Great courses review teaching company,coaching and management solutions,corporate training programs bangalore one - PDF Books

Strengthening partnerships among scientific and health-based organizations to increase awareness of the impact of toxicology and related subjects on human health. EFSA has launched a call to renew membership of two of its Scientific Panels: the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food (ANS) and the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF).
The Scientific Liaison Coalition (SLC) will hold its next webinar series beginning on Tuesday, May 17, 2016.
Strengthening partnerships among scientific, biomedical, and other health-based organizations to increase awareness of the impact of toxicology, diseases, and related subjects on human health. Functioning as a means to enhance cooperation among societies as equals with the goal of accomplishing tasks benefiting human health and disease prevention through joint and shared activities. Would you like to incorporate the latest science in health disparities into your own research?
Cost: There is no cost, but admission is competitive and participants are required to attend all daily sessions.
Approximately 60 participants will be accepted and preference will be given to those who demonstrate high potential to incorporate training into their own research. Program Information: The program will feature lectures, seminars, small group discussions, and sessions with scientific staff from across NIH Institutes and Centers. This is the eighth colloquium of a series presented by the SOT in conjunction with the US FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. The Brazilian Society of Toxicology (SBTOX) is offering a program of nine courses in 2016 to expand toxicological knowledge to help scientists address challenges ranging from occupational health hazards and environmental pollution to drug abuse and deforestration of the Amazon regions.
This Society of Toxicology Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology (SOT CCT) conference, Ocular Toxicology, Pharmacology, and Drug Delivery: An Eye on the Future, will provide a forum for communication and interactions between toxicologists, pathologists, clinicians, pharmacologists, basic scientists, and other professionals working in the field of ocular toxicology.
The Australasian College of Toxicology and Risk Assessment (ASTA) is holding its 9th Annual Meeting at Ayers House, Adelaide, South Australia from September 21–23, 2016.
Two hundred scientists attended the Scientific Liaison Coalition (SLC) Webinar held on Tuesday, March 1, 2016.
The live webinars are open only to members of the partnering societies of the SLC, which are listed on the SLC website. With the SOT Awards application deadline of October 9, now is the time to apply for an International ToxScholar Outreach Grant and become an Iinternational ambassador for toxicology. Over the past few years, the Society of Toxicology has helped support many outstanding members for educational outreach travel outside of North America through the International ToxScholar Outreach Grant.
I am pleased to report that, today, I joined NIEHS Director and SOT Past President Linda Birnbaum to sign a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between SOT and NIEHS.
Because of these close connections, it seemed only natural for SOT and NIEHS to formalize our robust, working relationship. Essentially, SOT and NIEHS will be proceeding as we always have: working together to improve environmental health.
As a feedback comment, one of the students stipulated that, although there are several webinars and online sources available about scientific writing, career development in toxicology, and other topics, hearing from one of the alumnus was remarkably provocative.
After completion of all scheduled activities, students and faculty interacted with me asking simple yet important questions regarding career opportunities in the United States and research prospects. I sincerely appreciate SOT's support of the outreach programs for developing countries. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has announced a call for images of NIH funded research to be posted to the NIH Image Gallery on Flicker and in the Funded Research album.
The Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) is initiating a Horizon Scanning effort to advance the science and application of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework. Workshop results will be publically disseminated in the form of publications and international presentations at professional meetings. You also will find four Editor's Highlights, which were prepared by ToxSci Associate Editors Jeffrey M. The mission of ToxSci, the official journal of the Society of Toxicology, is to publish the most influential research in the field of toxicology. Thirty-six outstanding undergraduates and five advisors were selected to attend this year’s program. The success of this program is due in large part to over fifty dynamic volunteers who so generously gave their time to teach and inspire the next generation of young scientists during the SOT Annual Meeting.
These dedicated mentors will continue to keep in contact with their mentor group students throughout their undergraduate studies and be a resource to them as they consider career paths and advanced degrees. CDI and these students were very fortunate to have leading toxicologists take this extensive amount of time to share their knowledge and professional development experiences with them. Toxicological Sciences and Oxford University Press would like to thank the Associate Editors, Editorial Board members, reviewers, and authors for their outstanding contributions.
The 2016 Environmental Endocrine Disruptor Gordon Research Conference (EED-GRC) will celebrate its 10th anniversary this summer by focusing on the next generation of questions, chemicals, tools, approaches, challenges, and investigative strategies related to endocrine disruption.
The 56th Annual Meeting of the Teratology Society will be held June 25‒29, 2016, at the Grand Hyatt, San Antonio, Texas. The American College of Toxicology (ACT) is offering an advanced course, Advanced Comprehensive Toxicology, to complement the Toxicology for Pharmaceutical and Regulatory Scientists course. This webinar series will discuss the advances being made with chemical-induced asthma and the role of clinical, toxicological, and epidemiological research in regulatory and hazard characterization approaches. The upcoming Annual Meeting of the Genetic Toxicology Association (GTA) is a 2.5 day event that includes a workshop, keynote address, six symposia, and a poster reception. We invite you to submit a Symposium, Workshop, Roundtable, Continuing Education, or other scientific proposal for the Society of Toxicology 2017 Annual Meeting in Baltimore, Maryland. The Women in Toxicology Special Interest Group (WIT) is pleased to host a webinar titled Career Development for Female Toxicologists.
National Capital Area: The National Capital Area Regional Chapter (NCAC-SOT) will be holding their Spring Symposium on Wednesday, April 20, 2016, at the Georgetown University Conference Center in Washington, DC. Northern California: The Northern California Regional Chapter (NorCal) meeting will be held on Tuesday, April 26, 2016, at SRI International in Menlo Park, California. Allegheny-Erie: The Allegheny-Erie Regional Chapter (AE-SOT) will host their 30th Annual Meeting on May 18-19, 2016, at the Erikson Alumni Center on the West Virginia University Campus in Morgantown, West Virginia. Subscribers to Bublish’s Authorpreneur Dashboard can engage readers in social conversations about the creation process by sending out rough cut book bubbles.
A vibrant blue fox, whimsical friends, exhilarating adventures and discovery await all those who explore the stop-motion world of Tumble Leaf. Starting today, Prime members have unlimited streaming access to the first six episodes of Tumble Leaf, at no additional cost to their membership.
Last year Amazon Studios launched its first two prime time series Alpha House and Betas, and will debut its first three children’s shows this summer. Turkish Musical Instrument Workshops in Istanbul,We as a Les Arts Turc Team offers you a change to learn the basic & advanced levels of Traditional Turkish Music with different Instruments. 2 Hours Lesson Price ( Per Person ) 2 - 4 Student,55 Euro 5 - more,40 Euro 1 Student,70 Euro Lesson Includes.English Language Teaching. A specific sequence of classical Turkish musical forms become a fasyl, a suite an instrumental prelude (pesrev), an instrumental postlude (saz semaisi), and in between, the main section of vocal compositions which begins with and is punctuated by instrumental improvisations taksim.[4] A full fasyl concert would include four different instrumental forms and three vocal forms, including a light classical song, ?arky. TURKISH MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS,The musical instruments used by Turks are of three main groups: stringed, wind and percussion instruments. The kosney, of which there are several examples in Ungor's collection, is a wind instrument made of an eagles wing bone.
The kanun player sits with his instrument on his knees, and with picks made of tortoiseshell attached to rings on the forefinger of each hand. I had already for the next day, an appointment to have a lesson with Huseyin Ozkilic, a distinguished teacher of this instrument in Istanbul!
We as a Les Arts Turc Team offers you a change to learn the basic & advanced levels of Traditional Turkish Music with different Instruments. The lessons are given private or group upon request by our teachers in our art galley and work shop area located in Sultanahmet.
Ottoman court music has a large and varied system of modes or scales known as makams, and other rules of composition. Followers of the Mevlevi Order or whirling dervishes are a religious sufi sect unique to Turkey but well-known outside of its boundaries.
Dervishes of the Mevlevi sect simply dance a sema by turning continuously to music that consists of long, complex compositions called ayin. It would not be wrong to say that if a single instrument were to represent Turkish folk music it would have to be the baglama. I had already for the next day, an appointment to have a lesson with Huseyin Ozkilic, a distinguished teacher of this instrument in Istanbul! Ethnomusicologist Etem Ruhi Ungor, whose research in this field is known worldwide, has travelled thousands of miles over the years, from city to city and village to village in search of traditional Turkish musical instruments. A great profit was made by the merchant ships that returned to the Italian port cities of Venice, Pisa, and Genoa filled with the greatly sought-after goods from Asia.
In addition to Venice, Genoa developed into a major port city for ships that carried the new goods to the rest of Europe.
According to the accounts published years later by Marco Polo, son of Niccolo, arriving in China in 1265 A.D. They also brought back from the Khan a request to the pope for 100 Christian missionaries to teach the Chinese the Christian faith. In their travels along the Silk Road, the Polos saw many strange animals, heard numerous strange languages, tasted exotic foods, and experienced other sights in a long and difficult three-year trip eastward. Whether or not Marco embellished his stories with exaggeration, he recorded that the Khan took a strong liking to the young Venetian and sent him on many official tours of his vast kingdom as his representative on commercial and political business. They left China in an entourage of 14 ships and 600 people, most to serve the princess and to impress her new husband. While in prison Marco dictated to another prisoner an account of his travels and experiences in the advanced civilization of the Yuan Dynasty. The account, published under the title, Il Milione, was widely read in Europe and stimulated an even greater interest in the wonders of the Far East. An extensive world of trade had existed in the Indian Ocean for centuries, to the virtual exclusion of Europe. Although trade and travel between China and Europe existed even during the Roman Empire, the rise in power of the Ottoman and Persian empires from the 12th century on made travel and trade increasingly difficult for the Europeans. The Persians, as was the case also with the Ottomans, extracted heavy taxes from merchants traveling through their territories. The Ottoman interference in the Mediterranean threatened the commercial survival of Venice, Genoa, and Milan. Of great concern was the increasing blockage of the important slave trade that existed between the Mongols in the Balkans and Eastern Europe who were shipping European slaves to Africa and the Middle East. A new religious fervor spread throughout Europe in reaction to the rapid expansion of Islam into North Africa and the Christian Balkans. A whole generation of young, highly trained soldiers in Spain, after the defeat of the Moors was completed in 1492, were looking for new campaigns. New technology in ship building created faster, sleeker ships (the caravel), the sternpost rudder which made steering ships much more accurate and easy, arming of ships with the new canon, the magnetic compass, the astrolabe (which enabled captains to plot their travel using latitudinal and longitudinal readings), and more accurate charting methods drove the desire of Europeans to new areas of exploration.
