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A product that improves mine safety recently won its creator, Professor Yves Potvin of The University of Western Australia, the 2008 Inventor of the Year Award in the Ready for Market Category. The Diamec MCR (Mobile Carrier Rig) was developed together with Australian drilling contractor Barminco, to meet increased demands for higher flexibility in underground core drilling. As the new rig can move by itself, the exploration driller no longer needs to use the mining operations’ equipment for support when moving the Diamec. The flexibility and easiness to move make the Diamec MCR especially well suited for drilling of medium-depth holes in underground mines, typically ore definition drilling, where the need to move around is greater.
With a 1.8 m feed frame, the Diamec MCR maintains the high productivity figures achieved by standard Diamec core drilling rigs.
VANCOUVER, Canada - January 19, 2009 - Gemcom Software International Inc., the largest global supplier of specialised mining productivity solutions, today announced that it has acquired the business of Australian-based TeamTech. TeamTech software and services are complementary to Gemcom InSite, Gemcom's mine performance management solution. When mining companies seek to increase mine productivity, they turn to Gemcom for technology and services. Gemcom, the Gemcom logo and combinations thereof, are trademarks of Gemcom Software International Inc.
GEMS, Surpac, Minex, Whittle, MineSched, PCBC, Gemcom InSite, are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Gemcom Software International Inc.
From the 22nd to the 25th February 2009, Denver will play host to the 2009 SME Annual Meeting and Exhibit. Combining powerful hardware and software with HP-GPS navigation and distributed database architecture, which replicates site-wide in real time, Jigsaw360 is the latest product offering from Leica Geosystems and was co-created with Jigsaw Technologies [Jigsaw Technologies was acquired by Leica Geosystems in 2007]. Scalable to suit the size and needs of any mine site (from single mining operations through to large global corporations), the Jigsaw360 Mine Management Solution can be installed incrementally; thus enabling sites to replace outdated technologies without costly downtime. Be one of the first to see and experience these revolutionary developments by visiting booth 410, where Leica Geosystems' US Sales Manager (Tim Jones) will be readily available to answer any questions. State-of-the-art real-time analysis and reporting software gives entire sites the tools that they need to stay on top by efficiently controlling resources and equipment. Backed up by a reliable global service and support network, Leica Geosystems helps you master your mine. SME's Annual Meeting is an opportunity to develop and sharpen your professional skills and knowledge. On January 23, The Doe Run Co announced that all eight of its air monitors near the company’s Herculaneum, Missouri, USA, smelter, successfully met the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for lead during the fourth quarter of 2008. UC RUSAL, the world’s largest aluminium and alumina producer, has completed the conversion of one potroom at its Krasnoyarsk Aluminium Smelter (KrAZ) to the colloidal anode paste technology and says “the economic effect from this innovation at one potroom alone can be up to $1 million annually.” Using colloidal anode paste is one of the key parameters for the development of the ‘clean’ Soederberg cell.
East Asia Minerals (EAS) believes that the changes proposed under the new Indonesian Mineral and Coal Mining Law are largely positive for the company and considers that Indonesia’s new mining law is a globally competitive framework within which to operate.
Communication is the process of establishing connection or link between two points for information exchange. Information Source: Information source consist of original baseband signal or voice or message signal which have to transmitted.
Transmitter: The function of the transmitter is to process the electrical signal from different aspects. Channel: The function of the channel is to provide a physical connection between the transmitter and the receiver. Receiver: The main function of the receiver is to reproduce the message signal in electrical form from the distorted received signal.
Baseband Signal: The message signal generated from the information source is known as baseband signal. Destination is the final stage which is used to convert an electrical message signal into its original form.
Inter Symbol Interference (lSI) is the major problem associated with the baseband transmission.
Random process is natural extension of the concept of random variable when dealing with signals. Auto Correlation Function: This represents the relation of a function with its shifted version. Stationary Process: A process whose statistical properties are independent of choice of time origin is called as stationary process. Rxx(t1t2) depends only on the time difference ? = (t1 – t2) and not on t1 and t2 individually. If mx(t) and Rxx (t + ?, t) are periodic with period t, then process is called as cyclostationary process.
