Encourage listening skills 12 months,all states in mega millions lottery,the secret series ella,master of science in counseling psychology programs - Review

Thoughts, tools and references to help you solve the conundrum of optimizing connections in the workplace. Working with teams to improve their performance primarily comes down to helping individuals become more effective team members.
Creates more engaged team mates, as when people feel they have really been heard they are much more engaged with the team overall. Increases accountability, as you can hold each other more accountable since you are clear on your interdependencies and specifics of each other’s contributions.
Signals commitment to the team, as listening more (versus talking more) demonstrates you are focused on team goals rather than on individual recognition. Resolve to become a better team member in the New Year for both your own success and your team’s.
This is a€?Barriers to Effective Listeninga€?, section 5.2 from the book A Primer on Communication Studies (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book.
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Environmental factors such as lighting, temperature, and furniture affect our ability to listen. Physiological noise, like environmental noise, can interfere with our ability to process incoming information.
Aside from the barriers to effective listening that may be present in the environment or emanate from our bodies, cognitive limits, a lack of listening preparation, difficult or disorganized messages, and prejudices can interfere with listening. Our ability to process more information than what comes from one speaker or source creates a barrier to effective listening.
The difference between speech and thought rate connects to personal barriers to listening, as personal concerns are often the focus of competing thoughts that can take us away from listening and challenge our ability to concentrate on othersa€™ messages. Another common barrier to effective listening that stems from the speech and thought rate divide is response preparation.
Media multitasking specifically refers to the use of multiple forms of media at the same time, and it can have positive and negative effects on listening.Fleura Bardhi, Andres J. Media multitasking can also give people a sense of control, as they use multiple technologies to access various points of information to solve a problem or complete a task. What strategies do you or could you use to help minimize the negative effects of media multitasking? Should laptops, smartphones, and other media devices be used by students during college classes?
We exhibit prejudice in our listening in several ways, some of which are more obvious than others.
The previously discussed barriers to effective listening may be difficult to overcome because they are at least partially beyond our control. Conversations unfold as a series of turns, and turn taking is negotiated through a complex set of verbal and nonverbal signals that are consciously and subconsciously received. Unintentional interruptions can still be considered bad listening if they result from mindless communication. EavesdroppingA bad listening practice that involves a planned attempt to secretly listen to a conversation.
Eavesdropping entails intentionally listening in on a conversation that you are not a part of. Aggressive listeningA bad listening practice in which people pay attention in order to attack something a speaker says. Although Summera€™s initial response to Deba€™s idea is seemingly appropriate and positive, she asks the question because she has already planned her upcoming aggressive response. Narcissistic listeningSelf-centered and self-absorbed listening in which listeners try to make the interaction about them.
My boss has been really unfair to me lately and hasna€™t been letting me work around my class schedule.
Narcissistic listeners, given their self-centeredness, may actually fool themselves into thinking that they are listening and actively contributing to a conversation. Environmental and physical barriers to effective listening include furniture placement, environmental noise such as sounds of traffic or people talking, physiological noise such as a sinus headache or hunger, and psychological noise such as stress or anger. Cognitive barriers to effective listening include the difference between speech and thought rate that allows us a€?extra rooma€? to think about other things while someone is talking and limitations in our ability or willingness to concentrate or pay attention.
Interruptions that are unintentional or serve an important or useful purpose are not considered bad listening.
Distorted listening occurs when we incorrectly recall information, skew information to fit our expectations or existing schemata, or add material to embellish or change information. Eavesdropping is a planned attempt to secretly listen to a conversation, which is a violation of the speakersa€™ privacy. Aggressive listening is a bad listening practice in which people pay attention to a speaker in order to attack something they say. Narcissistic listening is self-centered and self-absorbed listening in which listeners try to make the interaction about them by interrupting, changing the subject, or drawing attention away from others. Pseudo-listening is a€?fake listening,a€? in that people behave like they are paying attention and listening when they actually are not.
We are capable of thinking faster than the speed at which the average person speaks, which allows us some room to put mental faculties toward things other than listening.