The bankruptcy of Spain caused by the long campaign to drive the Moors from Spain, made exploration to find new routes to the Spice Islands and new deposits of gold and silver necessary. The loss of financial revenue in Portugal, the leading merchant fleet linking the Spice Islands to Europe, due to the new Ottoman dominance in the Indian Ocean forced new alternatives to be obtained. And when these factors resulted in two actual, successful trips to be achieved in 1429 A.D. They traded porcelain, lacquerware, silk, and cotton in exchange for gold, silver, and ivory. Had the Chinese emperors in the 15th century continued in their quest to develop world trade, the history of the world would be radically different. However, increasing pressure from the Mongols to the north diverted the attention of the emperors away from trade expansion to defense of the dynasty, and Chinese naval explorations inexplicably ceased. The Ottoman Empire relied upon Greek sailors and captains from Ottoman-controlled Greece to conduct most of their sea trade during the 15th and 16th centuries. They found something other than shipping to be much more profitable -- the capture of ships, crews, captains and cargo. Their piracy continued on into the 18th century when the Barbary pirates were finally defeated by the fledgling navy of the United States under President Thomas Jefferson. From the 15th century onward ships sailed from Europe in search of not only new routes to Asia, but also to find the cities of gold that were featured in the fables of European sailors.
The Dutch sailed successfully around the tip of Africa into Asian waters and there they competed with the Portuguese and English for control of the spice trade. The Dutch also made a brief attempt to colonize North America where they founded New Amsterdam (now New York), but were soon driven out by the English.
The Portuguese were the first to find a route around the tip of Africa to India and then to Asia. To settle the conflict between the two Catholic countries, Pope Alexander VI in May 1493 drew an imaginary line down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean 480 km (298.25 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands. At the time of Alexandera€™s initial intervention, little land in the Americas had been discovered or explored.
The major sponsor and encourager of the Portuguese explorations was Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460), son of the Portuguese king. With Henrya€™s funding and encouragement over 50 expeditions were sent out, including Vasco da Gama, who in 1498 became the first European to sail around the tip of Africa to India.
Several enduring Portuguese colonies were established in Brazil (where the national language is still Portuguese), the Spice Islands (Portuguese East Timor), Macao (a neighbor of Hong Kong), the Portuguese Azores, and the African colonies of Portuguese Angola and Mozambique.
England under Queen Elizabeth I developed an expansive trade and exploration campaign, supported by the worlda€™s largest and most powerful navy. One of Elizabetha€™s favorites at the royal court was Sir Walter Raleigh, a daring sea captain who consistently thwarted and badgered the Spanish by seizing Spanish galleons filled with gold and silver on their way to Spain from the colonies in Peru and Bolivia. One hundred years earlier John Cabot, a Venetian seaman and explorer, sailed under the sponsorship of King Henry VII, Elizabetha€™s grandfather. His son, Sebastian Cabot, was later commissioned to find a Northwest Passage through present-day Canada to the Orient. Sir Francis Drake (1545-1596) was selected by Queen Elizabeth to lead a sailing expedition around the world. John Cook was a late 18th century English explorer and navigator who sailed three times to the Orient, was the first European to touch Australiaa€™s eastern shore, discovered many Pacific islands, and was the first to sail around present-day New Zealand.
During his travels, Cook created the first accurate maps of the Pacific Ocean and the first accurate maps of the coastlands of Europe. Under Queen Elizabeth I and James I, the first English colonies in the New World were established. Queen Elizabeth I also founded the East India Company in 1600 for the purpose of developing trade with the Dutch East Indies.
The Italian, da Verrazano, sailing under the French flag was the first European to locate the bay of New York, reaching it in 1524. In 1603 Samuel de Champlain explored the Saint Lawrence River, traveled south into New England, and in 1609 established the colony of Quebec in the newly formed New France. By the early 17th century French fur trappers and missionaries traveled as far west as Wyoming, established bases throughout the Great Lakes region, including present-day Chicago and Michigan, and conducted fur-trade along the Mississippi River as far south as present-day New Orleans, establishing there an important trade base and French colony.
About a century later, France was defeated by Britain in the Seven Yearsa€™ War (1754-1763), known to Americans as the French and Indian War. The last chapter of the Reconquista was written in 1492 when the last of the Moors were driven from Grenada in southern Spain.
The article below, a€?Why Did Columbus Sail?,a€? further points out the major events of 1492 in Spain. In 1492, six years before Vasco da Gama of Portugal made his historic trip around the tip of Africa to India, opening up a new sea route to Asia, a sea captain from Genoa, Italy, Christopher Columbus, was commissioned by the king and queen of Spain to explore a new route westward to the Spice Islands.
From childhood he was fascinated by the sea and dreamed of becoming a sailor--maybe even one day becoming the captain of his own ship! When he was about twenty years of age, his dream of going to sea was finally realized and saw many different peoples and lands on his voyages around the Mediterranean. After escaping a pirate attack at sea, Columbus settled in the Portuguese city of Lisbon, Europe`s most important center of world navigation.
After his marriage to a Portuguese woman, and fathering several children, Columbus became convinced he could reach Asia by sailing westward from Europe across the Atlantic Ocean. A fervent Christian, Columbus also had a burning passion to evangelize peoples along his route to Asia. Columbus took his plan to Henry VII of England, Francis I of Spain, to the king of Portugal, and was turned down by all three monarchs.
Three swift ships were purchased and stocked with supplies for the voyage -- the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. For the rest of his life Columbus believed that he had landed on perimeter islands of either India or a€?Cathaya€? (the 15th century name for China).
Columbus on this first trip to the New World visited numerous nearby islands, including Cuba, which he made his main base of operations and center of the new colony established. Why does history say that Columbus a€?discovereda€? the New World, when other peoples had already inhabited North and South America for thousands of years before his a€?discoverya€?? The a€?Ba€? people, however, came to South America probably from Japan and the South Pacific islands via boats.
And to complicate the matter further, a fifth haplogroup, labeled a€?X,a€? has been identified, and a€?Xa€? is not found anywhere in Asia! Recent finds in Oregon (2012) also have located a distinct, heretofore unknown, people who migrated into North America along land bridges that connected Siberia to North America during the Ice Age. Other finds also point to early arrivals in Latin America that pre-date the arrival of migratory peoples from Asia. A skull was found in 1999 in South-Central Brazil by archeologists and numerous skeletons in a nearby burial site that seem to indicated that these were people with Negroid features. Therefore, the settling of North and South America probably was done in numerous waves of migration into the two continents and from different places in Asia and perhaps the South Pacific and even Europe.
If you are interested in DNA studies and current thinking about how and when the ancestors of the Native Americans came to the Americas, see the following articles and videos. If Columbus was a€?the first Europeana€? to have a€?discovereda€? the Americas, why are they called the a€?Americasa€? and not the a€?Columbiasa€?? Between 1497 and 1507 an Italian explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, made six trips to South America. Although his actually landings were few and brief, he later recounted his journeys to a friend, Lorenzo de Medici, who was so fascinated by the stories that he personally published what became very popular and widely-read accounts.
The anti-Columbus authors point to the introduction of European diseases into the Americas that decimated whole populations of original inhabitants, that Columbus seized slaves, not only to work for the Spanish but were sent back to Spain for exhibit much as one would an animal, and that he ruled over the new colony as a despot.
Political correctness tends to see any claims by any particular religion to be a€?the only waya€? to be absolutist and arrogant.
Furthermore, the argument goes, Columbus opened the door to centuries of ill-treatment of the Meso-Americans, as they were to be referred to rather than the supposedly demeaning term a€?Indian.a€? The ill-treatment continued not only through the later Spanish conquistadors, but also through the American settlement of the West and the disruption of the native American cultures. And so, his detractors maintain, Columbus stands for everything that went wrong as a result of the invasion by Europeans into the Americas.
There were no existing university courses or books available on a€?how to best contact a foreign culturea€? or a€?how to best evangelize another people.a€? Columbus and the Spanish put into practice what was common to all European nations at the time. European diseases carried by explorers into the New World was hardly a planned attack on the native population, since there was no knowledge in that day about germs or how contagions developed. The Spanish and Columbus viewed themselves as possessors of a superior Christian culture who had an obligation to treat the native inhabitants more as children to be protected and instructed than as slaves. Columbus showed a great compassion for the peoples he encountered and saw his trips as designed by God for their evangelism. Columbus did sign an agreement with the monarchs of Spain which guaranteed him 10% of the profits from not only his own trips but for all those that followed. The entry of Columbus into the New World opened two continents to European and Asian cultures, civilizations, technologies, medicine, trade, and eventually united an entire southern American continent with one language.