Fourier transform of Rxx(?) gives power spectral density for power signal and energy spectral density for energy signal. Modulation may be defined as the process by which some characteristics of a signal called carrier is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of another signal called modulating signal. Types of Modulation: When the carrier wave is continuous in nature, the modulation process is known as Continuous Wave (CW) modulation or analog modulation. Amplitude modulation may be defined as a system in which the maximum amplitude of the carrier wave is made proportional to the instantaneous value (amplitude) of the modulating or baseband signal. Concept of Negative Frequency: The negative frequency appeared in spectrum is due to the exponential representation of Fourier transform. The bandwidth of the amplitude modulated was is twice the highest frequency present in the baseband or modulating signal. The modulating or baseband signal x(t) contains the information or intelligence to be transmitted. In the process of amplitude modulation, the frequency and phase of the carrier remain constant whereas the maximum amplitude varies according to the instantaneous value of the information signal. Modulation Index: In AM system, the modulation index is defined as the measure of extent of amplitude variation about an unmodulated maximum carrier. If ? > 1or the percentage modulation is greater than 100, the baseband signal is not preserved in the envelope. Power Relation in AM Wave: The total power PAM of the AM wave is the sum of the carrier power Pc and sideband power Ps. Transmission Efficiency: In AM wave, transmission efficiency may be defined as the percentage of total power contributed by the sidebands. In AM, it is generally more convenient to measure the AM transmitter current than the power. The modulation index may be calculated from the values of unmodulated and modulated currents in the AM transmitter. Generation of AM: The device which is used to generate an amplitude modulated (AM) wave is known as amplitude modulator. The process of extracting a modulating or baseband signal from the modulated signal is called demodulation or detection.
Square Law Detector: A low-level amplitude modulated signal can only be detected by using square law detectors in which a device operating in the non-linear region is used to detect the modulating signal.
Envelope Detector: AM signal with large carrier are detected by using the envelope detector. If the time constant RC is quite low, which results in large fluctuations in a output voltage. Whereas, if the time constant RC is very large, then misses several peaks of the rectified output voltage during negative peaks.
Balanced Modulator: A balanced modulator may be defined as a circuit in which two non-linear devices are connected in a balanced mode to produce a DSBSC signal. Ring Modulator: Ring modulator is another product modulator, which is used to generate DSBSC signal. Note: A small amount of carrier signal known as pilot carrier is transmitted along with the modulated signal from the transmitter. Furthermore, it is quite easier to generate conventional AM signals at high power levels as compared to DSBSC and SSB signals. For this reason, conventional AM systems are used for broadcasting purpose. The advantage of DSBSC and SSB systems over conventional AM system is that the former requires lesser power to transmit the same information. When there is vestige or relaxed in one of the sideband in DSBSC signal then this is called VSB modulation technique. Envelope detector can also be used to recover message by passing received VSB signal through it.
SSB scheme needs only one-half of the bandwidth required in DSBSC system and less than that required in VSB also. A device that performs the frequency translation of a modulated signal is known as a frequency mixer.
Angle modulation may be defined as the process in which the total phase angle of a carrier wave is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating or message signal while keeping the amplitude of the carrier constant.
Frequency Modulation (FM): FM is that type of angle modulation in which the instantaneous frequency ?i is varied linearly with a message or baseband signal x(t) about an unmodulated frequency ?c.
By passing message through a differentiator, then through a FM modulator we get PM modulated signal.
The maximum change in instantaneous frequency from the average frequency ?c is called frequency deviation which depends upon the magnitude and sign of kf m(t).
Carrier Swing: The total variation in frequency from the lowest to the highest point is called carrier swing. The amount of frequency deviation or variation depends upon the amplitude (loudness) of the modulating (audio) signal. Modulation Index: For FM, the modulation index is defined as the ratio of frequency deviation to the modulating frequency.
