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There have not been significant advances in the understanding of biblical Greek since the KJV was translated. Throughout recorded history human beings have used oracles to obtain information about how to make correct choices in ambiguous situations. In terms of the insights of Analytical Psychology, we recognize here the common identification of the Self with the voice of a deity.
The ephod was a vestment worn by the high priest, part of which consisted of a breastplate containing the Urim and Thummin which were objects used for divination. The Greeks preferred the more detailed utterances of trance mediums, as epitomized by the Delphic Oracles. One of the most famous of these ambiguous responses was given to king Croesus when he inquired about the advisability of going to war with Persia. The words of a trance oracle are unfortunately dependent upon the circumstances of the medium's immediate state of awareness, which obviously can vary widely.
The results of each throw of the coins are recorded from the bottom upward -- not from the top down -- for six consecutive throws, thus creating a six-lined image, or hexagram.
This image is looked up in the Book of Changes, and any stressed lines are then interpreted in relation to the question asked. This is the modern method of consulting the oracle, but the procedure has evolved considerably over the last five- thousand years. It is said that Fu Hsi received the images of the trigrams (which will be discussed in more detail later) from patterns on the back of a tortoise which emerged upon a riverbank where he was meditating. About the time that the I Ching was written down, the use of yarrow stalks for divination came into favor. As previously noted, each of the three lines comprising a trigram is either divided or undivided, the divided lines being magnetic, or female, and the undivided lines dynamic, or male.
The I Ching is a psycho-spiritual system which gives symbolic images of the polarities inherent in any given situation. Therefore in the system of the (I Ching) there is the Grand Terminus, which produced the two elementary forms. The Tai Chi symbol, of course, is now familiar worldwide as a circle of unity containing two polarized interacting opposites. The Kabbalah, arguably the most systematic synthesis of gnostic thought known to us, describes creation by an almost identical concept in which a male and a female principle emanate from an androgynous unity. If we superimpose the Tai Chi symbol upon the sphere at the apex of the Supernal Triad we see that the two concepts are identical.
Can we conceive of physical objects, or even the entire universe, coming into existence out of nothing?
In the above example (Hexagram #59, Dispersion), the first and fourth lines are both magnetic and the second and fifth lines are both dynamic. To be in harmonious accord is to reflect an archetypal gestalt of perfection -- a state in which each syzygy in the multiverse is mated to its original and proper correlate. In the scheme of Genesis, God created the world in six days, saw that what He created was good, and rested on the seventh day. The name of the sixty-third hexagram in all translations denotes the idea of accomplishment or completion -- the Work in its ideal or finished state. In addition to the gender polarity and position of the lines, the meaning of a hexagram is also determined by the characteristics of its component trigrams. First, there are the two trigrams symbolizing the father and mother -- the primordial pair of opposites which have through their coupling emanated the forces symbolized by the other trigrams: their three male and three female children. In the relationships between the four dynamic trigrams and the four magnetic trigrams is found the same male-female polarity which is inherent in the lines themselves. The I Ching is a profound psycho-spiritual system -- one can live a full and moral life according to its principles without reservation. The Judgments, Images and initial commentaries for these eight hexagrams provide an excellent introduction to the attributes of their component trigrams.
The structure of the trigrams determines yet another dimension of meaning within each hexagram.
This general idea is found in other symbol systems in the concept of the dialectic -- thesis and antithesis are in opposition until they are resolved in synthesis. It is not generally known that long before it became the emblem of Judaism in the 17th and 18th centuries, this was an esoteric symbol portraying the interpenetration of Heaven and Earth -- exactly the significance contained in the upper and lower trigrams of an I Ching hexagram. The hexagram in the Book of Changes which most closely approximates the balanced symbolism of the Star of David is number eleven -- Harmony. Once again we see how the deep psyche (the Pleroma) uses sexual metaphors to describe the basic polarities which animate spacetime.
In the author's opinion, neither portrayal is as satisfactory as the Tai Chi symbol -- the image of the Supreme Ultimate which is holographically mirrored in each of its myriad manifestations. Within the magnetic is the principle of the dynamic, and within the dynamic is the principle of the magnetic. Awareness may be differentiated into four distinct components: First and most immediately, we have our physical senses which tell us that we are alive -- these constitute the foundation of consciousness within the body that Jung called Sensation. When we assign the four ancient components of consciousness to either Heaven or Earth, we quickly see that Earth and Water belong to Earth, and Air and Fire belong to Heaven -- the primordial fire of the Heavenly sun being the parent of any earthly fire. It is the thesis of this book that the Logos (Thinking function) is the key to the conscious evolution of the psyche. The male force is that which acts upon the world, while the female force is that which allows the world to be receptive to God's power. As we saw in the preceding chapter, Jung associated the archetypal complexes with the instincts. In a highly evolved psyche, the ego consciously regulates the emotions and instincts according to the will of the Self. The Book of Changes makes a great deal out of this distinction between Heaven and Earth, and the polarity which defines them: Heaven always being dynamic, yang or masculine, and Earth magnetic, yin or feminine. The two poles of this cosmic polarity of Heaven and Earth are often portrayed as geometrical shapes -- Heaven as a circle, and Earth as a square. Shao Yung (1011-1077 CE), a noted Neo-Confucian philosopher, is known for his round and square chart of the hexagrams which portray a square Earth within the circle of Heaven. Indeed, one cannot put a compass to the roundness of heaven, and one cannot put a carpenter's square to the square of the earth.
Whether we are able to recognize them or not, archetypes are continuously emanating into our spacetime awareness in delightfully creative ways.