See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. A room that is too dark can make us sleepy, just as a room that is too warm or cool can raise awareness of our physical discomfort to a point that it is distracting. This is considered a physical barrier to effective listening because it emanates from our physical body. Whether you call it multitasking, daydreaming, glazing over, or drifting off, we all cognitively process other things while receiving messages.
Response preparationOur tendency to rehearse what we are going to say next while a speaker is still talking.
An employee may be able to use her iPad to look up information needed to address a concern raised during a business meeting. Unfortunately, most people have never received any formal training or instruction related to listening. If one listens one may be convinced.a€? Unfortunately, some of our default ways of processing information and perceiving others lead us to rigid ways of thinking.
For example, we may claim to be in a hurry and only selectively address the parts of a message that we agree with or that arena€™t controversial. Physical barriers, cognitive limitations, and perceptual biases exist within all of us, and it is more realistic to believe that we can become more conscious of and lessen them than it is to believe that we can eliminate them altogether. In this sense, conversational turn taking has been likened to a dance where communicators try to avoid stepping on each othera€™s toes.
As wea€™ve already learned, intended meaning is not as important as the meaning that is generated in the interaction itself. Sometimes we just get the order of information wrong, which can have relatively little negative effects if we are casually recounting a story, annoying effects if we forget the order of turns (left, right, left or right, left, right?) in our driving directions, or very negative effects if we recount the events of a crime out of order, which leads to faulty testimony at a criminal trial. People might think another person is talking about them behind their back or that someone is engaged in illegal or unethical behavior.
I think it would be really good to be able to go pick our own tomatoes and peppers and cilantro to make homemade salsa. Summera€™s aggression toward Deb isna€™t about a salsa garden; ita€™s about a building frustration with what Summer perceives as Deba€™s lack of follow-through on her ideas. We all have the urge to share our own stories during interactions, because other peoplea€™s communication triggers our own memories about related experiences. When interrupting becomes a habit or is used in an attempt to dominate a conversation, then it is a barrier to effective listening. The lack of qualified teachers may lead to the failure of the national English teaching program.Retraining cannot helpMore than 180 English teachers from secondary schools and 32 high school teachers have been summoned by the HCM City Education and Training Department.
Achieving peak performance as a team has many dimensions, but a foundational element is effective listening. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (291 MB) or just this chapter (12 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline).
At the interpreting stage, complex or abstract information may be difficult to relate to previous experiences, making it difficult to reach understanding. If you think of your listening mind as a wall of ten televisions, you may notice that in some situations five of the ten televisions are tuned into one channel. This gap between speech rate and thought rate gives us an opportunity to side-process any number of thoughts that can be distracting from a more important message. The negative effects of media multitasking have received much attention in recent years, as people question the decreasing attention span within our society. She could then e-mail that link to the presenter, who could share it with the room through his laptop and a LCD projector.
Although many of us like to think that wea€™re good multitaskers, some research indicates otherwise. What restrictions or guidelines for use could instructors provide that would capitalize on the presence of such media to enhance student learning and help minimize distractions?
Although some people think listening skills just develop over time, competent listening is difficult, and enhancing listening skills takes concerted effort.
In terms of message construction, poorly structured messages or messages that are too vague, too jargon filled, or too simple can present listening difficulties. When we engage in prejudiced listening, we are usually trying to preserve our ways of thinking and avoid being convinced of something different.


We can also operate from a state of denial where we avoid a subject or person altogether so that our views are not challenged. Other a€?bad listeninga€? practices may be habitual, but they are easier to address with some concerted effort.
One of the most frequent glitches in the turn-taking process is interruption, but not all interruptions are considered a€?bad listening.a€? An interruption could be unintentional if we misread cues and think a person is done speaking only to have him or her start up again at the same time we do. So if you interrupt unintentionally, but because you were only half-listening, then the interruption is still evidence of bad listening.
Rationalization is another form of distorted listening through which we adapt, edit, or skew incoming information to fit our existing schemata. Aggressive listeners like to ambush speakers in order to critique their ideas, personality, or other characteristics. Aside from engaging in aggressive listening because of built-up frustration, such listeners may also attack othersa€™ ideas or mock their feelings because of their own low self-esteem and insecurities. Narcissistic listeners redirect the focus of the conversation to them by interrupting or changing the topic. It is generally more competent to withhold sharing our stories until the other person has been able to speak and we have given the appropriate support and response.