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Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. Today we are covering the study material on Data communication and Networking, that will help you succeed in the upcoming IBPS (SO) Exam 2016. Computer Networks means interconnected set of autonomous system that permit distributed processing to information. LAN is privately owned network within a single building or campus.A local area network is relatively smaller and privately owned network with the maximum span of 10 km. MAN is defined for less than 50 Km and provides regional connectivity within a campus or small geographical area. An example of MAN is cable television network in city. A MAN can be owned by a private company or it may be a service provided by a public company such as local telephone company. A wide Area Network (WAN) is a group Communication Technology ,provides no limit of distance. Network topology is the arrangement of the various elements of a computer or biological network.
Star Topology: Each node has a dedicated set of wires connecting it to a central network hub. In bus topology at the first, the message will go through the bus then one user can communicate with other.
In star topology, first the message will go to the hub then that message will go to other user. Tree Topology: In this type of network topology, in which a central root is connected to two or more nodes that are one level lower in hierarchy.
Bridges: When the size of the LAN is difficult to manage, it is necessary to breakup the network. Extended ASCII: To make the size of each pattern 1 byte (8 bits), the ASCII bit patterns are augmented with an extra 0 at the left.
Unicode: To represent symbols belonging to languages other than English, a code with much greater capacity is needed.
ISO: The international organization for standardization known as ISO has designed a code using a 32-bit pattern. Video: Video can be produced either a continuous entity or it can be a combination of images. The Open System Interconnection (OSI) model is a reference tool for understanding data communication between any two networked systems. Physical Layer: The physical layer coordinates the functions required to transmit a bit stream over a physical medium. Data Link Layer: The data link layer transforms the physical layer, a raw transmission facility, to a reliable link and is responsible for Node-to-Node delivery. Network Layer: Network layer is responsible for source to destination delivery of a packet possibly across multiple networks (links). Transport Layer: The transport layer is responsible for- source to destination (end-to-end) delivery of the entire message. Presentation Layer: This layer is responsible for how an application formats data to be sent out onto the network.
Application Layer: This layer enables the user, whether human or software, to access the network.
It is basically a LAN technology which strikes a good balance between speed, cost and ease of installation.
Ethernet networks are passive, which means Ethernet hubs do not reprocess or alter the signal sent by the attached devices.
The IEEE 802.3 standard defines Ethernet protocols for (Open Systems Interconnect) OSI’s Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer and physical layer network characteristics.
Ethernet refers to the family of local area network (LAN) implementations that include three principal categories. 100-Mbps Ethernet: A single LAN specification, also known as Fast Ethernet, which operates at 100 Mbps over twisted-pair cable.
1000-Mbps Ethernet: A single LAN specification, also known as Gigabit Ethernet, that operates at 1000 Mbps (1 Gbps) over fiber and twisted-pair cables.
Many factors including line noise can alter or wipe out one or more bits of a given data unit.
Error detection and correction are implemented either at the data link layer or the transport layer of the OSI model. Error detection uses the concept of redundancy, which means adding extra bits for detecting errors at the destination. In this technique, a redundant bit, called parity bit, is appended to every data unit, so that the total number of 1’s in the unit (including the parity bit) becomes even. There are two algorithms involved in this process, checksum generator at sender end and checksum checker at receiver end.
Error Correction: Error correction in data link layer is implemented simply anytime, an error is detected in an exchange, a negative acknowledgement NAK is returned and the specified frames are retransmitted. If an error is discovered in a data frame, indicating that it has been corrupted in transit, a NAK frame is returned.
Sliding Window ARQ: To cover retransmission of lost or damaged frames, three features are added to the basic flow control mechanism of sliding window. The sending device keeps copies of all transmitted frames, until they have been acknowledged. In addition to ACK frames, the receiver has the option of returning a NAK frame, if the data have been received damaged.
Like stop and wait ARQ, the sending device in sliding window ARQ is equipped with a timer to enable it to handle lost acknowledgements. Go-back-n ARQ: In this method, if one frame is lost or damaged all frames sent, since the last frame acknowledged are retransmitted. Selective Reject ARQ: In this method, only specific damaged or lost frame is retransmitted. Stop and Wait: In this method, the sender waits for an acknowledgement after every frame it sends. We can have two ways to manage data transmission, when a fast sender wants to transmit data to a low speed receiver. The time spent for waiting ACKs between each frame can add significant amount to the total transmission time. Sliding Window: In this method, the sender can transmit several frames before needing an acknowledgement.