In this necessarily brief introduction we have examined only a few of the many symbolic correspondences between the images found in the I Ching and those of other traditions.
For the first time since the King James Version in 1611, Willis Barnstone has given us an amazing literary and historical version of the New Testament. Buy Restored New Testament book by Willis Barnstone from Australia's Online Bookstore, Boomerang Books.
The words of Jesus Christ are restored to their original poetic form in this extraordinary volume.
Building upon the previous event on the basics of the Hermetic Tree of Life we next examined the tarot associations upon the Tree- placing directly on it the cards for each sephira and path and examining the nuances of the other elemental and planetary associations on the cards to their location. Thank you to those that took part in this wonderful event and join us next time for a workshop highlighting the middle-pillar. The Tree of Life, or etz chaim, is a complex system of attributions said to be a cosmology and a representation of the macrocosm, or the outside world, and the microcosm, the inner world. The Book of the Law, or, Liber AL vel Legis sub figura CCXX, is the central text of Thelema and of the Ordo Templi Orientis as it exists now. Thank you to all who celebrated this text with the Daughter of Sunset and to those who have, do and will celebrate it, together or alone- and may it continue to illuminate you forevermore. The Feast for the Supreme Ritual: This holiday is explicitly different trom the Feast for the Equinox of the Gods, and Crowley states that the holiday is March 20 (The Law is for All). Thelemic High Holy Season: This holiday is recognized as the period of twenty-two days falling between the common dates of March 20 (The Feast for the Supreme Ritual) and April 10 (the Third Day of the Writing of the Book of the Law). Convenience: Due to the fact that Thelemites today live in a worldwide culture which does not use the Thelemic Calendar, the Holidays are often translated to a date on the common calendar. The Gnostic Mass is a complex, publicly-performed, participatory ritual considered to be the crux of the Ordo Templi Orientis and contains therein allusions to many traditions.
Daughter of Sunset LodgeThis blog is a part of the website of Daughter of Sunset Lodge, an official body of the OTO, serving the Valley of Vancouver, BC. The concept of a malevolent Demiurge has continually met with controversy as it is an example of the concept known as "God As The Devil" - though as stated before the Demiurge is not truly God, merely a secondary creator-entity.
God in the comic book series Spawn takes a similar stance to the Demiurge and is also not the "true" Supreme Being of His reality. The book known as the Jehovah Contract portrays both God and Satan as bratty, spoiled sibling rivals, while the Mother Goddess is portrayed as the real Creator who now has to win Her own creation back. Asmodeus Poisonteeth in the Redwall series, while not said to be a creator, does have links with a demon, because in Redwall the name Asmodeus is a demon's name or the Devil's name.
Bhunivelze, along with Pulse and Lindzei in the Final Fantasy XIII series, are similar to the Demiurge, while not synonymous with a creator deity, does have the the task of maintaining and sculpting the physical world.
The King James Version (KJV), the Revised Standard Version (RSV), Today's English Version (TEV), New English Bible (NEB), Jerusalem Bible (JB), New American Standard Bible (NASB), and the New International Version (NIV) are just a few of the most popular ones in use today. We, however, will use a faith-oriented approach that also takes into consideration scholarly evidence.
Of course this is something that cannot be precisely measured, for there are many factors that influence society.
The Bible is an ancient, divine volume, but when it is fashioned like a common book, it gets treated like one. When everyone was using the KJV, frequent repetition of the same wording was heard which helped fix it in the mind.
In turning to Luke 4:8, you will find that when Jesus was tempted in the wilderness, His command a€?Get thee behind me, Satana€? is not recorded. But for now, it can be postulated that the proliferation of versions has weakened the faith people once had in the authority of the Scriptures. It is now at length too evident that Scripture is powerless without the [Catholic] Church as the witness to its inspiration, the safeguard of its integrity, and the exponent of its meaning.
Protestantism itself has no grounds for existence apart from a strong faith in the Word of God.
However, a question arises regarding the effect the proliferation of modern versions has had on peoplea€™s confidence in the authority of Scripture. This important characteristic of the Word of God is conditional upon the reader allowing the Holy Spirit to reveal truth.
The freer the translation, the greater the possibility of bias, and the less reliable the version is for study purposes.
4 These Bibles are translated by giving what is assumed to be the meaning of what the Bible writers wrote. It says that the Word of God has been divinely preserved and has had an active role within the church throughout every age. Throughout the years, scholars have examined the existing manuscripts, considered their various readings, and have constructed their own Greek or Hebrew text which they believe accurately represents the readings of the original manuscripts. The New Testaments of most modern versions such as the RSV, TEV, NEB, and NASB are translated from these critical texts. 11 Therefore we must determine which Greek text is superiora€”the Received Text or the Critical Text. As stated above, its readings are largely influenced by the Alexandrian line of manuscripts (or text-type).
He believed that his efforts had at last restored the inspired Word of God to mankind after having been lost for 1,500 years. Minor differences within text-types are normal; however, the number of variants within the Alexandrian Text is enormous.
Vaticanus exhibits numerous places where the scribe has written the same word or phrase twice in succession, 20 a clear indication that the writing was not checked. But recent scholarship has confirmed that what has been restored should not be considered the original text, but simply the text that had the highest authority in Alexandria, Egypt in the third century. Origen studied deeply into Platonism and Stoicism, seeking to harmonize their philosophic principles with the Scriptures. The Arians taught that Christ was a created being, while the conservatives of the day taught that Christ was eternal, wholly uncreated, and equal with the Father. 26 Several scholars believe that they may be identified with two of fifty Bibles that Constantine ordered to be prepared in A.D. Eusebius is well known as an enthusiastic admirer of Origen, and was inclined to favor the Arians.