The next morning, Friday, August 3, 1492, at dawn, the Santa MarA­a and its companion caravels caught the ebb tide and drifted toward the gulf. In that Ocean of Darkness, some feared, the water boiled and sea monsters gulped down sailors so foolish as to sail there. Commander Cristoforo Colombo (as he was known in his hometown of Genoa, Italy) was taller than most men; so tall, in fact, he couldna€™t stand inside his cabin on the Santa MarA­a.
The textbook answer, as any schoolchild could recite, is that Columbus wanted to find a trade route to the Orient.
Columbus was visibly and verbally a€?an exceptionally pious man,a€? writes historian Delno C. His son Ferdinand wrote, a€?He was so strict in matters of religion that for fasting and saying prayers he might have been taken for a member of a religious order.a€? He knew his Vulgate Bible thoroughly, and he probably took it (or a collection of Scriptures) on his voyages. A main source for information about Columbus is his contemporary Bishop Bartolome de Las Casas. But only in the last 40 yearsa€”and particularly in the last 10 have scholars examined Columbusa€™s religious motivations. But why explain away his intense religious devotion, when it was obvious to those who knew him and persistent throughout his writings? On September 23, the ship hit a calm, causing the seamen to complain theya€™d never be able to get back to Spain. At daylight, the wide-eyed Europeans saw people a€?as naked as their mother bore thema€? and many ponds, fruits, and green trees. Las Casas agreed that a€?Columbus showed the way to the discovery of immense territoriesa€? and many peoples a€?are now ready and prepared to be brought to the knowledge of their Creator and the faith.a€? As a sign of that work, on every island he explored, Columbus erected a large wooden cross. After ten weeks of exploring the coastline of Cuba and Hispaniola, continually trading trinkets for gold, Columbus and his men hit a problem. But what most would have viewed as a calamity, Columbus did not: a€?It was a great blessing and the express purpose of Goda€? that his ship ran aground so he would leave some of his men.
Although the words are recorded only indirectly, God spoke to Columbus and assured him that God would take him to safety. The next day Columbusa€™s men spotted an island in the Azores; less than three weeks later they landed triumphantly on the Iberian peninsula.
When Columbus anchored the NiA±a in Palos, seven months after hea€™d left, shops closed and church bells rang. According to Las Casas, a€?The King and Queen heard [Columbusa€™s report] with profound attention and, raising their hands in prayer, sank to their knees in deep gratitude to God. Columbus thought that Ferdinand and Isabella were Goda€™s chosen instruments to recapture Jerusalem and place the Holy City under Christian control.
As soon as Columbus had returned to Spain, he told Ferdinand and Isabella he would provide 50,000 soldiers and 4,000 horses for them to free Christa€™s Holy Tomb in Jerusalem. But much to Columbusa€™s disappointment, the longed-for crusade to recapture the Holy City was never undertaken. In 1499, he said, a€?When all had abandoned me, I was assailed by the Indians and the wicked Christians the Spanish settlers who were rebelling against his inept administration]. In 1518 Carlos of Spain, who was to become Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, signed an agreement to sponsor a journey by Magellan to seek a route around the world, but primarily a route to the Spice Islands in the East Indies from the Pacific side, so as to avoid the confrontations with Islamic pirates in the Mediterranean. His journey around the tip of South America and across the uncharted Pacific Ocean included many dangerous and threatening situations and his crew threatened mutiny on numerous occasions.
Several weeks later Magellana€™s crew continued their trip west, eventually visited the Spice Islands, and then continued their journey westward to Europe. Ponce de Leon in 1513 explored the east coast of Florida for Spain in search for gold and what was rumored to be the fountain of youth. Vasco de Balboa in 1513 sailed along the northern coast of South America, and landed in present-day Central America.
Hernan Cortes in 1519 landed on the coast of present-day Mexico with a small band of 600 men. The introduction of European diseases whcih wiped out a vast majority of the native people, the introduction of guns, and mounted soldiers on horseback with their war dogs, resulted in a speedy and complete conquest of the Aztec Empire and surrounding tribes. Francisco Pizarro in 1531 set out from Central America with only 200 soldiers to locate the rumored Inca Empire.
The gold and silver from Peru and Bolivia filled the Spanish treasuries with immense wealth and created the numerous routes between South America and Spain. De Soto landed at present-day Bradenton, Florida, just south of Tampa, and began his journey northward. De Soto traveled up the present-day Route US 10 to Tallahassee, Florida where he made camp for about a year.
The survivors eventually decided to attempt to reach Mexico City, first by foot, and then, returning to the shores of the Mississippi, to build rafts to sail down the river, into the Gulf , and on to Mexico City. He then continued to the west until he reached the Mississippi River, the first European to reach that river.
Viceroys: Spanish elite who were appointed by the monarchy to run the five separate regions of New Spain. Creoles: people born in the colonies to Spanish parents, and considered inferior or a€?hicksa€? by the colonists who came to the colonies from Spain.
Native Americans: these people had little freedom or were forced into labor on plantations and in mines. Their appeals for change were heard by many, but the change that was instituted was not a response of Christian compassion and love for those they sought to convert, but was rather the decision to ease their work load by bringing into the colonies a larger work force. The clergy fired back with accusations against the viceroys and peninsulares--that they could not care less about the souls of the native Americans and threw them aside when ill or dead as one would trash.
Native Americans and African slaves both occupied the very bottom of the social chain in Spaina€™s Ecomienda. De Sotoa€™s expedition contributed to the founding of what became known as the Columbian Exchange, the exchange of people, animals, foods, plants, and technology between Europe and the New Spain (the Americas).
From Europe and Africa pigs, horses, goats, sugar cane, paper, guns, and technology crossed the Atlantic to the America. The introduction of corn and potatoes into Europe produced a fairly rapid growth in population, which had declined because of the a€?Little Ice Agea€? that began around 1350 A.D. Sugar beets and sugar cane that came to the America from India with Columbus, soon became a huge industry in the Americas, especially in the Caribbean.
Beyond a new commercial exchange between Europe and Africa and the Americas, the gold and silver flowing to Spain opened up new and expanded doors for trade across the Pacific with the Ming Dynasty in China (whose economic system was based on gold and silver) and with the Spice Islands of the Philippines and Indonesia. In Africa the Portuguese had established economic ties with strong African kings who provided the Portuguese with large numbers of conquered slaves.
As has been the case throughout human history, in general, the treatment of the native and African workers was brutal, harsh, and inhumane. And Islam was presented with a major problem in Africa in a dispute between the Muslim missionaries and Muslim slave traders. Therefore, Islamic trade traders justified their behavior in Africa by declaring the tribal groups living south of an arbitrary line drawn across the African continent as sub-humans, pagans eligible for death or slavery!
For this reason, today the continent of Africa is composed of a solidly Islamic north and a majority Christian south where the conversion rate to Christianity is progressing faster than the birth rate.
The system of joint stock companies emerged, in which merchants and investors pooled their resources, sold stock in the new companies, reduced the risk to individual investors, and made available vast amounts of working capital for investments in mining and agriculture, as well as the many ships required to transport goods.
A new population of middle class merchants arose, acting as middle men in the new system of trade. The Massachusetts Bay Colony, and the colonies planted at Plymouth and Jamestown were all made possible by joint stock companies, who expected a return on their investments through new trade for goods and natural resources with the native peoples and the colonists in those areas.
By 1510 50% of all silver from the mines in Bolivia were being shipped to India to purchase tea and cotton and to China for silk and porcelain. Contacts between Europe and Asia--especially China, the Spice Islands, and India--greatly increased in the late 13th century, producing important merchant cities in Venice, Milan, Genoa, Lisbon, and Madrid. Formerly most trade routes were overland, but beginning with the 13th century naval shipping became the major means of trade.
The Persians, Ottomans, and North African Muslims, through harassment, heavy import and export taxes, and seizing of cargo forced Europeans to find new routes to Asia.
Between 1450-1650 several countries became leaders in naval shipping: China, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, England, and France, and others, like India and Italy, served as middle men in the expanded trade.
New technologies in the construction of ships and navigation instruments made long sea journeys possible. The Treaty of Tordesilla in 1491 was negotiated by Pope Alexander VI between Portugal and Spain in an attempt to settle their growing dispute over creating trade routes to the Spice Islands.


Prince Henry the Navigator encouraged and funding trade between Portugal and others countries and continents, leading to new routes to India and the Spice Islands, as well as opening the door to trafficking in slaves from Africa. Queen Elizabeth and James I were English monarchs who sponsored a great growth in naval power, shipping, and establishing colonies in the New World. Christopher Columbus in 1492 was the first European to set foot in the New World since early attempts by the Norsemen in the 9th and 10th centuries. Columbus was commissioned by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in 1492 to find a new sea route westward to the Spice Islands. Columbus was a Christian who desired to reach unknown people groups with the Gospel of Christ.
The Americas were named for Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian explorer who sailed six times to the east coast of South America and made fairly accurate maps of the coastline.
Ferdinand Magella sailed for Portugal in 1519, successfully made his way around the tip of Africa, across the Pacific, and although he, himself, died in the Philippines, his crew continued the trip westward to Portugal, arriving in 1521, the first known humans to circle the earth by ship. Other Spanish explorers claimed vast areas of North and South America for Spain and established the Columbian Exchange between Europe, Africa, and New Spain. Large gold and silver deposits in New Spain created great wealth in Spain, but ultimately led to its economic decline.