The frames in the window are numbered modulo-n, which means they are numbered from 0 to n -1.
In other words, the window can’t cover the whole module (8 frames) it covers one frame less that is 7.

When the receiver sends an ACK, it includes the number of the next frame it expects to receive.
Whenever, we have multiple devices we have a problem of how to connect them to make one-to-one communication possible.
Install a point-to-point connection between each pair of devices (Impractical and wasteful approach when applied to very large network).
Circuit Switching: It creates a direct physical connection between two devices such as phones or computers. A circuit switched link creates the equivalent of a single cable between two devices and thereby assumes a single data rate for both devices. Once a circuit has been established, that circuit is the path taken by all parts of the transmission, whether or not it remains the most efficient or available. In a packet switched network, data are transmitted in discrete units of potentially variable length blocks called packets. Virtual Circuit Approach: The relationship between all packets belonging to a message or session is preserved.
Store and forward is considered a switching technique because there is no direct link between the sender and receiver of a transmission.
In message switching, the massages are stored and relayed from secondary storage (disk), while in packet switching the packets are stored and forwarded from primary storage (RAM). Internet Protocol: It is a set of technical rules that defines how computers communicate over a network. IPv4: It is the first version of Internet Protocol to be widely used, and accounts for most of today’s Internet traffic. There are currently five different field length pattern in use, each defining a class of address. To reach a host on the Internet, we must first reach the network, using the first portion of the address (Net ID). Masks without Sub netting: To be compatible, routers use mask even, if there is no subneting. Boundary Level Masking: If the masking is at the boundary level (the mask numbers are either 255 or 0), finding the subnetwork address is very easy. The bytes in IP address that correspond to 255 in the mask will be repeated in the subnetwork address. The bytes in IP address that correspond to 0 in the mask will change to 0 in the subnetwork address. The bytes in the IP address that correspond to 0 in the mask will be change to 0 in the subnetwork address.
Routers operate primarily by examining incoming data for its network routing and transport information. Based on complex, internal tables of network information that it compiles, a router then determines whether or not it knows how to forward the data packet towards its destination.
Routers can be programmed to prevent information from being sent to or received from certain networks or computers based on all or part of their network routing addresses. Routers also determine some possible routes to the destination network and then choose the one that promises to be the fastest.
This protocol allows a host to discover its Internet address when it known only its physical address. The ICMP is a mechanism used by hosts and routers to send notifications of datagram problems back to the sender. In addition to the physical addresses that identify individual devices, the Internet requires an additional addressing connection an address that identifies the connection of a host of its network.
A firewall is a device that prevents unauthorized electronic access to your entire network. The term firewall is generic, and includes many different kinds of protective hardware and software devices.
Most firewalls operate by examining incoming or outgoing packets for information at OSI level 3, the network addressing level. Packet-screening firewalls examine incoming and outgoing packets for their network address information. Proxy servers (also called application-level gateways) operate by examining incoming or outgoing packets not only for their source or destination addresses but also for information carried within the data area (as opposed to the address area) of each network packet.
PSH: PUSH Flag, Notification from sender to the receiver that the receiver should pass all data that it has to the application.
Each machine supporting TCP has a TCP transport entity either a library procedure, a user process or port of kernel. When a socket is created, the program has to specify the address domain and the socket type. Two processes can communicate with each other only if their sockets are of the same type and in the same domain. There are two widely used address domains, the unix domain, in which two processes which share a common file system communicate, and the Internet domain, in which two processes running on any two hosts on the Internet communicate.
The address of a socket in the Unix domain is a character string which is basically an entry in the file system.