It is based on a text-type that lay idle for 1,500 years except for some renderings retained within the Catholic Church. Unlike the small number of manuscripts supporting the Alexandrian Text, the Received Text is derived from the Byzantine text-type which is represented in 80 to 90 percent of all Greek manuscripts. 400, most scholars agree that in order for this text-type to be so widespread and predominant among the Greek manuscripts, it had to have a much earlier existence. As the true church fled into the wilderness (Revelation 12:6, 14), it resisted error and clung to the Scriptures. A revival of learning ensued and God raised up a man to lay the foundation of the mightiest reformatory movement in history. Luther, that great giant of the Reformation, used a Waldensian Bible and Erasmus Greek text (the Received Text) in producing his German translation of the New Testament. With Erasmusa€™ Greek text, several Waldensian-influenced Bibles, and the literary excellence of Tyndale, 46 forty-seven scholars produced the King James Version of 1611. The general chairman of the project was Lancelot Andrews, one of the greatest linguists of his day. In addition, it has been the Bible of every English-speaking country on the face the globe. The blood of martyrs has been shed over it, nations have been founded upon it, and divine providence has protected it. While great truths such as the Sabbath and the three angelsa€™ messages were being proclaimed, grievous errors such as spiritualism, evolution, and Marxism were on the rise. These men shared several points of interest, including a fascination with the theory of evolution.
By this time, spelling and grammar had changed and many of the Old English words used in the KJV were considered obscure in meaning. The Revised Version of 1881 made 36,000 changes in the English of the KJV, and nearly 6,000 in the Greek text. 52 Eloquently expounding upon the methods they had used to compile their text, they overwhelmed the other members of the committee. Vaticanus and Sinaiticus are about 100 years older than any of the existing Greek manuscripts supporting the Received Text. They had to explain why the majority of manuscripts support the Byzantine readings of the Received Text and not the Alexandrian readings of the Critical Text. Yet scholars still refused to recognize the providential hand of God in the spreading of the Received Text.
In Westcott and Horta€™s day, it was believed that the original text of the New Testament had been virtually reconstructed. The New Testament of most modern versions is based on an Egyptian text rejected by Christendom 1,500 years ago.
We must confidently turn to the Scriptures for guidance and be able to present its saving truths to others clearly.
The New Testament Student and Bible Translation (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1978), p.
Also known as the Textus Receptus, Traditional Text, Greek Vulgate, Ecclesiastical Text, Syrian Text, Koine (Common) Text and often used synonymously with Majority Text. I am using the term Critical Text to refer to the majority of Greek texts produced in recent years.
George Salmon, Some Thoughts on the Textual Criticism of the New Testament (London: John Murray, 1897), pp. John Burgon, The Traditional Text of the Holy Gospels Vindicated and Established, completed by Edward Miller (London: George Bell and Sons, 1896), pp.
Of lesser significance than readability are a few places where the KJV could have been more literal in a consistent translation of verb tenses and articles. There are places where modern versions more clearly and in a few cases, more accurately translate the same Greek found in the Received Text.
The discovery of secular papyri has not been as beneficial in Christian word study as once hoped. From the Classical Greeks to the Greenland Eskimos, no matter how diverse the culture, each society has always had a recognized method for contacting transcendental sources of information. These were women who had dedicated their lives to Apollo, and lived in his sanctuary at Delphi. It is a truism among psychic researchers that the material received from even accomplished mediums often runs the full spectrum from numinous profundity to out-and-out fraud. Emphatically, the most important elements in any hexagram are those lines which are created by three heads or three tails when throwing the coins -- these are the only lines which are read as pertinent to the query (other than the Judgement, Image and general commentary on the hexagram as a whole).


No one knows exactly how or when the oracle came into being, other than that tradition says that it was first committed to writing in 1143 BCE. True or not, Chinese tradition says that the semi-mythological King Fu Hsi created the component trigrams which make up each hexagram sometime around 3000 BCE -- if accurate, this would make the I Ching one of the oldest (if not the oldest) known systems of thought. This is a mildly complicated and time-consuming procedure involving the manipulation of fifty stalks of the Milfoil plant.
This was undoubtedly due to the exigencies of the time -- wars and battles were more or less continuous during that era, and a commander in the field didn't have time to go through a lengthy manipulation of yarrow stalks to divine his immediate strategy. One of the most important keys to understanding the Book of Changes is to be able to see the symbolic attributes of maleness and femaleness as emblematic of polarized forces which transcend physical sexuality. Those two Forms produced the Four emblematic Symbols, which again produced the eight Trigrams. Of Taoist origin, it has grown beyond its roots to become a primary symbol of Eastern thought which is even found on the flag of the Republic of Korea.
For example, the first line in the hexagram (which of course is also the first line in the lower trigram) has its correlate in the fourth line of the hexagram because that is the first line of the upper trigram.
The scheme is provocatively similar to the concept of correlate lines in the hexagrams of the I Ching. This sevenfold perfection of the Work (the Ancestral Temple) could be described in I Ching terms as each line in a hexagram symbolizing a day, and the whole hexagram its septenary completion. Line one, dynamic, is married to his destined mate in line four; line two is united with her spouse in line five, and lines three and six are also correctly matched.
Thus the correct positions of the lines in the hexagram of Completion are an archetypal template by which the lines of all the other hexagrams are measured.
These are the eldest son and eldest daughter, who are followed by the trigrams of the middle son and middle daughter and finally the youngest son and youngest daughter. They are syzygies: perfectly matched powers which have emerged from the Supreme Ultimate via the primal pair of opposites. Not only does each line have an inner tension in relation to its place and correlate, but the trigrams are also polarized as larger units within the figure.