The rapid expansion of shipping, plantation building, and trade produced a new system of joint stock companies to fund the new ventures. Explain the reasons for and the success of the Ottoman Empire in restricting European trade with Asia. Describe the cultural and military collision between the Spanish and the Aztec and the Inca empires and analyze why these empires collapsed. Explain the founding and organization of Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires in the Americas and assess the role of the Catholic Church in the colonial administration and policies regarding indigenous populations. Assess ways in which the exchange of plants and animals around the world in the late 15th and the 16th centuries affected European, Asian, African, and American Indian societies and commerce. Analyze why the introduction of new diseases in the Americas after 1492 had such devastating demographic and social effects on American Indian populations, not only in South America but also in Florida and the Caribbean. Assess the effects that knowledge of the peoples, cultures, geography, and natural environment of the Americas had on European religious and intellectual life. How did the Crusades and the Renaissance open up Europe for an awakened interest in other lands? What light, fast vessel was popular with the early explorers of the late fifteenth century?
What were maps and other navigational aids like during this period, and how did sailors find their way? What is not found in the textbook: the motivation of Ferdinand and Isabella to fund the voyage by Columbus during the two years prior to 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella has used all their resources to drive the remaining Islamic forces and citizens from Spain.
According to the author of the textbook, why had Europeans not discovered the New World sooner? By the time Magellan was ready to begin his journey in 1519, what had everyone realized about Columbusa€™ earlier trip? Tell the story of what happened when Magellan with his remaining crew finally reached the Philippine Islands.
Tell the story of the miraculous healing of the chief of the island on which Magellan landed. This series provides pharmaceutical industry and regulatory perspectives on this topic and will conclude with a webinar presented by Sherry Morgan, AbbVie, Inc., on June 21.
The ANS Panel evaluates the safety of food additives, nutrient sources, and other substances intentionally added to food, but excluding flavourings and enzymes. The Institute aims to foster individual research projects of promising scientists and motivated research scholars with the overall goal to stimulate innovative research in the minority health and health disparities sciences.
The course was supported by an SOT International ToxScholar grant and included an up-to-date review of asbestos toxicity, health effects, and dose-response models to evaluate risks on population and individual levels.
Presented in Russian, this was part of the mandatory course in industrial hygiene for senior level medical students. The series presents scientific information that is high-quality, cutting-edge, future-oriented toxicological science to provide a well-grounded foundation to inform the work of US FDA employees and is open to the public.
Human stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte (hiPSC-CMs) are increasingly used in drug discovery, toxicity assessment, and cell-based disease treatment. The epigenome is a dynamic regulatory framework that controls the use of genomic information to govern the response of cells, tissues, organs, and individuals to their environment.
The Education Committee invites SOT members, Regional Chapters, Special Interest Groups, and Specialty Sections to submit applications for partial or full travel support up to $1,250.
Almost 100 SOT members are employed within the NIEHS, and the institute has been an active participant and sponsor of sessions at the SOT Annual Meeting and other events. The only difference is that we now have a public document acknowledging this beneficial and profound partnership.
Moreover, I engaged the students to participate in an activity through which they learned some dos and don’ts of scientific writing, which was liked by everyone and greatly appreciated by those students getting ready to construct their manuscripts for future publication.
Moreover, we had to change the venue of this meeting from one auditorium to another hall in the middle to accommodate overwhelming attendance which reflected their enthusiasm. This meeting will offer a forum for sharing basic and applied research in toxicology and is aimed to convene international scientists to present their results related to the exposure to toxic agents, adverse effects, mechanisms of toxicity, preventive alternatives, normativity, and more to strengthen the science-policy interface to foster the progress towards sustainability. Miller regarding the importance of reproducibility and rigor, "As many of you may be aware, the National Institutes of Health released new guidelines a few months ago regarding rigor and reproducibility, a topic familiar to the readers of Toxicological Sciences. Gehring Diversity Student Travel Award was presented to Lisbeth Perez-Castro by Jorge Naciff, Chair of the Committee on Diversity Initiatives (CDI), during the SOT Annual Meeting at the CDI Reunion.
Gehring Diversity Student Award recognizes a student who participated in the SOT Undergraduate Program, is from a group underrepresented in toxicology, and is presenting an abstract at the SOT Annual Meeting. Additionally, over fifty undergraduates joined the travel award recipients for the open Sunday activities.
The Committee on Diversity Initiatives (CDI) would like to recognize and give special thanks to these wonderful program volunteers.
Many of this year’s participants have reported back on what a wonderful and affirming experience they had during the Undergraduate Program, and how valuable the experience will be as they look ahead to plan career paths and consider pursuing advanced degrees. Talks will describe key factors that impact the interpretation of nonclinical discovery and development studies. This international meeting will bring scientists from around the world to the University of Rochester to discuss emerging knowledge about the AHR and its many ligands. Led by numerous nationally and internationally recognized experts in the field of medical toxicology, this course provides a broad overview of the scope of medical toxicology and a detailed perspective into current clinical and public health toxicological issues. The International Union of Toxicology (IUTOX) organizes the largest and most prestigious International Congress on Toxicology (ICT) every three years, offering the opportunity to learn the latest developments in toxicological science and regulation through general scientific sessions and continuing education courses. This conference will provide a forum for communication and interactions between toxicologists, pathologists, clinicians, pharmacologists, basic scientists, and other professionals working in the field of ocular toxicology. Career challenges faced by female trainees and professionals will be discussed including negotiating a competitive salary, climbing the career ladder, speaking up without appearing aggressive, and effective networking.
To keep you informed and provide you with an opportunity to take action regarding this issue, please refer to an excerpt from the message NABR Executive Vice President Matthew R.
Below are a number of upcoming Regional Chapter events that may be of interest to you. The topic of the meeting will be E-cigarettes and medical marijuana and the Keynote Speaker is Dr. The title of the webinar is Current Progress in Immunotoxicology from Medical Devices through Biologics and will explore three therapeutic modalities (small molecule, large molecule, and medical devices) and will emphasize the diversity of immuno-toxicological challenges and approaches for these areas. Edward Carney was known to many for his outgoing sense of humor, his passion for music, and love of family, but among toxicologists he was known for outstanding leadership in developmental biology and developmental toxicology.
Never before have authors had the ability to actively promote their books, gather fans and generate pre-sales right from the pages of their manuscript. This builds an emotional connection between reader and writer right from the start of the book project.
Amazon’s first original kids series is available today, exclusively on Amazon Prime Instant Video at no additional cost for Prime members. To ensure series are created to engage children while supporting educational goals, Tumble Leaf and all other Amazon kids preschool programs are developed with the support of an expert board of advisors led by Dr. Anyone can upload a script and Amazon Studios will read and review all submissions and those who choose to make their projects public will also receive feedback from the Amazon Studios community.
The company is guided by three principles: customer obsession rather than competitor focus, passion for invention, and long-term thinking. The ranking was determined by compiling sales data of all book, magazine and newspaper sales in both print and Kindle format from April 2013 to April 2014, on a per capita basis in cities with more than 100,000 residents. We have professional teachers and will be happy to teach you the techniques and imporving yourself during your visit in istanbul. Turkish Classical Music,Ottoman court music has a large and varied system of modes or scales known as makams, and other rules of composition. A strictly classical fasyl remains is the same makam throughout, from the introductory taksim and usually ending in a dance tune or oyun havasy. Turkish musical instruments were produced by the master-apprentice method in the Ottoman period.
It is a stringed instrument played on the lap and the strings are stretched across the upper surface of a wooden box. Another unusual instrument to be seen is a long-necked stringed instrument called a cura.There are bells from almost every part of Turkey, and a nefir dating from 1859 made from the horn of a wild goat and used to call worshippers to the ceremonies of the Bektasi dervishes.
The strings used to be made of gut, but since the early 20th century nylon strings, which give a more powerful sound and are easily available in various gauges, have superseded these. With the left hand he adjusts the pegs to the correct pitch for the piece as the makam changes, while playing the melody with his right. A number of notation systems were used for transcribing classical music, the most dominant being the Hamparsum notation in use until the gradual introduction of western notation. These pieces are both preceded and followed by songs using lyrics by the founder and poet Mevlana Jelaleddin Rumi. The baglama was developed from another instrument called the kopuz, which is also used today. Therefore percussion instruments used for this purpose apart from drums, include 'kudum' (small double drums used in mystic religious music) and the darbuka. Every inch of his tiny flat is filled with books and his collection of 700 musical instruments, including many whose appearance and even names are unfamiliar.
Venice grew to become one of Europea€™s largest and most prosperous cities, largely as a result of its trade in luxury goods from the Far East. Milan became a major trade center for goods that were carried by land over the Alps into central Europe. Arriving in China, the Polos were welcomed back by the Mongol troops of their old friend, the Khan. Finally, after nearly two decades in the service of the Khan, the Polos were permitted by the Khan to return home, if they would agree to accompany a Yuan princess who had been promised in marriage to a Persian king (probably to create stronger trade ties between Persia and the Yuan Dynasty). They traveled through Indonesia to Sri Lanka and India and then to their destination in the Persian Gulf. They arrived during a time of warfare between Genoa and Venice and, probably because they were viewed as possible spies, were imprisoned in Venice. In it he described such Chinese inventions as the magnetic compass, movable type printing, paper making, and the use of paper currency.
Il Milione was translated into several European languages, including English (The Travels of Marco Polo). China, India, and the African kingdoms regularly trades silk, slaves, spices, gold, silver, metalwares, and ivory.
The Ottomans controlled all trade in the Eastern Mediterranean Ocean, North Africa (most countries in North Africa by this time had converted to Islam), and the Spice Islands (Indonesia had also converted from Hinduism to Islam). The growing demand for silk, cotton, gold, silver, ivory, textiles, spices, and gun powder became a major concern for European rulers. The Mongol Empire traded European slaves and guns to Venice for trade with Africa for gold, silver, and ivory.
A new passion to a€?get there before the Muslims doa€? motivated exploration and discovery of new peoples. The Chinese were poised technologically to sail around the tip of Africa and to sail westward in search of new trade centers. Trading partnerships between Venice and the Ottomans established shipping lanes across the Adriatic Sea from Greece to Italy.