The address of a socket in the Internet domain consists of the Internet address of the host machine (every computer on the Internet has a unique 32 bit address, often referred to as its IP address). Stream sockets treat communications as a continuous stream of characters, while datagram sockets have to read entire messages at once. Datagrams are unreliable, which means that if a packet of information gets lost somewhere in the Internet, the sender is not told (and of course the receiver does not know about the existence of the message). The communication is done using special system calls sendto() and receivefrom() rather than the more generic read() and write().
There is a lot less overhead associated with a datagram socket because connections do not need to be established and broken down, and packets do not need to be acknowledged. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol): One of the most popular network service is electronic mail (e-mail).
TELNET (Terminal Network): TELNET is client-server application that allows a user to log onto remote machine and lets the user to access any application program on a remote computer.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME): It is an extension of SMTP that allows the transfer of multimedia messages. POP (Post Office Protocol): This is a protocol used by a mail server in conjunction with SMTP to receive and holds mail for hosts.
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol): This is a protocol used mainly to access data on the World Wide Web (www), a respository of information spread all over the world and linked together. Generic Domain: The generic domain defines registered hosts according, to their generic behaviour.
Network Security: As millions of ordinary citizens are using networks for banking, shopping, and filling their tax returns, network security is looming on the horizon as a potentially massive problem. Authentication: deal with determining whom you are talking to before revealing sensitive information or entering into a business deal.
Integrity control: how can you be sure that a message you received was really the one sent and not something that a malicious adversary modified in transit or concocted? Specify a protocol enabling the principles to use the transformation and secret information for security service.
It is a science of converting a stream of text into coded form in such a way that only the sender and receiver of the coded text can decode the text.
Symmetric key algorithms are a class of algorithms to cryptography that use the same cryptographic key for both encryption of plaintext and decryption of ciphertext.
Hence, does not protect sender form receiver forging a message and claiming is sent by user.
Public Key: A public key, which may be known by anybody and can be used to encrypt messages and verify signatures. Private Key: A private key, known only to the recipient, used to decrypt messages and sign (create) signatures. Bob encrypts a plaintext message using Alice’s public key using encryption algorithm and sends it over communication channel. On the receiving end side, only Alice can decrypt this text as she only is having Alice’s private key.
In cryptography, a Message Authentication Code (MAC) is a short piece of information used to authenticate a message and to provide integrity and authenticity assurance on the message.
A keyed function of a message sender of a message m computers MAC (m) and appends it to the message.
Security of MAC: An attacker should not be able to generate a valid (m, MAC (m)), even after seeing many valid messages MAC pairs, possible of his choice.
Depends on 4 functions: Expansion E, XOR with round key, S-box substitution, and Permutation. DES results in a permutation among the 264 possible arrangements of 64 bits, each of which may be either 0 or 1. DES is a block cipher–meaning it operates on plaintext blocks of a given size (64-bits) and returns cipher text blocks of the same size. Authentication: It is the technique by which a process verifies that its communication partner is who it is supposed to be and not an imposter.
An initiating user A (for Alice) wants to establish a secure connection with a second user B (for Bob).
Starts out by sending a message either to, or to a trusted key distribution center (KDC), which is always honest. As these message are being sent, a nasty intruder, T (for Trudy), may intercept, modify, or replay them in order to trick and When the protocol has been completed, is sure she is talking to and is sure he is talking to. In practice, for performance reasons, all data traffic is encrypted using secret-key cryptography, although public-key cryptography is widely used for the authentication protocols themselves and for establishing the (secret) session key. This protocol is based on a principle found in many (challenge-response) authentication protocols: one party sends a random number to the other, who then transforms it in a special way and then returns the result.
Have the initiator and responder use different keys for proof, even if this means having two shared keys, and. Secret-key Signatures: Assume there is a central authority, Big Brother (BB), that knows everything and whom everyone trusts. The timestamp is used throughout, so that very old messages will be rejected based on the timestamp. Director of UWA’s Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG), Potvin’s invention, High Energy Absorption (HEA) mesh, absorbs seismic event energy in underground mining and improves surface support technology over existing rock. The Diamec has been long appreciated for its performance and easiness to operate, but has so far mainly been available on skids. Using a wheel-based carrier, the Diamec MCR exploration core drilling rig can be set up and moved around in less than a quarter of the time needed for a skid-based rig. The Diamec MCR is based on a Simba 1257 carrier, and a Diamec U6 boom, well proven, robust and safe components. Included in the acquisition of the TeamTech business are its mine site productivity software applications, intellectual property, trademarks, and a strong client base.