Pseudo-listeningBehaving as if youa€™re paying attention to a speaker when youa€™re actually not. These are individuals who fail to grasp the right facts because they do not pay attention.Listening is very important and people need to understand the significance of listening and work on improving these skills. At the recalling stage, natural limits to our memory and challenges to concentration can interfere with remembering. In general, listening is easier when listeners can make direct eye contact with and are in close physical proximity to a speaker. If that one channel is a lecture being given by your professor, then you are exerting about half of your cognitive processing abilities on one message. Because of this gap, it is impossible to give one message our a€?undivided attention,a€? but we can occupy other channels in our minds with thoughts related to the central message. Media multitasking may promote inefficiency, because it can lead to distractions and plays a prominent role for many in procrastination. For example, student laptop use during class has been connected to lower academic performance.Carrie B.
Even when listening education is available, people do not embrace it as readily as they do opportunities to enhance their speaking skills. Prejudices that are based on a persona€™s identity, such as race, age, occupation, or appearance, may lead us to assume that we know what he or she will say, essentially closing down the listening process.
These bad listening practices include interrupting, distorted listening, eavesdropping, aggressive listening, narcissistic listening, and pseudo-listening.
The speaker may form a negative impression of you that cana€™t just be erased by you noting that you didna€™t a€?mean to interrupt.a€? Interruptions can also be used as an attempt to dominate a conversation. Many if not most of the interactions we have throughout the day occur in the presence of other people.
In any case, this type of listening is considered bad because it is a violation of peoplea€™s privacy. Such behavior often results from built-up frustration within an interpersonal relationship. When the focus is taken off them, narcissistic listeners may give negative feedback by pouting, providing negative criticism of the speaker or topic, or ignoring the speaker. But we all shift the focus of a conversation back to us occasionally, either because we dona€™t know another way to respond or because we are making an attempt at empathy.
Meanwhile, it is very difficult for the teachers in rural areas to practice English everyday because the conditions in the localities are not good enough. At the evaluating stage, personal biases and prejudices can lead us to block people out or assume we know what they are going to say. You may recall from Chapter 4 "Nonverbal Communication" that when group members are allowed to choose a leader, they often choose the person who is sitting at the center or head of the table.Peter A. Ailments such as a cold, a broken leg, a headache, or a poison ivy outbreak can range from annoying to unbearably painful and impact our listening relative to their intensity.
For example, using some of your extra cognitive processing abilities to repeat, rephrase, or reorganize messages coming from one source allows you to use that extra capacity in a way that reinforces the primary message.
For example, when our self-consciousness is raised, we may be too busy thinking about how we look, how wea€™re sitting, or what others think of us to be attentive to an incoming message.
Rehearsal becomes problematic when response preparation begins as someone is receiving a message and hasna€™t had time to engage in interpretation or recall.
If you answered a€?yesa€? to most of them, then you are in line with the general practices of the a€?net generationa€? of digital natives for whom multitasking, especially with various forms of media, is a way of life.
The numerous options for media engagement that we have can also lead to a feeling of chaos as our attention is pulled in multiple directions, creating a general sense of disorder. The links to videos and online articles that Ia€™ve included in this textbook allow readers like you to quickly access additional information about a particular subject to prepare for a presentation or complete a paper assignment.
Fried, a€?In-Class Laptop Use and Its Effects on Student Learning,a€? Computers and Education 50 (2008): 906a€“14.
After teaching communication courses for several years, I have consistently found that students and teachers approach the listening part of the course less enthusiastically than some of the other parts.
Keeping an open mind and engaging in perception checking can help us identify prejudiced listening and hopefully shift into more competent listening practices. Back-channel cues like a€?uh-huh,a€? as we learned earlier, also overlap with a speakera€™s message. A person engaging in this type of interruption may lead the other communicator to try to assert dominance, too, resulting in a competition to see who can hold the floor the longest or the most often.