The semi-autonomous Ottoman states of Algiers, Morocco, Tunis, and Tripoli made sea traffic through the Mediterranean a dangerous business for European shipping. They also raided the coastal areas of Spain, Southern France, and East Africa to seize slaves for the slave markets in the Middle East. They colonized what became known as the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) in the mid-16th century and held that colony until 1948. In 1609 an English explorer, Henry Hudson, who was under the employment of the Dutch Republic, reached the harbor of present-day New York, and sailed up the river that now bears his name.
Portugal was granted free access to all sea routes to Africa, India, and Asia east of that dividing line, and all previously unclaimed lands east of that line.
But when the Portuguese realized the great advantage Spain gained through Alexandera€™s arrangement in potential land in the Americas, they petitioned for an adjustment to Alexandera€™s solution. Because the boundaries of Brazil were poorly defined, the Portuguese pushed for expanded borders without significant opposition from the Spanish. Henry was the prime mover in developing trade between Portugal and other countries and continents.
By 1452 the Portuguese had so successfully developed trade routes circumventing the Ottoman-controlled trade routes, that Portugal became the European trade center for gold and slaves. They competed with the Dutch and the Portuguese for trade with the Orient, leading to their eventual colonization of India, and, in the 19th century, port cities in China.
Raleigh also forced Phillip II to postpone launching the Armada by raiding the coast of Spain and destroying the seasoned wood that was necessary to construct the water kegs needed by the sailors of the Armada.
In 1497 his ships landed in North America, the first Europeans to do so since the Vikings. Setting sail from Plymouth, England in December 1577 with six ships, Drake sailed to Brazil, then through the dangerous Magellan Straits at the southern tip of South America, up the coast to Panama, then reached as far, possibly, as California, or even Vancouver Island.
He later was the first European to discover Lake Champlain, Lake Huron, and Lake Ontario, all components of the Great Lakes. Although best known as the year in which Columbus sailed to the New World, several other events also made 1492 A.D. In fact, Columbus had to use the port of Palos instead of the larger port of Cadiz because Cadiz was flooded with ships carrying thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing to the Middle East, North Africa, Italy, and Greece. And with that voyage Columbus changed the world -- as the Europeans had known it --for all time. It is perhaps no accident that some of the foremost explorers of the late 1400s and early 1500s were Italians, men who were exposed to the far-reaching cultural awakening that was the Renaissance. He listened eagerly to tales told by seafarers who had sailed the length and breadth of the Mediterranean Sea, bringing back rich cargoes for Genoa`s wealthy merchants.
At the age of twenty-five, he had the most exciting time of his life when he sailed aboard a ship that sailed out onto the immense Atlantic Ocean. Columbus spent eight years in Lisbon, working as a mapmaker and receiving the greater part of his education.
Most with whom he shared his ideas dismissed him as an idle dreamer, but Columbus was determined and ambitious in his quest.
His journals expressed his belief that God had chosen him to carry the Gospel of Christ to the people of Asia.
The royal riches had been depleted by the military efforts to drive the Muslim Moors from Spain.
The next day, October 12, 1492, Columbus was the first European to set foot on an island in the present-day Bahamas.
He immediately referred to the islandsa€™ inhabitants as a€?Indians.a€? However, he also sent men inland on one larger island to look for the capitol city of a€?the Khana€? (the term used in Spain for the Chinese emperor).
We now know from DNA test results that the Siberian people who settled and today live in South America are distinct from the Siberian people who settled and live today in North America.
The a€?Ba€? DNA is found today only in aboriginal people in Japan, Southeast Asia, Melanesia, and Polynesia.
A trawler in the North Atlantic pulled up a mastedon skeleton, and with it a stone spear head or cutting tool probably used to butcher the mastedon. Speculation is that they may have been related to the early Aborigines of Australia who traveled across the Pacific. And archeologists have long wondered at the great similarities between the pyramids of Egypt and those constructed in Central and South America.
His major contribution to Europea€™s knowledge of the New World were his very accurate maps, primarily of the eastern South American coast. A German mapmaker, Martin Waldseemuller, published Vespuccia€™s map of South America in 1507 and labeled it a€?Americaa€? in honor of Vespucci. Is he a hero or a villain, a Christian missionary or a slave trader, an explorer in search of souls or a merchant in search of financial profits? Who is to say, they maintain, that the original inhabitants Columbus encountered were any less ignorant of a true God than he?
Columbus must be viewed, not through 20th century eyeglasses, but t as a man who lived in a 15th century culture. In fact, on returning to Spain, the explorers, including Columbusa€™ crews and those that came after, carried back new diseases to Europe contracted in the Americas. His diaries and letters written both before and after his historic trips contain personal compassion for the natives he encountered and his zeal to seek their conversion to Christ. Such an agreement does not make him necessarily a despicable exploiter but a typical businessman.
Hea€™d had a€?very reda€? hair in his younger years, but since hea€™d passed age 40, it had turned prematurely white.
He had sailed the Mediterranean and traveled to parts of Africa, to Ireland, and probably even to Iceland. Writer Robert Hughes expressed the conventional wisdom: a€?Sometime between 1478 and 1484, the full plan of self-aggrandizement and discovery took shape in his mind. Whenever he faced a storm, a waterspout (tornado-like whirl of seawater), or rebellious crewmen, he made vows to God. In 1501 Columbus wrote, a€?I am only a most unworthy sinner, but ever since I have cried out for grace and mercy from the Lord, they have covered me completely. He died more than a decade before Martin Luther would post his 95 Theses protesting the abuse of indulgences.
Not until last year was his most important religious writinga€”the Libro de las profecA­as, or Book of Propheciesa€”translated into English. Some scholars attribute his recurring encounters with a heavenly voice to mental instability, illness, or stress. The voyage was immediately beset by calamities a broken rudder, leaks so bad they needed immediate repair, and threatened capture by the Portuguese. But on October 11, the shipa€™s log records, they began seeing signs of shore: seabirds, bits of green plants, stacks that looked they had been carved, a small plank. Columbus and his captains went ashore in an armed launch and unfurled the royal banner and two flags.
As he wrote to Ferdinand and Isabella late in his life, a€?I spent six years here at your royal court, disputing the case with so many people of great authority, learned in all the arts.
So he called the Taino-speaking peoples of the Arawak tribes a€?Indians.a€? The name, though flatly wrong, stuck. They had coarse black haira€”a€?almost like the tail of a horsea€?a€”with a€?handsome bodies and good facesa€? painted with black, red, or white paint.
In the wee hours of Christmas morning, a sailor decided to catch some sleep and left the tiller in the hands of a boy.
Yes, the ship was wrecked beyond repair, but now he had lumbera€”lots of ita€”for building the necessary fort.
On February 14th, Columbus gathered his crew on the heaving and rolling deck to pray and make vows. In his youth, he felt God had promised him that his name would be proclaimed throughout the world. Ferdinand and Isabella, who had just united their kingdoms, soundly defeated the Moors, signaling the end of an Islamic presence in Europe. A new country, militantly united behind Christianity, had arisen and would dominate the world for a hundred years.
Zion will come from Spain.a€? For hundreds of years, the holy sites of Jerusalem had been held captive by the infidel Muslims. Augustinea€™s teaching, Columbus knew that all history fell into seven agesa€”and he was in the sixth, the next to last. When he says sincerely,a€?Our Lord in his goodness guides me so that I may find this gold,a€? we cringe. Although Ferdinand and Isabella made military strikes into Muslim-held North Africa, they never mounted a grand crusade. He took three more voyages across the Atlantic, each lasting several years and filled with harrowing storms, crew rebellions, illnesses (at one point his eyes bled), and encounters with native Americans. In May 1493, he asked Ferdinand and Isabella to set aside 1 percent of all gold taken from the islands to pay for establishing churches and sending monks. Columbus became absolutely wealthy, a€?a millionaire by any standard.a€? But he had driven such a hard bargain with the crowna€”hereditary titles and a€?the tenth part of the wholea€? of gold he founda€”that the monarchs continually had to limit his power and wealth. I found myself in such a pass that in an attempt to escape death I took to the sea in a small caravel. Late in life, with the help of a friend, a monk, Columbus assembled excerpts from the Bible and medieval authors. But he wasna€™t the first or last Christian to read his personal destiny into a Scripture verse. It was the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan who in 1519 embarked on a trip which would be the first to sail across the Pacific Ocean--and all the way around the world. He and his crew made a great friendship with their early contacts on the islands and were persuaded to stay several months to recuperate and replenish their supplies of food and water. Whether urged on by the now Christian chief or due to a threatened invasion, Magellan set sail for their island with 40 of his men. They had completed their journey around the world, proving once and for all that the earth was a sphere and that trade with Asia was possible via a route across the Pacific.
In 1539 De Soto returned to the New World, this time as leader of an expedition of nine ships, 620 men, 220 horses, and numerous priests, craftsmen, engineers, and farmers who came from Cuba and various sections of Spain. Hearing of gold deposits in the north, in 1540 De Soto made his way north through Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Tennessee, seeking gold.
They distributed land to the peninsulares, who, in turn, were expected to protect the native Americans as parents would their children, and instruct them in the Christian faith.
Because not born in Spain, they were refused access to leadership positions in the government, but because born to Spanish parents, had full access to education and business. They were at the bottom of the pecking order, and were especially mistreated by the creoles, mestizos, and mulattos. In many cases they were treated worse than animals, because they were replaceable while animals like horses were less so. What they had in mind was not more colonists from Spain, but, rather, the introduction of slave workers from Africa!