TeamTech product offerings include components for enterprise systems integration, plant performance optimisation, mining activity optmisation, mineral and metal product management, production accounting, and travel and accommodation bookings.
Like Gemcom, we understand the challenges of managing and driving the productivity of large industrial assets. The Company is home to world-renowned mining solutions like GEMS, Surpac, Minex, Whittle, and InSite and to industry thought-leaders who are pushing the boundaries of what's possible in mining.  Established in 1985, Gemcom has a global reach delivering comprehensive solutions in all major mining centres in more than 90 countries.
To be held at the Colorado Convention Center, visitors to Leica Geosystems' booth (410) will discover the benefits of the Jigsaw360 Mine Management Solution: a product suite of leading-edge and fully integrated analysis and reporting tools, designed to increase mine site productivity and profitability. For use by operators, managers, supervisors, maintenance personnel and engineers, the Jigsaw360 Mine Management Solution empowers sites with greater visibility and gives them the tools needed to meet production targets and implement operational improvements. Technical presentations will feature new horizons and new challenges facing the minerals industry. Therefore, current work needs to make the best out of the best technologies, but also the best out of the skills available. This marks the third consecutive quarter of attainment since Doe Run completed installation of the 60-plus engineering and administrative control measures outlined in the 2007 State Implementation Plan (SIP). The project launched by Rusal’s Engineering and Construction Division of RUSAL in 2006 led to several modifications of the Soederberg cell in an effort to bring its performance parameters comparable to those of pre-bake anode technology in terms of production efficiency, and helped reduce the environmental impact and optimised the consumption rates for major raw materials. Communication involves the transmission of information from one point to another through a succession of process.
An input transducer is used to convert the message signal into a time varying electrical signal. Random process is a collection of time functions or signals corresponding to various outcomes of a random experiment.
A process X(t) is called as wide-sense stationary if the following conditions are satisfied. It is sufficient to consider only the positive frequency region while treating the negative frequency region as a replica of the positive frequencies. This implies that only one-third of the total power is carried by the sidebands and the rest two-third is wasted. On the other hand, if RC is too large, distortion may result due to clipping during the negative peaks of the modulation wave.
Here, we have to assume that the carrier signal c(t) is much larger than m(t) and the diode operates as on-off devices. Thus, we can say that SSB modulation scheme is the most efficient scheme among DSBSC and VSB schemes. SSB modulation scheme is used for long distance transmission of voice signals because it allows longer spacing between repeaters.
Telephone companies provide a popular MAN service called (SMDS) Switched Multi-megabit Data Services. The Internet is a system of linked networks that are world wide in scope and facilitate data communication services such as remote login, file transfer, electronic mail, World Wide Web and newsgroups etc. Essentially it is the topological structure of a network, and may be depicted physically or logically. Since, all traffic passes through’ the hub, it becomes a central point for isolating network problems and gathering network statistics. Data packets travel in a single direction around the ring from one network device to the next. In larger designs, signal quality begins to deteriorate as segments exceed their maximum length.
Cut through switches examine the packet destination address, only before forwarding it onto its destination segment, while a store and forward switch accepts and analyzes the entire packet before forwarding it to its destination.
Gateway in organisations is the computer that routes the traffic from a work station to the outside network that is serving web pages.
It deals with the mechanical and electrical specifications of interface and transmission medium. If the two systems are connected to the same link, there is usually no need for a network layer. It provides user interfaces and support for services such as electronic mail, remote file access and transfer shared database management and other types of distributed information services. A sequence of redundant bits called CRC or the CRC remainder is appended to the end of a data unit, so that the resulting data unit becomes exactly divisible by a second, predetermined binary number. If an expected acknowledgement is not received within an allotted time period, the sender assumes that the last data frame was lost in transmit and sends it again. If a frame is corrupted in transmit, a NAK is returned and the frame is resent out of sequence.