If a professor is explaining to a student why he earned a a€?Da€? on his final paper, the student could reattribute the cause from a€?I didna€™t follow the paper guidelinesa€? to a€?this professor is an unfair grader.a€? Sometimes we actually change the words we hear to make them better fit what we are thinking.
However, given that our perceptual fields are usually focused on the interaction, we are often unaware of the other people around us or dona€™t think about the fact that they could be listening in on our conversation.
Consequences for eavesdropping may include an angry reaction if caught, damage to interpersonal relationships, or being perceived as dishonest and sneaky. Unfortunately, the more two people know each other, the better they will be at aggressive listening. A common sign of narcissistic listening is the combination of a a€?pivot,a€? when listeners shift the focus of attention back to them, and a€?one-upping,a€? when listeners try to top what previous speakers have said during the interaction.
Outwardly visible signals of attentiveness are an important part of the listening process, but when they are just an a€?act,a€? the pseudo-listener is engaging in bad listening behaviors.
In many cases, teachers don’t have time to attend training courses or practice themselves because they have too many teaching hours at school.Dr.
Pay Attention to What Others Say:A There are many individuals who fail to focus on what someone is saying. At the responding stage, a lack of paraphrasing and questioning skills can lead to misunderstanding. Another type of noise, psychological noise, bridges physical and cognitive barriers to effective listening. The fact that we have the capability to process more than one thing at a time offers some advantages and disadvantages.
Additionally, we are often challenged when presented with messages that we do not find personally relevant. In this sense, we are listening with the goal of responding instead of with the goal of understanding, which can lead us to miss important information that could influence our response.
Multitasking is a concept that has been around for a while and emerged along with the increasing expectation that we will fill multiple role demands throughout the day. And many of us feel a sense of enslavement when we engage in media multitasking, as we feel like we cana€™t live without certain personal media outlets.
This is because media multitasking has the potential to interfere with listening at multiple stages of the process.
Listening is often viewed as an annoyance or a chore, or just ignored or minimized as part of the communication process.
Chapter 9 "Preparing a Speech" also discusses many strategies for creating messages tailored for oral delivery, including things like preview and review statements, transitions, and parallel wording.
More than likely, though, the speaker will form a negative impression of the interrupter and may withdraw from the conversation.
This can easily happen if we join a conversation late, overhear part of a conversation, or are being a lazy listener and miss important setup and context. We usually only become aware of the fact that other people could be listening in when wea€™re discussing something private. Additionally, eavesdropping may lead people to find out information that is personally upsetting or hurtful, especially if the point of the eavesdropping is to find out what people are saying behind their back. She or he is not actually going through the stages of the listening process and will likely not be able to recall the speakera€™s message or offer a competent and relevant response. Phan Van Hoa, President of the Da Nang Foreign Language University, also complained that a lot of problems have arisen during the retraining process.
They are often restless and distracted individuals who fail to focus their complete attention on one thing. In the following section, we will explore how environmental and physical factors, cognitive and personal factors, and bad listening practices present barriers to effective listening. Even though the person may not have demonstrated any leadership abilities, people subconsciously gravitate toward speakers that are nonverbally accessible.
Psychological noiseNoise stemming from our psychological states, including moods and level of arousal, that can impede listening., or noise stemming from our psychological states including moods and level of arousal, can facilitate or impede listening. But unless we can better understand how our cognitive capacities and personal preferences affect our listening, we are likely to experience more barriers than benefits. In general, we employ selective attentionOur tendency to pay attention to the messages that benefit us in some way and filter others out., which refers to our tendency to pay attention to the messages that benefit us in some way and filter others out.
Multitasking can be pretty straightforward and beneficiala€”for example, if we listen to motivating music while working out.
Aside from just reading material in a textbook, students can now access information through an authora€™s blog or Twitter account.


The study showed that laptop use interfered with receiving, as students using them reported that they paid less attention to the class lectures.
In addition, our individualistic society values speaking more than listening, as ita€™s the speakers who are sometimes literally in the spotlight. All these interruptions are not typically thought of as evidence of bad listening unless they become distracting for the speaker or are unnecessary. As wea€™ll learn later, matching stories isna€™t considered empathetic listening, but occasionally doing it doesna€™t make you a narcissistic listener. Although it is a bad listening practice, we all understandably engage in pseudo-listening from time to time. The refresher courses prove to be helpless to the old teachers who have bad basic knowledge. Paying complete attention to what you hear is the first step to effective listening.There could be many reasons for distractions. The ability to effectively see and hear a person increases peoplea€™s confidence in their abilities to receive and process information.