The clergy were accused of attempting to create a Church-dominated kingdom with the clergy in charge of the kingdom. From the Americas corn, potatoes, yams, squash, beans, cocoa, peanuts, gold, and silver flowed to Europe. The earlier supply of Islamic slaves from Spain and Christian slaves from Eastern Europe in the slave markets of Europe and the Middle East dried up after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the expulsion of the Moors from Spain in 1492. Up until this time slavery was identified with conquest and victory in war -- not ethnicity or skin color. Increasingly African slaves were identified as descendants of Ham, one of the sons of Noah.
In England the Muscovy Company for trade with Russia and the East India Company for trade with India were created. The easy acquisition of silver and gold from Peru and Bolivia resulted in a major miscalculation that severely damaged the economic future of Spain.
What five groups of people from Europe gradually made their way along the coasts of Africa, Asia, and the New World?
In the East Indies, now know as Indonesia, were spices, coffee, rubber and Portugal got there first. If you were looking t the map in 1493 instead of 2008, who would you have thought got the better of the deal, Spain or Portugal?
Why did he go to his death with only a few soldiers and refuse the help of the friendly chiefs? However, the use of animal models, particularly for rare disease drugs, is increasing, and regulators are tasked with determining whether the data generated in these models are adequate to support drug development and approval of safe and effective therapies, with limited clinical trial data. Patricia Brown, OLAW Director, discusses why this application section is required, what reviewers look for, and more. The CEF Panel addresses questions related to safety in the use of materials in contact with food (substances used to manufacture food contact materials and processes to recycle plastics intended for food contact), food enzymes, flavouring substances, processing aids, and processes. This series will provide pharmaceutical industry and regulatory perspectives on this topic. The aim of this webinar is to review the use of animal models of disease in the evaluation of exaggerated pharmacology and toxicity to improve the relevance and extrapolation of the assessments to the intended disease population. On December 3, a workshop on exposure and risk calculation was given to a smaller audience of approximately 30 students and faculty.
Michael Kordi, the rector of the university, to discuss potential future collaboration with this large and important regional institution. The main focus will be two-fold: to improve our understanding of ocular toxicology, pharmacology, and safety assessment and to increase our understanding of the challenges associated with the development of the next generation of ocular drugs and devices. As a master regulator of gene expression, the epigenome is responsive to a diverse range of environmental factors including toxicant exposure, diet, stress, and socioeconomic circumstances. I cannot thank the SOT Education Committee enough for giving me this enthralling opportunity to make a strong impact on a group of students and faculty in India. The needs, obstacles, and questions the students had regarding career and education in the field of toxicology came to light and I did my best to provide answers to those issues. Our journal has been ahead of most in addressing these issues and expanding editorial policies to improve the rigor, reliability, and reproducibility of the science that appears within.
The award recipient is selected by the CDI and may be either a graduate student or undergraduate student. The Sunday program is open to any undergraduate student who registered for the Annual Meeting, including the 2016 Pfizer SOT Undergraduate Travel Award Recipients. Featured themes include understanding inter-individual sensitivity, mechanisms of transgenerational inheritance, advances in high throughput screening, and emerging chemicals of concern.
Symposia topics include early prenatal diagnosis of birth defects, testicular dysgenesis syndrome, and thrombosis during pregnancy. The content of this course will provide information that could be helpful to those seeking certification in toxicology or to those seeking more advanced training in toxicology.
It's an appropriate course for physicians preparing for their board exams as well as any medical professional interested in increasing his or her understanding of the impact of toxicology on human health and local communities.
The webinar series is sponsored by the American Cleaning Institute (ACI), in collaboration with the Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA) Center, University of Cincinnati and endorsed by the Society of Toxicology and Society for Risk Analysis.
The goal of this meeting is to communicate recent discoveries and promote discussion of miRNA biomarker research efforts between consortia partners and independent researchers as a critical step toward the streamlined utilization of promising biomarkers for nonclinical and clinical safety assessment. Visit the Modular Course website for course registration, course content, lodging, and other course information. Symposia topics include: case studies on current issues within the field of genetic toxicology, exploring the role of DNA damage in epigenetics, recent advances in screening technologies, and the Pig-a gene mutation assay, as well as new techniques for identifying rare genotoxic events.
For additional information about the Regional Chapters, please contact SOT Staff Liaison to the Regional Chapters Ashley Pomper.


Ed was President of the Teratology Society, President of the SOT’s Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology Specialty Section, and a distinguished scientist with the Dow Chemical Company.
Readers can even provide feedback on character development, plot direction, cover design and so much more. Created for preschool-aged children, each episode of Tumble Leaf follows Fig, a delightfully curious blue fox, and his best friend Stick, a quirky caterpillar, as they embark on a fun and nature-filled adventure, learning science through their natural play. Each episode consists of two 11-minute stories and the remaining seven episodes will become available later this summer. Alice Wilder, one of the world’s foremost experts in educational and child psychology.
Customer reviews, 1-Click shopping, personalized recommendations, Prime, Fulfillment by Amazon, AWS, Kindle Direct Publishing, Kindle, Fire, and Fire TV are some of the products and services pioneered by Amazon. Nurdogan, who kindly explained and showed me what he works on in his establishment "Les Arts Turcs". A rectangular drum of a kind no longer made today comes from the Mediterranean town of Silifke, and there is even a conch shell of the type known as a triton, which sailors used to communicate at sea. The pegs used today are another recent modification that did not exist in the original instrument.
Turkish classical music is taught in conservatories and social clubs, the most respected of which is Istanbul's Uskudar Musiki Cemiyeti. However shorter ?arky compositions, precursors to modern day songs, are a part of this tradition, many of them extremely old, dating back to the 14th century; many are newer, with late 19th century songwriter Haci Arif Bey being especially popular.
Lutes, also stringed instruments, have a sound box terminating in a neck which serves both as a handle and a device for extending the strings beyond the sound box. Percussion instruments were first brought to Europe after being seen in the Mehterband of the Turkish army around the sixteenth century.
Nurdogan, who kindly explained and showed me what he works on in his establishment "Les Arts Turcs". As well as obscure folk instruments, his remarkable collection includes a tanbur (classical long necked lute) made in 1887 by Uzunyan belonging to Tanburi Cemil Bey, a lavta (lute) made by Kosti Ventura in 1840 which belonged to Sultan Abdulaziz, girifts (reed instruments with eight holes) which belonged to the girift player Asim Bey and the famous ney players Tevfik and Sevki Sevgin, two 18th century dulcimers, rebabs (spike fiddles made of coconut shells), and kemences (Black Sea fiddles).
However, the ships traveled back and forth between Europe ferrying the Crusaders to the Holy Land brought back to Europe many new and exciting products from Asia through the Middle East. Silk, porcelain, and metalware from China, spices and coffee from Indonesia and the Philippines, tea and spices from India, and a variety of rare new woods never seen before in Europe, were but some of the goods that excited Europe. It was also a description of the cultural practices, the languages, and religious practices of China. It fueled the interest and imagination of soon-to-be explorers, including John Cabot of England and Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa who would sail to the New World under the sponsorship of the king and queen of Spain.
European industries that produced textiles, wool, and German metalware needed to find new routes to their customers in Africa and Asia. Genoa dominated trade in the Black Sea and Western Mediterranean areas, but were increasingly harassed by the Ottomans. Marco Polo described huge five-masted ships that regularly traded with Ceylon, India, the Philippines, and Indonesia. Because most of the raiders were from the Berber tribes of North Africa, the north coast of Africa was called the Barbary Coast and the Islamic raiders became known as the Barbary Pirates.
Their raids were so frequent that parts of the coastal areas of southern Spain were abandoned by their original inhabitants.
This enabled them to control the production and trade of three crucial spices: nutmeg, cloves, and mace, as well as controlling the exporting of precious woods from Indonesia. Spain had free access to all routes to the Americas, Asia, and India, and all previously unclaimed lands west of that line. Thus, in June 1494 the line was re-negotiated westward to a new distance of 1,770 km (1,099.83 miles) through the Treaty of Tordesilla, so named for the Spanish town of Tordesilla where the treaty was signed. The company soon controlled the production and exportation of Indian cotton, indigo dye, saltpeter ( nitrate needed in the production of gunpowder), tea, and opium.
In 1629 he persuaded Cardinal Richelieu, French regent who served the young king Louis XIII, to encourage French nobility to fund the new colony of Quebec.
In 1803, France also lost its land possessions west of the Mississippi River through a sale made by Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte to the American President Thomas Jefferson. Little by little the control of the Moors was eroding, beginning in the north of Spain where the Kingdom of Asturias was overthrown in 718 A.D.
So, there was evident confusion on Columbusa€™ part about where his ships had actually landed.
Original studies indicated that four distinct haplogroups migrated into North and Central America in waves across the Bering Sea bridge. It has been found, for instance, in the ancient ancestors of the Basque people in northern Spain. It closely resembles tools made by a migratory group whose remain have been found in Spain and Portugal.
The name stuck and the two continents have been known as the Americas from that point forward. He urged the king and queen of Spain to send priests to work with the people and to instruct them in the Christian faith. After all, he was the one who took the greatest of risks in making his initial trips across the Atlantic. Inside, in the cool quiet, knelt CristA?bal ColA?n, captain general of three small ships anchored in the towna€™s inlet below. Their missiona€”the wild-eyed idea of their foreigner captaina€”was to sail west, away from all visible landmarks. There, in the land of the Great Khan, houses were roofed with gold, streets paved with marble. He boasted later in life, a€?I have gone to every place that has heretofore been navigated.a€? He knew the Atlantic as well or better than anyone, and he probably knew more about how to read currents, winds, and surfaces of the sea than do sailors today. He would win glory, riches, and a title of nobility by opening a trade route to the untapped wealth of the Orient. He saw them as the fulfillment of a divine plan for his lifea€”and for the soon-coming end of the world.