Flow control refers to a set of procedures used to restrict the amount of data the sender can send before waiting for acknowledgement.
For example, if n = 8, the frames are numbered 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 0, 1…so on. When the receiver sends an ACK containing the number 5, it means all frames upto number 4 have been received. Each packet contains not only data but also a header with control information (such as priority codes and source and destination address). Even when one packet represents just a piece of a multi packet transmission, the network (and network layer functions) treats it as though it existed alone.
In this method, a virtual circuit is created whenever, it is needed and exists only for the duration of the specific exchange.
In this method, the same virtual circuit is provided between two users on a continuous basis.

In this mechanism, a node receives a message, stores it, until the appropriate route is free, and then sends it along. A message is delivered to the node along one path, then rerouted along another to its destination. Routers are devices whose primary purpose is to connect two or more networks and to filter network signals so that only desired information travels between them. Anytime, a host or a router needs to find the physical address of another has on its network; it formats an ARP query packet that includes that IP address and broadcasts it over the network.
It also handles both control and error massages but its sole function is to report problems not correct them.
The IGMP protocol has been designed to help a multitasking router to identify the hosts in a LAN that are members of a multicast group. Every host and router on the Internet has an IP address which encodes its network number and host number. You can use packet-screening firewalls to restrict access to specific Web sites, or to permit access to your network only from specific Internet sites. The data area contains information written by the application program that created the packet—for example, your Web browser, FTP, or TELNET program. UDP provides a way for application to send encapsulate IP datagram and send them without having to establish a connection.
There are a number of ways to do this, but the simplest is to use the read() and write() system calls.
For a server socket on the Internet, an address consists of a port number on the host machine. It is important that standard services be at the same port on all computers so that clients will know their addresses.
In contrast, with a stream socket, the underlying TCP protocol will detect that a message was lost because it was not acknowledged, and it will be retransmitted without the process at either end knowing about this.
This is why datagram sockets are often used when the service to be provided is short, such as a time-of-day service. TELNET uses the NVT (Network Virtual Terminal) system to encode characters on the local system. FTP differs form other client-server applications because it establishes 2 connections between hosts. The HTIP protocol transfer data in the form of plain text, hyper text, audio, video and so on. Each node in the tree defines a domain which is an index to the domain name space database. Nowadays, computer use requires automated tools to protect files and other stored information. It is symmetric because those who encrypt messages or verify signature cannot decrypt messages or create signatures. Here each entity can create a pair of keys, keep the private one, and publicly distribute the other one.
Integrity assurance detects accidental and international message changes, while authenticity assurance affirms the message’s origin. Each block of 64 bits is divided into two blocks of 32 bits each, a left half block L and a right half R. Thus DES results in a permutation among the 264 possible arrangements of 64 bits, each of which may be either 0 or 1.
Verifying the identity of a remote process in the face of a malicious, active intruder is surprisingly difficult and requires complex protocols based on cryptography. Furthermore, in most cases, the two of them will also have established a secret session key for use in the upcoming conversation. HEA Mesh - a cable bolt laced and overlaid with a sheet of regular or crinkled weld-mesh - tackles the challenges of deep, high-stress and mechanised mining.The ACG is a pioneering force in providing the mining industry with world-class geotechnical research.
The wheel-based Diamec MCR offers the full advantages of the traditional Diamec, with additional reach and higher flexibility.
There are also great benefits from not having to disassemble the rig prior to a move, as this easily is a source of errors. Additionally, the TeamTech staff have joined Gemcom in product management, services and software development roles. Since 1998, their services staff have worked with leading mining companies all over the world, delivering solutions spanning mining and plant operations. That's why we are thrilled with the opportunity to become part of the mining industry's leader in software and services," said Simon Stone, founder, president and CEO of TeamTech, who joins Gemcom in the new role of product line manager and product evangelist for Gemcom InSite.