It is the relationship between the trigrams which usually determines a hexagram's symbolic gestalt; the polarity of the lines within each hexagram is a more abstract elaboration of this initial relationship. A trigram may be described as a central line sandwiched between the line above and the line below it. The middle way is a conscious recognition and acceptance of the whole spectrum of awareness and a conscious balancing of the polarities of either extreme.
No matter how far we may stray from Unity, we cannot escape it, for ultimately we are all portions of one reality: we really are all One at the highest level of awareness. This is the ability to differentiate and organize our perception and to make value judgements based upon it. It is also the highest, because it transcends all other ways of knowing and brings us information from deep within the core of the psyche.
Humankind has passed through the Sensation and Emotion stages and is now generally focused in the Thinking phase of development. The sexual attributions of these elements also fall right into line -- the Thinking function (Air) is associated with Logos, a masculine attribute, and Sensation (Earth) and Emotion (Water) are considered portions of Eros, the feminine sphere. In terms of polarity, the ego is magnetic to the Self, but dynamic to all the other complexes. We emanate from this fullness -- all our thoughts, emotions, intuitions, indeed our very body, soul and spirit are formed by its templates. Each hexagram is a combination of the forces of two trigrams, and in their arrangement and sequence within the chart, in their union and interaction, combination and re-combination, are created all possible nuances of experience. Seen in this way, the modern coin oracle, because of the shape of old Chinese coins, actually becomes an analogue of the ancient tortoise shell oracle. In these symbolic images are keys to a wider comprehension of the recurrent universal problems of life in a spacetime dimension.
There are many more, but the point has hopefully been made that the Inner Truth which informs our choices for the proper regulation of the Work emanates from the Self via the structure of the oracle.
Barnstone preserves the original song of the Bible, rendering a large part in poetry and the epic Revelation in incantatory blank verse. Author of The Gnostic Bible, Cafe de l'Aube a Paris (French), and The Restored New Testament, he is a distinguished professor emeritus of comparative literature and biblical studies at Indiana University. You can use your Boomerang Bucks as a credit towards a future purchase from Boomerang Books.
In the Center of the Fire: A Memoir of the Occult, 1966-1989 (Ibis Press, 2012), the new book by the prolific James Wasserman, almost reads as an extensive meditation on the above maxim.
It is highly recommended that the student re-creates for themselves such a tree for study; there truly is a wealth of hidden knowledge there for those that dare to seek! Since the Equinox of the Gods typically will be March 19, 20, or 21, this can be confusing. Thelemites observing this Season variously attribute the Thelemic New Year to the Aries equinox, March 20, or the First or Third day of the Three Days of the Writing of the Book of the Law. When the Feast for the Equinox of the Gods is translated in this way, it is typically ascribed to March 20 as a matter of convenience.
He is often depicted as a snake with a lion's head, an "animalistic" being of the material world. Asmodeus in the novel does have a role similar to a deity in that he mantains the natural order of death, he is nature's undertaker, and he is feared by many as a supernatural being. It is our firm foundation, and as we sincerely study it, our confidence in God and His Word will grow. They have not been hidden away from mankind but have been a visible, convicting, living part of the Christian church.
Thou shalt keep them, 0 Lord, thou shalt preserve them from this generation for ever.a€? We can clearly see that the Scriptures have been divinely preserved right down to our generation. Through the aid of the Holy Spirit, points essential to salvation are brought home, and many people can relate their conversions to one Bible version or another. However, we can generally observe the difference between peoplea€™s attitude toward the Bible today compared to their attitudes when there was only one accepted version. A study of the Good News Bible (TEV) indicated that university students a€?first devoured it because as they said, it read just like a newspaper. Now, however, verses are read from versions which vary so much that they are scarcely recognized as the same passage. Footnotes and marginal readings can be helpful, but is it possible that modern scholarship has overwhelmed the Bible student with a plethora of critical readings varying from version to version? If Protestants stop viewing the Bible as the sure Word of God, in a crisis, what a€?authoritya€? will they look to? Although they are very readable, you cannot be certain that you are reading any more than the translatora€™s own idea of the passage.
6 These translations try to convey the meaning of a passage, while at the same time preserving the words of the original. With that in mind, we now turn to a discussion of our last characteristic of the inspired Word of God.
Before we delve into this discussion, it is necessary to gain a little background information. The first manuscripts of the Bible, written by the inspired authors, are no longer in existence.
For the past hundred years there has been a rivalry between two Greek textsa€”the Received Text 9 and the Critical Text.
This may sound like an impossible task for someone without a background in textual criticism. Out of over 5,000 Greek manuscripts in existence, only a small handful (often less than ten) contain this text-type.
15 For hundreds of years, the Roman Catholic Church guarded it so closely that no Protestant scholar of ability was allowed to study it for any length of time. If the Alexandrian Text is the pure form of the New Testament text, then it would mean that the church was deprived of its benefits for 88 percent of the time since it was written!
Not including minor errors such as spelling, Sinaiticus and Vaticanus disagree with each other over 3,000 times in the space of the four Gospels alone. The scribe of Sinaiticus occasionally skipped lines in copying and made so many obvious errors that during the time Sinaiticus was used, ten different readers noted corrections. 22 Alexandria, Egypt, an area to which none of the original manuscripts were addressed, 23 has little claim upon our confidence as possessing a pure text.