I have found the most delightful comfort in making it my whole aim in life to enjoy his marvelous presence.a€? He constantly associated with reform minded Franciscans and spent perhaps five months at the white-walled monastery of Santa MarA­a de La Rabida. Others complain that Columbusa€™s biographers described him as more religious than he really was. A week after losing sight of the Canary Islands, the pilots discovered to their consternation that the compasses no longer worked right. This a€?astonished them,a€? and Columbus compared it to the miracles that accompanied Moses.
Each was white with a central bright green cross flanked by a green F and Y for a€?Ferdinanda€? and a€?Isabella.a€? Columbus declared that these obviously inhabited lands now belonged to the Catholic sovereigns. In a sense, he would be like the legendary giant Christopher, who carried Christ on his back across a wide river. Waves broke over the ships, sails had to be lowered, and soon they were driven by the wind until they were wildly lost.
They put chick-peas in a cap and had sailors draw to see which one picked the chick-pea with a cross cut into it.
And at age 25, he had survived a shipwreck and six-mile swima€”a sign, he told his son Ferdinand, that God had a plan for him. Columbus had used the port of PalA?s, in fact, because the larger CA?diz was flooded with thousands of fleeing Jewish refugees. The Crusadersa€™ Book of Secrets, written in the early fourteenth century, said it would take 210,000 gold florins to mount a crusade. They instructed him a€?to win over the peoples of the said islands and mainland by all ways and means to our Holy Catholic Faitha€? and sent 13 religious workers on his second voyage. As a colonial governor, he ruled the farmers and settlers with such a heavy hand they rebelled. Columbus spent his last years in legal battles and worries that his estate would be whitled away.
Then the Lord came to help, saying, a€?O man of little faith, be not afraid, I am with thee.a€™ And he scattered my enemies and showed me the way to fulfill my promises.
The unfinished work, titled Book of Prophecies, uses Scriptures to show that God had ordained his voyages of discovery and that God would be doing further wonderful things for the church.
Although their commander, Magellan, died in battle in the Philippines, a handful of survivors of Magellan`s well-planned voyage returned home in 1522 after three grueling years at sea. The Christian chief pleaded with Magellan to accompany him with his warriors, but Magellan refused, stating that if God could raise one chief from the death bed, he could deliver Magellan and prove His power.
The intention was to explore the west coast of Florida and the middle of the newly discovered continent. De Soto took male slaves from each area and forced them to carry cargo until they could continue no longer.
Frustrated with the results, the expedition headed south to meet two supply ships in the Gulf of Mexico, but they were attacked by the Mobila tribe (present-day Mobile, Alabama). Those who did remain were introduced to European feudalism by means of the Spanish Encomienda System. This caused Catholic missionaries to complain to the viceroys, the monarchy, and even to the Pope in Rome, requesting intervention to make life more humane for the native Americans.
The viceroys and peninsulares dismissed the complaints brought by the clergy as coming from biased, self-seeking opponents. Increasingly Spain depended on native American slaves to work the gold and silver mines and to serve on the sugar plantations. The Dutch East India Company funded and controlled shipping to the Spice Islands (Indonesia) and led to the colonization of Indonesia by the Dutch. Because of the new wealth Spain did not engage in new methods of production as did other nations in Europe, relying instead on its wealth to purchase the goods demanded by its people. In general, nonclinical studies to support clinical trial initiation and ongoing development of small molecules and biologics are guided by ICH M3 and ICH S6; however, review divisions may apply regulatory flexibility.
The work of the two Panels mainly concerns substances evaluated by EFSA before their use can be authorized in the European Union. The basic principles of the use of animal models of disease will be reviewed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of these models.
Ternopol State Medical University has an enrollment of 4,063 students, including 1,200 foreign students from 62 countries. Farland was the US Environmental Protection Agency Deputy Administrator, Science, from 2001–2006. Traditional toxicological paradigms have relied on factors such as age, genetic polymorphisms, and disease status to identify variability in responsiveness to environmental toxicant exposure; however, these factors are neither sufficient to faithfully identify differentially responsive individuals, nor are they modifiable factors that can be leveraged to mitigate adverse health effects of toxicant exposures. A primary goal of this meeting is to feature new investigators, new technology, and new areas of concern, including potential effects on pollinators.
There will be numerous career development events designed specifically for students and new and early stage investigators. In particular, the organizing committee has focused on the two challenges that were considered to be of the highest importance in the field. Topics span organ systems and disease models and will include up-to-date thinking about how the AHR is relevant to the development and function of many organ systems, to numerous diseases, as well as to drug discovery and environmental health. The faculty consists of well-recognized experts in their field of study and most are Board Certified by the American Board of Toxicology (ABT).
IUTOX is proud to present this meeting where toxicologists from around the world will share their recent findings with colleagues and other ICTXIV delegates.
In particular, the committee has focused on the two challenges that were considered to be of the highest importance in the field.
The series will also be available in Kindle FreeTime Unlimited, a service built just for kids that gives them the freedom to explore all their favorite books, games, educational apps, movies and TV shows, while providing parents with the tools they need to manage their kids’ screen time. The upper surface is made of sycamore wood, the lower surface of pinewood, the bridge is of maple. Drums and the zurna go together and are mostly used in folk music and they are an indispensable part of wedding or circumcision festivities.
While he was showing us his web page, I saw on it that he offered music lessons, and I asked him if I could recieve a ney lesson and.
These shells were also blown by circumcisers to announce that the operation was over.The many wind instruments in yngor's collection include the zurna (Turkish oboe), the longest type of which is made in western Turkey, and which becomes shorter as it crosses the country eastwards.
Before these were introduced the musician obtained the notes he desired by pressing on the strings with the nail of his left thumb, making it a far more difficult instrument to play. The instrument is played with all the fingers, using a technique comparable to that of the harp and guitar. The kopuz, also a stringed instrument, was used in Central Asia by Turkish tribes about two thousand years ago and is mentioned in the tales of Dede Korkut (a sage, the mentor of the Turkish Oguz tribe who narrates moralistic epic tales to a chieftain of the tribes). While he was showing us his web page, I saw on it that he offered music lessons, and I asked him if I could recieve a ney lesson and. An unusual metal ney (classical Turkish reed flute) is one of the most interesting pieces in the collection. Genoa provided the sailors, ship captains, and the know-how for the later Portuguese and Spanish explorations.
Food that was spoiled or even rotten became palatable when the rich spices of the Orient were added. They were four to five times larger than European ships and possessed a technology not known to Europeans.
At other times they extorted large payments in order to allow merchant ships to pass through their waters. He was especially interested in exploring the west coast of Africa, which became the key area for providing African slaves to Portugal -- now the key European slave market. Some believe it was in Nova Scotia, others in Newfoundland, and some believe it might have been in Maine.
He then successfully sailed across the Pacific Ocean to the Indonesian islands, westward through the Indian Ocean to the tip of Africa, and then northward to England where he arrived in 1580. Later colonies were established at Plymouth (1620) by Pilgrim settlers, the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629, and the Connecticut Colony in 1636. Because India had traditionally served as a middle man in trading Chinese products, especially porcelain and silk to Africa and Italy, the company gained control of that industry as well. Columbus seemed to them to be a means by which new wealth could be acquired from a new route to the Spice Islands as well as confiscation of the fabled gold deposits in the New World. They were offered one alternative to emigration, and that was conversion to the Christian faith. He and the crew immediately gave thanks to God for a safe arrival in a worship service and he planted both the royal banner of Spain and a wooden cross on the beach of the island he named a€?San Salvadora€? -- Holy Savior.
Walter Neves, an anthropologist at the University of Sao Paulo, who made the initial discovery along with an Argentine colleague, Hector Pucciarelli. Not to mention Egyptian mummies and German skeletons that show strong amounts of nicotine in their remains, people who died long before the European voyagers of the 16th century began shipping tobacco from the New World to Europe.
But we do know that from the traditional European perspective, the explorer who first a€?discovereda€? the New World in modern times was Christopher Columbus.
However, towards the end of the 20th century other voices began to question and attack his motives and his treatment of the islandsa€™ original inhabitants.
Did not Christ die for their salvation as well as for the Spanish, Portuguese, and Italians? With Columbus saying confession and hearing mass, were some ninety pilots, seamen, and crown appointed officials.
They would leave behind Spain and Portugal, the a€?end of the world,a€? and head straight into the Mare Oceanum, the Ocean Sea.
And most bizarre of all, we dona€™t knowa€”and will probably never knowa€”the spot where he came ashore. As he put it in 1500, a€?God made me the messenger of the new heaven and the new earth of which he spoke in the Apocalypse of St.
He read from the Vulgate Bible and the church fathers but, typical for his era, mingled astrology, geography, and prophecy with his theology. Some protest that Columbus was greedy and obsessively ambitious, so he couldna€™t have been truly religious, as if competing qualities cannot exist in one person. Few took it as a sign of land, but when the crew gathered to sing Salve Regina (a€?Hail, Queena€?), Columbus instructed his men to keep careful lookout. In spite of that it later came to pass as Jesus Christ our Savior had predicted and as he had previously announced through the mouths of His holy prophets.a€¦ I have already said that reason, mathematics, and maps of the world were of no use to me in the execution of the enterprise of the Indies. He also, a Christopher, a a€?Christ-bearer,a€? would carry Christ across the wide Ocean Sea to peoples who had never heard the Christian message.
That sailor would go on a holy pilgrimage to a shrine of the Virgin Mary if they landed safely. That was a mere 155 years away, and much had to happen: all peoples of the world would convert to Christianity, the Holy Land would be rescued from the infidels, the Antichrist would come. If Columbus could find enough gold in the Indies especially if he could find the lost mines of Solomon, which were known to be in the Easta€”he could pay for a Holy Land crusade.