Every major mining company, including BHP Billiton, Codelco, De Beers, Newmont and Vale is a Gemcom client. Informed decision making, optimized productivity and unparalleled performance for maximum site output. The SME Exhibit will feature over 430 companies showcasing state-of-the-art products and services.
International Mining’s February issue looks in detail at the latest technologies and a new exclusive guide from Infomine provides an inside look at the personnel compensation packages at 162 mineral exploration offices in 38 countries. A diode operating in a linear region of its V-I characteristics can extract the envelope of an AM wave. The larger number of bits that can be transferred to NIC, the faster the NIC can transfer data to network cable. It takes more time to examine the entire packet, but it allows catching certain packet errors and keeping them from propagating through the network. Each layer performs specific functions to support the layers above it and uses services of the layers below it. It also defines the procedures and functions that physical devices and interfaces have to perform for transmission to occur. However, if the two systems are attached to different networks (links) with connecting devices between networks, there is often a need of the network layer to accomplish source to destination delivery.
Network layer treats each packet independently, as though each packet belonged to a separate message, whether or not it does.
Retransmission of data happens in three Cases: Damaged frame, Lost frame and Lost acknowledgement. The receiving device must be able to sort the frames it has and insert the retransmitted frame into its proper place in the sequence. This window can hold frames at either end and provides the upper limit on the number of frames that can be transmitted before requiring an acknowledgement. When the data are sent, all packets of the transmission travel one after another along that route. If we have not subnetted the network, masking extracts the network address form an IP address.
Every host on the network receives and processes the ARP packet, but the intended recipient recognises its Internet address and sends back its physical address.
The host wishing to retrieve its Internet address broadcasts an RARP query packet that contains its physical address to every host of its physical network. The combination is unique in principle; no 2 machines on the Internet have the same IP address. Because the proxy server knows how to examine this application-specific portion of the packet, you can permit or restrict the behavior of individual programs.
When UDP packets arrives, its payload is handed to the process attached to the destination ports. The term stream in this context, means connection-oriented, a connection must be established between both ends of transmission before either may transmit data. A TCP entities accepts the user data stream from local processes, breaks them up into pieces not exceeding 64 K bytes and sends each piece as separate IP datagrams.
The system calls for establishing a connection are somewhat different for the client and the server, but both involve the basic construct of a socket. Stream sockets use TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), which is a reliable, stream oriented protocol, and datagram sockets use UDP (Unix Datagram Protocol), which is unreliable and message oriented. This can be contrasted with a stream socket, where if the sender wrote a 100 byte message, the receiver could read it in two chunks of 50 bytes or 100 chunks of one byte. On the server (remote) machine, NVT decodes the characters to a form acceptable to the remote machine.
One connection is used for data transfer, the other for control information (commands and responses). Therefore, we need a system that can map a name to an address and conversely an address to name. Uses of network and communication links require measures to protect data during transmission. It is computationally infeasible to find decryption key knowing only algorithm and encryption key. Through a combination of organic growth and strategic acquisitions, the Company has become the largest global supplier of specialised mining productivity solutions.
For any advertisers interested, the International Mining issue closes for bookings within the next week. If at this step there is no remainder, the data unit is assumed to be intact and therefore is accepted. At each node, the packet is stored briefly, then routed according to the information in its header. No one else can use it and because it is always in place, it can be used without connection establishment and connection termination. As network traffic changes during the day, routers can redirect information to take less congested routes. By creating this connection, TCP generates a virtual circuit between sender and receiver that is active for the duration of transmission.
Either of the two related keys can be used for encryption, with the other used for decryption (in some schemes). You might want to use a datagram socket in cases where there is only one message being sent from the client to the server, and only one message being sent back.
If the last ACK was numbered 3, an ACK 6 acknowledges the receipt of frames 3, 4 and 5 as well.
Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments.
The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr. Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said.
People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines.
If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant. We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products.
We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society.
In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia.
They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories. The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity.
However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results.
One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed.
However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure. One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem.
Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility.
Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities.
One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach.
Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close.
Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with.
There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing.
In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments.
Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects.
Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime.
We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit. The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months.
Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling.
I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.

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