Any mood or state of arousal, positive or negative, that is too far above or below our regular baseline creates a barrier to message reception and processing. But multitasking can be very inefficient, especially when one or more of our concurrent tasks are complex or unfamiliar to us.Fleura Bardhi, Andres J. This is because students used the laptops for purposes other than taking notes or exploring class content. Although listening competence is a crucial part of social interaction and many of us value others we perceive to be a€?good listeners,a€? listening just doesna€™t get the same kind of praise, attention, instruction, or credibility as speaking.
Information overload is a common barrier to effective listening that good speakers can help mitigate by building redundancy into their speeches and providing concrete examples of new information to help audience members interpret and understand the key ideas. Last, the addition of material to a message is a type of distorted listening that actually goes against our normal pattern of listening, which involves reducing the amount of information and losing some meaning as we take it in. If a friend needs someone to talk but youa€™re really tired or experiencing some other barrier to effective listening, it may be worth engaging in pseudo-listening as a relational maintenance strategy, especially if the friend just needs a sounding board and isna€™t expecting advice or guidance. A lot of them were initially trained as Russian teachers, but have been working as English teachers.
The generally positive emotional state of being in love can be just as much of a barrier as feeling hatred.
Of the students using laptops, 81 percent checked e-mail during lectures, 68 percent used instant messaging, and 43 percent surfed the web. The metaphor of a€?weaving a tall talea€? is related to the practice of distorting through addition, as inaccurate or fabricated information is added to what was actually heard. We may also pseudo-listen to a romantic partner or grandfathera€™s story for the fifteenth time to prevent hurting their feelings.
The teachers are now under a hard pressure as they fear they would be dismissed if they cannot meet the B1 standard after the retraining.Doan Thi Minh Cong, Deputy Director of the Hai Duong provincial Education and Training Department, noted that English teachers are worst at listening and speaking. If you are working in an office, make sure you create the perfect ambience for all the important discussions. As we learned in Chapter 1 "Introduction to Communication Studies", environmental noises such as a whirring air conditioner, barking dogs, or a ringing fire alarm can obviously interfere with listening despite direct lines of sight and well-placed furniture. Students using laptops also had difficulty with the interpretation stage of listening, as they found less clarity in the parts of the lecture they heard and did not understand the course material as much as students who didna€™t use a laptop. So unless you plan on taking more communication courses in the future (and I hope you do), this chapter may be the only instruction you receive on the basics of the listening process, some barriers to effective listening, and how we can increase our listening competence. We should avoid pseudo-listening when possible and should definitely avoid making it a listening habit.
A lot of teachers are very good at grammar, but cannot communicate with foreigners.“During the lessons, teachers ask students to read texts and then explain grammar rules.
Stress about an upcoming events ranging from losing a job, to having surgery, to wondering about what to eat for lunch can overshadow incoming messages. The difficulties with receiving and interpreting obviously create issues with recall that can lead to lower academic performance in the class. An excellent example of the result of distorted listening is provided by the character Anthony Crispino on Saturday Night Live, who passes along distorted news on the a€?Weekend Updatea€? segment.
Although we may get away with it in some situations, each time we risk being a€?found out,a€? which could have negative relational consequences.
While we will explore cognitive barriers to effective listening more in the next section, psychological noise is relevant here given that the body and mind are not completely separate.
In past episodes, he has noted that Lebron James turned down the Cleveland Show to be on Miami Vice (instead of left the Cleveland Cavaliers to play basketball for the Miami Heat) and that President Obama planned on repealing the a€?Bush haircutsa€? (instead of the Bush tax cuts). Therefore, when communicating with foreigners, they can only mumble some simple words,” she said.The “finish” still far awayEnglish teachers admitted that they are bad at listening and speaking for many reasons.