Christian a€?thinkersa€? regarded Greek philosophy as a tool for understanding and applying Scripture, and like the pagans around them, they started a school which became the main focus and stimulus of their intellectual and spiritual life. To do so, he allegorized the Scripturesa€”a process that allowed him to interpret them any way he wished.
More interested in politics than pure religion, Constantine favored whichever side seemed to his advantage.
If such a one was in charge of preparing these manuscripts, it is no wonder the Critical Texta€”and consequently nearly every modern versiona€”lacks fervent support for the deity of Christ.
Whether through Eusebius, other misguided critics, or one of the countless heretics that Alexandria bred, 30 it is apparent that the Alexandriansa€™ attempt to a€?correcta€? the Scriptures failed. In addition, the text reflects the Arian views prominent in the fourth century in Alexandria, and it contains numerous omissions likely due to misguided editing and careless copying. 36 Indeed, distinctive Byzantine readings are found in all of the oldest versions, 37 in the papyri, 38 and in the Scriptural quotations of the early church fathers. These manuscripts, like the vast bulk of all New Testament Greek manuscripts, were of the Byzantine text-typea€”the same text-type that had been preserved and used by the church in the wilderness. Similarly based were Olivetana€™s French translation, Diodatia€™s Italian translation, and Tyndalea€™s English translation. It has been the guide of conduct to men and women in every class of life and of every rank in learning and education.
The Received Text is the Greek text that has played an active role in the church through-out the ages, and as such it best fits our third characteristic of the inspired Word of God.
Just as these false movements sought to dethrone God as the creator of the universe, critical scholars were trying to discredit the Bible as the inspired Word of God.
But the one conviction that most closely united the two men was a prejudiced animosity for the Received Text.
Some critics believed that increased scholarship and the recent availability of Vaticanus and Sinaiticus necessitated a revision. 50 Shortly before the Bible was released to the public, Westcott and Hort published their own critical text of the New Testament. Their methods gave preferential status to Vaticanus and Sinaiticus, 53 and have since shaped the thinking of all who approach textual criticism. Realizing that it was absurd to insist that a variety of scribes, separated by time and space and working independently, would all a€?altera€? their manuscripts so as to produce the uniform readings of the Byzantine text-type, Westcott and Hort devised a theory. Even if such a theory were true, it assumed that men who were only 200 years from the originals were so ignorant they couldna€™t recognize the correct manuscripts to use as authority.
With no suitable explanation of why the Byzantine text-type is found abundantly in Greek manuscripts from all over the world, 58 most scholars still cling to the framework of textual criticism set up by Westcott and Hort. As we have seen, for over 300 years the KJV has built the faith of its readers, it is a formal translation profitable for studying doctrine, and both its Old and New Testaments are based on text-types that have been providentially preserved through the ages by the priesthood of believers. 62 Although this difficulty has often been exaggerated by detractors of the KJV, it is true that its English has not been updated since 1769.
66 While we can acknowledge the good points of modern versions and appreciate their usefulness for reference and commentary, 67 there is no more reliable English study Bible than the KJV. While other versions often make the most relevant truths ambiguous, the King James Version resoundingly affirms them.
27 as quoted in Ted Letis, a€?An Open Letter to the International Bible Society and the Zondervan Corporation,a€? (April 29, 1985).
While still a student at Cambridge, twenty-three years old, Hort clearly indicated in a letter the identity of the villain: a€?I had no idea till the last few weeks of the importance of texts, having read so little Greek Testament, and dragged on with the villainous Textus Receptus. Contrary to a commonly held view, the New Testament was not written in the uncultivated dialect of the market-place. 107 as quoted in Letis, The Majority Text says a€?The Authorized Version had a remarkable sense of appropriateness, felicity, and effectiveness of expression. Under one guise or another, the ego has always known about the Self, and sought its counsel. In the following passage from the Old Testament, we see David using an oracle to obtain information about Saul.
On regularly prescribed occasions one of these priestesses would enter a trance and respond to questions put to her by a priest of the temple. To get full use of the oracle one must study it with the same dedication and seriousness owed to any profound religious or philosophical system. Reading the other, unstressed lines is sometimes useful in determining the rationale behind the symbolism of the stressed lines, but they do not specifically pertain to the matter at hand. The technique involved writing a question upon the plastron (the flat, segmented underside of a tortoise), which was then manipulated with a red-hot poker until it cracked. The method is still used today, and some opinions maintain that it is the only legitimate method for consulting the Book of Changes. Well into modern times the questions of warfare have been considered legitimate subjects for the oracle. As moderns we usually think of polarity in scientific or technological metaphors -- as the positive and negative poles of an electrical circuit, for example. The Supreme Ultimate shows the original Unity with the polarized multiverse latent within it; the Supernal Triad shows the emanation of the multiverse out of that primordial Oneness. This is the New Jerusalem, the Perfected Work, the Philosopher's Stone, the attainment of Unity. This archetype of Completion is found in the hexagram of that name, and is the standard of reference which determines the proper placement of any given line in any given hexagram. In addition, each line is in its proper place -- the hexagram begins with a dynamic line and alternates in polarity through all six positions. This is a fundamental structural component of the I Ching, and absolutely essential to a full comprehension of its meaning.
In these images we see yet another rendition of the basic gnostic conception of the creation of the multiverse.
Seen in this way, a cast hexagram becomes a kind of evoked gestalt of polarized forces undergoing continuous change, caught during one instant in time. The book demands much from a student, and traditionally one of the first lessons to be mastered is the memorization of the trigrams and their basic attributes -- followed by the memorization of the hexagrams by name and number. Bourgeois morality fears and repudiates extremes; the middle way accepts them and integrates their force into a harmonious whole. The same idea is symbolized in Hindu- Buddhist iconography by the image of the primal syzygy: The god Shiva in sexual union with his correlate, the goddess Shakti.