Columbus wanted gold not only for himself, but also for a much larger reason: to pay for the medieval Christiana€™s dream, the retaking of the Holy Land. In his will, Columbus instructed his son Diego to support from his trust four theology professors to live on Hispaniola and convert the Indians. Some have criticized Columbus for the a€?providential and messianic delusions that would come to grip him later in lifea€? and accused him of megalomania. Magellan spent several days with the man and prayed for him, asking God to heal him and to show the islanders His power. He then had them killed and took slaves from the other peoples through whose territories he passed. Rather than covering him and hiding the event, Ham told his brothers, who then went in to cover their father. The steady use of silver and gold by Spain greatly increased the amount available in Europe, drove the value of silver and gold down, and resulted in Spain becoming one of the least financially healthy nations in Europe. In addition, specific examples of the use of these models in safety assessments will be presented.
Korchevskiy had the opportunity to tell the audience about the importance of toxicological professions and the priorities for the Society of Toxicology. For more information including continuing education and abstract submission, please visit the conference website. We continue to identify ways to enhance the quality of our science and welcome feedback from our readers to guide us in this process.
Rychlik, Allan Somers, and Pamella Tijerina led and inspired the students throughout the entire three-day program. An associated Gordon Research Seminar will be held in conjunction, led and organized by trainees, and featuring work in the area of genes, genetics, and genomics. For additional information and to register, please visit the Teratology Annual Meeting website. Michael Holsapple commented “As former colleagues at Dow, Ed was a close personal friend. Amazon Original Series are available exclusively to Prime members through Prime Instant Video. The music reflects different emotions, mainly unrequited love and when it is sad it may sound depressing, but when expressing joy, happiness or pleasure you will find yourself dancing to the rhythm. Haci Arif Bey was the greatest virtuoso of the kanun in this original form in the 19th century. It is the instrument best adapted to polyphonic music, and might be called the piano of Turkish music. I couldn't imagine how would be a lesson of a so exotic -for me-, difficult and mystical instrument like the ney, but the calmness and the experience of Huseyin, made me live the lesson with serenity, attention and a great curiosity. We come across the belief among the shamanist Turks that a warrior with a kopuz at his waist was protected in battle from injury at enemy hands. Today there are various trends in Turkish pop music and the lute is one of the main instruments accompanying the soloist both in classical Turkish music, popular mainstream music and folk songs. For many years drums were "aristocratic" instruments, primarily used with trumpets to sound fanfares as the king entered a theatre or throne room.
I couldn't imagine how would be a lesson of a so exotic -for me-, difficult and mystical instrument like the ney, but the calmness and the experience of Huseyin, made me live the lesson with serenity, attention and a great curiosity. It was made by Neyzen Tevfik when he was staying at a psychiatric hospital undergoing treatment for alcoholism. The largest ships were over 400 feet long and 150 wide and were protected by a fleet of military vessels manned by over 20,000 soldiers. A second exploratory journey in 1498 was ill-fated and probably returned to England by 1500.
Drake was the second European to successfully sail around the world, and achieved what Magellan did not -- he personally completed the entire trip (Magellan died in the Philippines). The establishment of these colonies resulted in a great wave of English settlers arriving in North America during the decade 1630-1640. Quebec remained the only significant French land holding in North America, which was quickly engulfed by large numbers of English who founded and settled British Canada. Thus, in seventy days Columbus completed an historic transatlantic voyage that eventually led to European settlement in what would later be called the New World.
The term a€?Indiana€? was decried as a demeaning term, and Columbus was described as a slave trading, gold seeking, ego-maniac. Later that day they would row to their ships, ColA?n taking his place on the Santa MarA­a, a slow but sturdy flagship no longer than five canoes. But even if they reached the Indies, how would they get back, since currents and winds all seemed to go one way?
At least once he appeared in public wearing a Franciscan habit and the ordera€™s distinctive cord.
Even when Columbus forcibly subjugated Hispaniola in 1495, he believed he was fulfilling a divine destiny for himself and for Aragon and Castile and for the holy church.
Feverish and in deep despair, he wrote, a€?I dragged myself up the rigging to the height of the crowa€™s nest.a€¦ Still groaning, I lost consciousness. Fearing his men would tell the story of the Spanish losses to the Spanish ships, in 1541 he turned westward into Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, then to the banks of the Mississippi River in present-day Mississippi where De Soto died if a high fever. Focusing on emerging ideas and transformative approaches will be a unifying basis from which participants working on every level from molecule to man can converge and discuss the past, present, and future of the Endocrine Disruptor Chemical (EDC) field.
Immunogenicity of these therapeutics is a significant confounding factor and often makes nonclinical risk assessment difficult. To ensure an interactive meeting, registration is limited, so act soon to guarantee your place. Abstracts from students and new investigators received by March 4, 2016, will automatically qualify for potential travel awards. He was always willing to reach out with a scientific insight, with a thought-provoking question, or with just a kind word. The next kanun virtuoso was the 20th century musician Ferid Alnar, who won a reputation as a very young man with his unusual style of playing, and was regarded as a master before he had reached the age of 20.
We did a little bit of teory (the names of the different neys depending on their size and tune, the name of the different notes, a brushstroke of history.) for all that I had to write notes, and then we alterned also with the practice (posture, hand position, how to blow, the fingering.) and I made it sound differents notes!! Turkish strolling minstrels brought the baglama to Anatolia and in fact, everyone knew how to play this instrument. In Turkey there are singers who use the lute, just as their counterparts in the West use the guitar.
We did a little bit of teory (the names of the different neys depending on their size and tune, the name of the different notes, a brushstroke of history.) for all that I had to write notes, and then we alterned also with the practice (posture, hand position, how to blow, the fingering.) and I made it sound differents notes!!
The other patients kept breaking his wooden neys, and in desperation he removed a length of metal piping from his bed and fashioned a sturdier instrument for himself. Four priests eventually volunteered to travel to China but soon returned to Rome after experiencing culture-shock along the Silk Road.
Drake was also a major participant in the active slave trade in which England was a main competitor with the Spanish and Portuguese in the lucrative slave trade which dealt with not only African slaves, but also slaves taken from the Caribbean Islands.
This is considered to be the first Christian victory over the Islamic Moors in Spain, in the long struggle called the Reconquista. How could the Spanish Catholic determine who truly converted and who did so outwardly simply to avoid emigration?
I heard a voice in pious accents saying, a€?O foolish man and slow to serve your God, the God of all! Church leaders began to identify this curse with skin color -- dark slaves taken from Africa. She was very interested in early explorers and told her children many of these stories over and over again. Hence, with rumors of vast supplies of gold and silver in the New World, and even the possibility of reaching the Spice Islands from the opposite direction taken by the Portuguese had great promise. Gehring had a strong interest in encouraging individuals from groups underrepresented in the sciences to enter biomedical sciences and toxicology. In classical Turkish music the zither, tambur, lute, tef (tambourine), darbuka and ney (reed flute) are some of the instruments used, besides the well-known ones also used in the west, including the piano, violin, viola and clarinet. When played in an orchestra or ensemble it sweeps up all the other instruments and leads them on. It was two nice hours of learning and meeting, where Huseyin was opened to answer all my questions, and to give all the explanations that were necessary.
The baglama is so-to-say a friend of the minstrels who at certain times of the year gather at contests and song festivals. It was two nice hours of learning and meeting, where Huseyin was opened to answer all my questions, and to give all the explanations that were necessary. The continents of North and South America were so large almost anyone could land there sailing from Europe. The development of these technologies is complicated by their complex and novel composition, the local cellular response often observed against these systems within the eye, and a lack of clear regulatory guidance in the field. The kanun is an instrument of special importance, since it can play both jazz and chamber music, and also has the advantage of being a solo instrument, which can play symphonic works. Accompanied by music, repartee between the contestants is sometimes satirical, sometimes filled with irony but never insulting and is fun to listen to. It is both struck and shaken and sometimes used by young ladies dancing to a melody, in addition to its place in the orchestra. But to find his way back again to his home port in Spain -- that was a demonstration of his advanced sailing skills.
From the hour of your birth he has always had a special care of you.a€™ a€? The voice continued at length and closed with a€?Be not afraid, but of good courage.
He was nicknamed Henry the Navigator because when he became an influential prince, he spear headed the drive for Portugal to hit the seas and travel to Asia.
For additional information and to register, go to the Ocular Toxicology conference website. It is played with the help of a plectrum, one fastened to each index finger by an adjustable metal ring. Maria Neira, Director, Public Health and Environment Department, World Health Organization; Dr. They also can help you finding the right instrument for you.For the music lovers we also can offer teaching lessons for the other Turkish instruments like Saz, Tanbur, Ney, Ud, Kanun, Buzuki, Darbuka, Bendir, Kemence, Zil, Tef, Perkusyon, Tar.
The Spanish take credit for naming the Philippine Islands for Philip II of Spain, but their competitor, Portugal, claimed that they named the islands for Philippa, the mother of Henry the Navigator. Carles Bartolome,TURKISH MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS,Ethnomusicologist Etem Ruhi Ungor, whose research in this field is known worldwide, has travelled thousands of miles over the years, from city to city and village to village in search of traditional Turkish musical instruments.



Is law of attraction scientifically proven
Lotto winning numbers texas
Contemporary leadership theories wikipedia
Mentoring digital minds

great courses review teaching company



Comments to «Great courses review teaching company»

  1. Gentlemen writes:
    Visualize And Use The Law the graphic under displays the 49 possible essence Health.
  2. addari writes:
    Confusing social circumstances by composing individual stories.