Always Listen, Do Not Assume:A Most of us have a fake feeling that we can predict what other people think when we know them pretty well. These students reported that they were distracted, as their attention was drawn to the laptop screens of other students.
A primary school teacher in Da Nang City said the current curriculums are designed in a way which does not focus on the listening and speaking skills. Fatigue, for example, is usually a combination of psychological and physiological stresses that manifests as stress (psychological noise) and weakness, sleepiness, and tiredness (physiological noise).
You must always listen completely to what others speak before running into any conclusion.Listening attentively may help you come across some facts that you may have never expected or known. Additionally, mental anxiety (psychological noise) can also manifest itself in our bodies through trembling, sweating, blushing, or even breaking out in rashes (physiological noise).
It is through active listening that knowledge grows and you must always leave scope for such knowledge.3.
Do Not Neglect Anyone Regarding Them To Lack Knowledge:A A common mistake most of us make is judge people after a few meetings. This feeling of superiority complex is one big obstacle in proper listening.On the contrary, if you regard everyone neutrally keeping an unbiased open mind, you will be able to listen and understand what the person wishes to communicate. It is vital in most important professions that you possess good listening skills so you need to harness these skills.4. In such a situation, it is really impossible to listen effectively.It is thus necessary that you keep your mind stress free when you are heading for important meetings or group discussions.
Avoid Conversation When Overworked or Stressed:A There are occasions when a bit of meditation or Yoga does not help you de-stress.
In such situations, when you know you cannot do justice to the conversation, it is best to avoid or postpone such meetings, seminars or group discussions. This is because, when you are overstressed and unable to listen properly, you would simply be wasting time without helping any good from happening.6. Try To Develop Interest When Uninteresting Topics Are Discussed:A Lack of interest is another deterrent.
One must always have interest in the topic that is being discussed to be able to contribute effectively. People who lack patience fail to listen to all the details and often miss out on some vital information.
On the contrary,patient listeners gain vital knowledge that helps them in their career and growth.7. Stay Equipped with Knowledge on All Subjects and topics:A Very often, lack of interest is a result of lack of knowledge. If that is the case, you need to gather relevant knowledge to be able to contribute in vital conversations.
Once you possess knowledge, you can contribute effectively and listen patiently when the same or related topics are being discussed. Get Acquainted To Different Accents:A The accent or the tone of the speaker also decides how much you can actually grasp from the conversation. The listeners really have to strain their ears and struggle to comprehend what the speaker has been speaking.Poor speakers pose a real challenge to the listeners.
Concentrate on Gesture To Get A Better Idea of the Subject:A The knowledge of body language is often of help even in situations when you do not know the accent or the tone of the speaker. Body language often reveals the true motive or the intent of the speaker and reveals certain facts about the speaker even when he doesna€™t wish to.A drooping posture often reveals that the speaker lacks confidence.
An extremely erect posture and fast speech reveals that the person has prepared or mugged for the performance.
Even without understanding what the person is speaking, you can actually make out these facts if you have knowledge regarding body language and kinesics.If you are basically a poor listener, you can actually work to improve your listening skills. Practice Listening and Comprehending:A You may start off by practicing listening skills at home. You may grade your skills from 1 to 10 based on how much you are able to recollect or remember. You may even seek the assistance of a friend to evaluate your listening skills and grade you accordingly.11. Take Lessons on Kinesics:A The significance of kinesics and the way in which it ensures to help communication even with strangers or in foreign countries makes is inevitable. If you wish to prosper in your career, you need to take a few extra lessons on kinesics.Try to understand what different gestures, postures and tones mean. If you lead a huge team and take up huge responsibilities in your firm, your listening abilities will help you to fulfil your responsibilities well.
Try to relate their expressions with their emotions and see how well you gauge what is going on in their minds.12. Find Easy Means to Destress During a Working Day:A You can work efficiently or put in your best at studies only if you are attentive. There is no harm in depending on these occasionally but if you make it a habit, it may turn addictive.Proper listening practice and an ardent desire to learn will help you grasp most from all conversations and important discussions.
Being a graduate in mechanical engineering and post graduate in journalism, she wishes to try a hand at technical writing someday.




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encourage listening skills 12 months



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