The technological and scientific discoveries of the last five-hundred years could only have emerged from awareness which was able to differentiate and synthesize. The Intuition function, because it transcends all of the others can be considered androgynous -- it is the consciousness of the Self, which exists beyond the polarities of gender. When the intellect differentiates and chooses and conscious intention rules, the Work can proceed. Of course, although we usually refer to God as a male, in His true essence He is without gender. While the I Ching is probably the most sophisticated tool ever devised for consciously furthering the Work, the ego will soon realize that the Self which emanates from the oracle is not yet a unity: in gnostic terms, we are serving a high-level archon which is itself striving for union with the Supreme Ultimate. Above these are two more dimensions of increasing abstraction from which we receive Mental and Intuitional impulses. Hence [the hexagram] Ch'ien [Heaven] and [the hexagram] K'un [Earth] are followed by the hexagram Tun, which means fullness. Dreams are emanations; thoughts, emotions, intuitions and the longing of the senses for their objects are also emanations. It is significant to note that old Chinese coins are also round with a square hole in the center, and that a coin (the object by which an oracle is cast) is itself a Tai Chi symbol: it is one, yet has a heads and a tails side. The Book of Changes is itself a powerful template for the modification and evolution of consciousness.
This monumental translation is the first to restore the original Greek, Aramaic, and Hebrew names (Markos for Mark, Yeshua for Jesus), thereby revealing the Greco-Jewish identity of biblical people and places. It is a candid account of one man’s search for occult wisdom and spiritual enlightenment along principles of Thelema, amidst the background of social and cultural changes in America on one hand and the reality of personal substance abuse on the other.
Incense and candles were lit and many arrived with copies of the Book of the Law to read the chapter in unison. As another matter of convenience, Thelemic New Year is at times observed on the weekend, when the accepted date occurs on a weekday. The Bible is Goda€™s chosen medium of communicating with man, and we should use the best version we can find for studying the deep truths of His Word.
Not only have they abided in the hearts of men, but faithful copies of the Scriptures have been passed on from one generation to another. It has been divinely preserved and has had an active role within the church throughout every age.


Ministers no longer preach the Word, but instead deliver philosophical sermons on the general a€?messagea€? of Scriptures.
A paraphrase is largely an interpretation of Scripturea€”which by definition must be influenced by the authora€™s personal beliefs.
When there is a noun in the original, a formal translation will generally have a corresponding noun in the English, a verb will have a verb, et cetera. 12 However, prominent among these few are two manuscripts which many scholars value more highly than most other manuscripts.
16 Those who were granted permission to look at the manuscript were searched to assure they didna€™t have paper or ink. Such an idea is strangely out of step with the biblical description of the inspired Word of God.
21 However, instead of questioning the reliability of these manuscripts, scholars have accepted many of their peculiar readings.
A look into the history of Alexandria, especially during the time these manuscripts are believed to have been produced, is quite revealing. The leaders of the school were usually experts in Greek philosophy, and they greatly influenced the theology of the Christians in Alexandria.
Further, he questioned the authenticity of certain portions of Scripture that did not conform to his own idiosyncratic beliefs.
27 Vaticanus and Sinaiticus were both written on parchments of vellum by talented calligraphers, a very expensive specification included in Constantinea€™s order. If Eusebius used any of the critical skills of his mentor, he was likely to dissect the Scriptures, thinking he was correcting them. Wilkinson, history professor and late president of Washington Missionary College, has proposed that Jerome, a great admirer of both Origen and Eusebius, transmitted many Eusebio-Origen errors into the Latin Vulgate. Dotted over hundreds of years, these witnesses come from many different placesa€”Greece, Constantinople, Asia Minor, Palestine, Syria, Alexandria, other parts of Africa, not to mention Sicily, southern Italy, Gaul, England, and Ireland. 39 In numerous places the Byzantine text-type can be shown to be as early or earlier than any text-type. 42 Traveling about as merchants and peddlers, they quietly passed on their precious hand-copied portions of Scripture. So deeply has its language entered into our common tongue, that one probably could not take up a newspaper or read a single book in which some phrase was not borrowed, consciously or unconsciously, from the KJV. Disregarding the providential care of the biblical text, men began to analyze it as they would any ancient piece of literature.
Although there was much fear and distrust of revision in the public mind, it was sanctioned under the condition that no changes be made in the KJV except as were absolutely necessary. This Greek New Testament was drawn from Vaticanus and Sinaiticus, and in essence was the Greek text that had been used by the Revision Committee for translating the Greek into English. They theorized that in the fourth century an official ecclesiastical command had been given to adopt a standardized form of the Greek text.
Strangely enough, today, nearly 1,900 years from the originals, scholars feel better able to judge than they could. Thus, the most popular editions of the Greek text todaya€”Nestle-Aland and UBSa€”vary little from the Westcott-Hort text. The KJV translators not only provided an accurate English translation 68 of the best manuscript tradition, but they masterfully rendered the English in a literary style befitting the dignity of Sacred Writ. Skeat of the British Museum has suggested that Vaticanus was a a€?rejecta€? among the fifty copies. 134 writes, a€?Egypt during the early Christian centuries was a land in which heresies were rampant. Also Gunther Zuntz, a€?The Byzantine Text in New Testament Criticism,a€? The Journal of Theological Studies, XLII (1942), p. Arthur Farstad, New Testament editor of the NKJV, a€?He admitted that he had been biased by his studies at various seminaries in the direction of accepting the view that the KJV contained numerous inaccuracies in translation. The messages received were akin to dream images, and were (like dreams) often highly ambiguous. In a later section we will examine some of the finer points of consultation and interpretation, but first a look at the overall structure and history of the oracle is in order. If there are no stressed lines, just the Judgement, Image and Commentary of the general hexagram are studied. Although the written version is attributed to King Wen and his son, the Duke of Chou, there is no way of knowing who the original authors were, anymore than we know the true authorship of any ancient document such as the Bible or Bhagavad Gita: and the Book of Changes is far older than either of these.
