number of hydrogen bonds that can be formed.
In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light. Because the electron distribution is more easily perturbed in large, heavy species than in small, light species, we say that heavier substances tend to be much more polarizable than lighter ones. In the structure of ice, each oxygen atom is surrounded by a distorted tetrahedron of hydrogen atoms that form bridges to the oxygen atoms of adjacent water molecules. Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered.
Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. The bridging hydrogen atoms are not equidistant from the two oxygen atoms they connect, however. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c.
It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography.
In contrast, each oxygen atom is bonded to two H atoms at the shorter distance and two at the longer distance, corresponding to two O–H covalent bonds and two O???H hydrogen bonds from adjacent water molecules, respectively. In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened. The resulting open, cagelike structure of ice means that the solid is actually slightly less dense than the liquid, which explains why ice floats on water rather than sinks. More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype). Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.
Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread.
At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests. Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing.
The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated.
Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras.
Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight.
In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around.


Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning.
Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters.
It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907.
If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains.
Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector.
The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made.
A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory.
The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor.
Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.
In using the resources available to trace family lineage the student will search records both on the World Wide Web, and in historical libraries and archives.
Students will investigate death certificates, wills, Bible records, census records, birth certificates, and other primary records to teach students to identify ancestors in building a lineage line.
Students will be expected to write a family history of a family line through three generations including historical context (who are they, what did they do, where did they live, accomplishments and community connections). A special focus will be placed on students visiting ancestral sites and archives and visiting ancestors to transcribe oral history.
Swansong, 2010.A Module 3 a€“ Introduction to Heraldry An important a€?cousina€? to genealogy is the study of heraldry. The common coat of arms consists of many aspects including helm, wreath, motto, charges, shield and tinctures. Students will write a research paper and complete exercises, which illustrate their learning from the course. Students will study the Billingsley Kinship Theory and its significance in genealogy and how the power of kinship drove migration, settlement patterns, marriage, politics, economics, and religion. Students will also discuss other non-theoretical family studies, which focus on kinship and why they are not considered theoretical works.
What theory is, and what it does for research and knowledge, with its explanatory, predictive and classificatory powers will be addressed. Coat of arms, which are official symbols of a family emblazoned on a shield, were created and signified ancestry and eminence. The people of ancient Greece and Rome often professed divine ancestry while others frequently said their ascendants were members of the animal kingdom. 476 to 1453 due to the evolution of the social system that emerged in Europe during the 8th century, which made social standing and inheritance subject to lineage. In some cases, genealogy is also used to trace the lineage of individuals seeking to gain membership into certain organizations and religious fellowships. Students will become acquainted with different sources of records of American historical land resources. Students will discuss issues encountered in their research on the utilization of land records and write a paper illustrating the use of land and property resources. Court and Immigration Records a€“ 3 creditsThis course will provide the student with Immigration and Migration laws for becoming a US citizen, a source of data for the genealogist The student will develop skills in using immigration records to conduct their genealogical research and obtain knowledge and skills in transcribing court records and reading wills for genealogical research. Eklund)A Module III Methodology of Understanding and Using the Genealogical Proof Standard.
They will learn how to include an accurate citation to the source (s) of each item of information that is used.
They will learn how to analyze and correlate the citation information to evaluate its quality of evidence and resolve any conflicts caused by conflicting items of evidence. Some forty or more foul organizations are pumping out hundreds of counterfeit title holders and knights.
Tunesi of Liongam)A Module VII Heraldry II Teaching the Development and Use of Corporate Heraldry (English ) a€“ 3 credits The use of Heraldry by corporations, both civic and commercial, primarily from the English perspective, from the oldest known English grant of arms to the Drapersa€™ Company of the City of London in 1419 through to the grants made to modern multinational companies, as well as other civic, professional and governmental bodies.
The course will also look at the use of armorial bearings by corporations on buildings, advertising and other media, both traditional and contemporary.
Topics covered include basic DNA concepts, basic genetic concepts, how DNA testing is done, and how genes are mapped. Also discussed are the Human Genome Project and its significance and how genetic information can be used in teaching genealogical research. The Pilgrims settled on the coast of Cape Cod at Plymouth, Massachusetts after a three-month voyage on the Mayflower from England (Urdang, 1996). We will explore family life in England, written from research material, artifacts, wills, census, parish registers and county records.
We will look at the evolution of family life over the centuries, looking at narrative, pictorial, photographic, literary and oral accounts.
The family looked at in depth will be one that can trace its origins in rural and maritime Suffolk from the sixteenth century to the present day, using examples from parish registers. This course will provide the reader with a history of the Crusades from 1095-1261 from the viewpoint of both the Crusaders and the Arabs. It is through reading this history that one is made aware of the true meanings of Arabian and European heraldry and chivalry. Through this course students will have the opportunity to study and interpret from a historical and archaeological perspective various extracts from Biblical texts both from the Old and the New Testaments.
It is not required that students have any prior knowledge of either Hebrew or Greek, although this would be an asset. It is very important that students show an aptitude to study Biblical texts from a critical perspective, especially those extracts that deal specifically with genealogical information. Although the Bible will be the basis for this course, students will have the opportunity to delve into other Near Eastern texts.
Students will focus on Phoenician and Punic inscriptions, which are the only historical records that the Phoenicians have ever written.
Two modules are selected by all students in which students are required to develop a practical project in teaching or in developing a business or project for a genealogical work situation.A Module XV Contemporary Adult Learning Theories- Practical Applications - 3 creditsThis course will explore contemporary adult learning theories that can be applied to the participants teaching genealogy in the changing world of our information society. The emphasis of the course will be an analysis of the contemporary learning theories, models and strategies. Participants will explore the philosophical, historical, and legislative bases of these theories. Participants will learn a wide variety of accepted principles, techniques and theories they can apply to their teaching and presentations in genealogy.
Adult learning theories related to past techniques of learning will be investigated for opinions, interest, and thinking about successful teaching presentations in professional genealogical work. Topics will include, but are not limited to, structural differences in distance learning programs, benefits of online learning ,startup factors, marketing issues, technological issues, future trends, and international education considerations. The student will analyze classic and post modern models of the curriculum development process and learn how to develop a situational analysis, write objectives, explore various modes of organizing the content of a curriculum, identify and apply criteria in selection of methods and develop a curriculum evaluation. Students will be required to write a curriculum for a beginning genealogy program in continuing education for a community college. The course will inform the student on business ethics and legalities, how to manage their business, and help define the type of business the student is interested in operating.
Students will also learn how to develop a mission statement and business plan, bookkeeping, and record keeping.
Students will study types of research methodologies, parts of a research project, how to frame a problem statement and the design of questionnaires, and interviews.
The levels of learning in Blooma€™ s Taxonomy will be addressed.A section will be devoted to Grounded Theory as a generic qualitative methodology and its usefulness in genealogy. Former home of the College of Preceptors, designed by Frederick Pinches, Bloomsbury Square (South side), London WC1.



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