The pattern of cracks determined the message, which was then interpreted by a shaman trained in the tradition.
Whatever merits are claimed for this technique, ancient tradition cannot be one of them, for the coin oracle is almost as old, and plastromancy antedates them both. It has even been implied that one of the reasons that Japan lost World War II was because Her high command no longer consulted the I Ching for tactical decision-making.
In pre-technological times, and in the symbols of the unconscious psyche, polarity has traditionally been symbolized by the relationship between male and female. Because this is one of the most powerful forces operating within the psyche, it is always very easy to misinterpret such images.
The nothing from which the particles are seen to emanate (and from which the multiverse emanated) is the latent Pleroma of the gnostics.
The idea of a proper correlation between Heaven and Earth then, is an extremely important concept -- it implies an ego and Self in harmonious accord.
It is my understanding that the original Chinese version of the I Ching had no identification table in the back of the book with which to locate the hexagrams: the student was expected to commit these to memory. The central places within each hexagram are the second and fifth lines -- which are also correlates.
Here the androgynous Supreme Ultimate (Tai Chi) divides to become the primordial male and female polarity of thesis and antithesis; yet we can see in the diagram that each one of these opposites may find its synthesis in the union from which it emanated.
While bourgeois morality represents the compart-mentalization and repression of consciousness, the middle way is the means toward attaining its full realization. A primitive, unevolved consciousness might respond by striking the stove, but a psyche in which the Thinking function has evolved would be more likely to put some ointment on the burn and resolve to be more cautious around stoves in the future. This is just a highly dramatic portrayal of a state of consciousness which is actually always available to us -- if only we knew how to contact it.
The Intuitional phase of development is the next great step forward for our species, but as yet there are relatively few people who have begun to develop it. When the emotions, desires and appetites rule, the Work loses focus and growth is random and inconclusive. We refer to Him as a male, however, because we want Him to act upon the world through the male force of providence. Citing historical and biblical scholarship, he changes the sequence of texts and adds three seminal Gnostic gospels.
Wasserman has eventually come to embrace sobriety and abstinence from intoxicants – but the price paid for this palace of wisdom was high, resulting in damage to, or loss of, many social and amorous relationships, including the death of his closest friend from a heroin overdose.
In the Center of the Fire has its flaws, in particular in the author’s selection of the events described, where some of them might have been of personal significance but are not of general import, but as a firsthand account documenting an important phase in the development of the contemporary Thelemic movement, it is of great interest and is highly recommended. Because of this, the two are sometimes conflated and the Thelemic New Year said to be March 20.
Time and again both Jesus and Paul affirmed the accuracy of the Scriptures by widely quoting from them.
While this method may still leave the translation of a few passages obscure or ambiguous, the reader at least has before him a more literal translation of the words of the original. It should also be noted that it is much harder to prove the deity of Christ when using modern versions. When these copies are compared with one another, several hundred thousand differences can be noted. The preferred Greek text must be one which has played an active role within the church throughout every age. They are called Sinaiticus and Vaticanus, and they date a little over 200 years from the original writings. 14 Several years later he acquired the remainder of the leaves from the monastery, and by 1862 he had published the complete manuscript.
Then if they were caught looking too closely at any passage, two attendants would snatch the manuscript from them!
Sinaiticus and Vaticanus are the basis for most of the two hundred omissions from the modern New Testament versions mentioned earlier in this booklet. His teachings not only promoted a critical attitude toward the Scriptures, but they helped breed numerous heresies in Alexandria, including the doctrine of Arianism. This may explain some of the omissions characteristic of the Alexandrian Text and likewise of most modern versions.
35 This is quite a contrast to the limited locality and time-range of the Alexandrian Text.
40 It was the authoritative Scriptures of the Syrian church, the Waldensian church of northern Italy, and the Greek Orthodox Church. Ten columns in the catalogue of the library of the British Museum are taken up with the works he translated, edited or annotated. Through the publication of Erasmusa€™ Greek New Testament, Goda€™s providence was preparing the way for the many subsequent translations that would guide His true Church as two-thirds of Europe broke away from the Catholic Church in the Great Protestant Reformation. Although these men did not all agree doctrinally, they all had reverent regard for the divine inspiration of Scripture.
Hort was only twenty-three years old and had not yet even studied textual criticism when he described the Received Text as a€?villainousa€? and a€?vile.a€? 48 In spite of the unorthodoxy of these men, their scholarship has exerted a molding influence upon the distinctive readings of the modern versions. 49 Fifty-four men, including Westcott and Hort, were asked to be on the Revision Committee, and they began what should have been a short work. 51 It then became evident that Westcott and Hort had exercised disproportionate influence over the Revision Committee.
History records that during the century following the completion of the New Testament, manuscripts suffered the greatest abuse. This is not a problem for those who have grown up reading the KJV, but its language may discourage others. 69 Although publishers have hoped to multiply their profits by producing a version which would replace the KJV, it still remains the most trusted Bible for the majority of English-speaking Christians. Certainly there was a divine purpose at work in the production and preservation of such an authoritative transcript of Holy Writ.
So much so that, as Bauer (1934) and Van Unnik (1958) have pointed out, later Egyptian Christians seem to have been ashamed of the heretical past of their country and to have drawn a veil of silence across it. Blake and Silva New, a€?The Caesarean Text of the Gospel of Mark,a€? Harvard Theological Review, Vol.
We see in the overall symbolism some hints about the archetypal meaning of the syzygy -- the properly mated pair -- as well as about the correct relationship between the Self and its satellites.
The attainment of our full intuitional powers is the goal of the Work, and the Book of Changes is nothing if not a device by which one develops intuition.
In an unregulated psyche, the complexes gratify their desires through the senses and emotions, and the intellect generally serves to rationalize this behavior.
The fullness of being of the divine life held in gnosticism to comprise the aeons as well as the uncreated monad or dyad from which they proceeded.
This process continues until the actual physical use of the oracle becomes superfluous: this is the completion of the first phase of the Great Work. As a result of these and similar experiences, the OTO has adopted a strict policy of not allowing any drugs at its official functions, while the failure to comply with this policy is grounds for possible expulsion from the Order. An epidemic of ignorance concerning the most basic Bible content is plaguing even churchgoing youth.
A short time ago I attended a meeting held by a group of young people who seemed to be avid Bible students.
Most of the variants are misspellings or other obvious errors 7, but thousands of other variants must be closely evaluated.
17 In 1866, however, the Vatican finally allowed Constantine Tischendorf, under supervision, to copy the manuscript. They have never been lost, only to be discovered in a wastepaper basket or lying on a forgotten shelf in the Vatican. It is, in fact easier to find two consecutive verses in which these two manuscripts differ the one from the other, than two consecutive verses in which they entirely agree. Wilkinsona€™s study also suggests the Byzantine text-type was the Scriptures of such early churches as the Celtic church in Scotland and Ireland, and the Gallic church in southern France. In addition, the translating was engineered so that no one man would have undue influence upon any portion of Scripture. 55 It was during this time that a number of heretics are known to have made corrupted copies of the Scriptures. For those who struggle with the English of the KJV, the New King James Version 63 is to be recommended. As we study the Holy Scriptures, may each of us individually be assured that a€?the word of our God shall stand for evera€? (Isaiah 40:8). The Masoretic Text has been recognized as the most carefully preserved and transmitted Hebrew text-type.
This seems to be why so little is known of the history of the early Egyptian Christianity.a€? Hills also suggests that Gnostic and docetist influences explain many of the peculiar readings of the Alexandrian Text. While not a literal, word-for-word rendering which is insensitive to English idiom and style, it is faithful to its text and is remarkably successful in conveying the sense of that text into good English.a€? John H. The symbol of marriage is both universal and profound in all mystical systems -- it is a powerful archetype within the unconscious psyche, and we shall have much occasion to refer to it throughout this book. It is essential to remember that every psyche, male and female, has these same four functions operating within it: we are spiritual androgynes temporarily inhabiting sexually polarized bodies.
With its superlative writing and lyrical wisdom, The Restored New Testament is a magnificent biblical translation for our age.
The KJV and NASB give us further help by italicizing any words which the translators felt necessary to insert into a passage to make the meaning clear.
I was amazed to find that they denied the deity of Christ and supported their positions by referring to textual renderings from various modern versions.
In addition, the a€?benefitsa€? of the Alexandrian Text to the church have been dubious indeed. History is replete with episodes of violence wrought by the Catholic Church against all who did not receive the Latin Vulgate.
A reformer at heart, Erasmus wrote several books that rocked Europe by exposing the ignorance of the monks, the superstitions of the priesthood, and the bigoted, coarse religion of the day. Even while Paul was alive, someone was passing around false manuscripts (see 2 Thessalonians 2:2). And may we accept its wondrous truths not only intellectually, but make them a dynamic, meaningful part of our everyday lives. 158 quotes Horta€™s letter published in Arthur Fenton Hort, Life and Letters of Fenton John Anthony Hort, I (London and New York, 1896), p.
The Work is an example of an extreme synthesizing process; schizophrenia is an example of an extreme differentiating process.
For a woman to take offense at an oracle which tells her to control her emotions with her reason because these are symbolized in sexual metaphors is to refuse to acknowledge a basic truth of the unconscious psyche -- that our spontaneous inner images choose to express themselves in this way whether we like it or not. The age of Vaticanus and Sinaiticus is no criterion for considering their readings to be pure. Skilton, ed., The Law and the Prophets (Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1974) p.
Cadbury, a€?The Vocabulary and Grammar of New Testament Greek,a€? in An introduction to the Revised Standard Version of the New Testament (The International Council of Religious Education, 1967), p. Since the highest forms of awareness are androgynous and intuitional, the sooner we can overcome our cultural conditioning on this matter, the better off we'll be. Revelation 11:3, 4 tell us that during the 1,260 years of papal supremacy, the two witnessesa€”the Old and New Testamentsa€”still prophesied powerfully.
When the modern versions began to appear with several readings previously propagated only in Catholic Bibles, Thomas S. This was the first scholarly attention paid to the Greek text of the New Testament in over a thousand years. 104 as quoted in Letis, a€?Hugh Broughton Redivivus,a€? The Majority Text: Essays and Reviews in the Continuing Debate.
The dry climate of Egypt and the sturdiness of vellum are not sufficient to explain their survival. Reliable manuscripts of the Scriptures ultimately disintegrated from continual use while these manuscripts were preserved by disuse. One must question why they were not used when copies of the Scriptures were so precious and few.




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