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Providing practical strategies for becoming a better leader, this bestselling book includes interactive elements to help students apply leadership concepts to their own lives.
DESCRIPTION: A Benedictine monk named Andrew Walsperger from Salzburg created this world map in 1448 at Constance.
The orientation of the mappamundi towards the South is perhaps the first aspect that surprises and intrigues the modern spectator who is used to North-oriented maps, and who is therefore disoriented by the effort required to identify landmasses which not only have 500-year-old outlines, but which are also turned a€?upside down,a€? thus losing their familiar shapes. The earth is surrounded by an ocean except at the far South, at the top of the map, where Africa stretches to the edge of the circle. The map mentions curiosities allegedly only occurring in Africa: Amazons, Pygmies, one-footed beings, long-eared beings and humans with tails. Descriptions of the representational method, indications in the measurement banner beneath the chart picture and the signatures prove that his map was one of the last products of European monkish cartography. A refinement of the Walsperger map is the convention of placing a red dot by each city controlled by Christians; pagan-ruled sites received a black dot. To understand the Ptolemaic influence, it is necessary first to be aware of a school of science under the leadership of the mathematician and astronomer Johannes de Gmunden at the University of Vienna and the prelate Georg Mustinger at the Augustinian monastery of Klosterneuburg, now in suburban Vienna. Although only coordinate tables survive for the earliest versions of these circular world maps of the Vienna-Klosterneuburg school, Durand reconstructed maps from the tables, most of which are to be found in a 522-page codex in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. This evidence suggests that 15th century cartographers were clearly impressed with the Ptolemaic model and took pains to demonstrate that, although they did not agree with all of Ptolemya€™s information or method of using coordinates, the tradition was to be revered. In 1490 Henricus Martellus Germanus (#256) developed the second Ptolemaic projection for his world maps and fitted the new discoveries into it, as did the globe of Martin Behaim (#258). It has become clear to some cartographic scholars that South America was represented as a huge peninsula of southeastern Asia on many world maps of the 16th century, from the Zorzi sketches of 1506 to the Livio Sanuto map of 1574. It is not so well known that this very same peninsula existed already under the name of India Meridionalis on earlier maps, drawn before the arrival in the western hemisphere of Christopher Columbus.
However, the Martellus maps show a very good representation of the South American hydrographic system, including all the great rivers in the sub-continent. A deeper study of the same maps has made possible the identification of several capes on the Atlantic coast, the swamps of the Rio Negro in Brazil, and Lake Titicaca. There was thus no known pre-Columbian historical exploration of South America by the European nations.
The earlier maps extant include the so-called mappaemundi drawn by medieval churchmen in Western Christendom. In order to detect this peninsula on pre-Martellus maps, we needed an identifying criterion. The above mentioned sequence identifies the Dragona€™s Tail on the Walsperger Map, made in Constance in 1448.
The Walsperger map has been reproduced and commented on by several historians of cartography, particularly Roberto Almagia and Dana Benet Durand. The following is a theory expressed by Paul Gallez regarding the depiction of South America prior to Columbusa€™ voyages. In the southernmost part of South America (?), there are the words, next to a strait: Hic sunt gigantes pugnantes cum draconious [Here live some giants who fight against the dragons]. Traditionally, the so-called Legend of the Patagonian Giants is attributed to Antonio Pigafetta, the chronicler of Magellana€™s voyage. The map called Nova Cosmographia per totum arculum dated 1440, (#247) by Durand, and the anonymous Zeitz map dated 1470 by the same author (#251), belong to the same family as the Walsperger map. In the later Middle Ages, explanations of the map paintera€™s intentions are sometimes found on the map itself, as in the case of this map. Ptolemy was an important name to the German school, but it seems as though his work was not very well understood.
AlmagiA , Roberto, Monumenta cartografica Vaticana (CittA  del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1944), Plate XII. Vatikanischen Bibliothek, Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fA?r Erdkunde zu Berlin, XXVI (1891), pp.
AlmagiA , Roberto, Monumenta cartografica Vaticana (CittA  del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1944) Volume I, pp.
Durand, Dana Benett, The Vienna-Klosterneuburg map corpus of the fifteenth century (Leiden: E. Gallez, Paul, a€?Walsperger and His Knowledge of the Patagonian Giants, 1448,a€? Imago Mundi 33 (1981), pp. Wittkower, Rudolf, a€?Marvels of the East: A Study in the History of Monsters,a€? Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 5 (1942), note 6 on p. The book examines one quality of leadership per chapter, enabling students to apply concepts and skills to their leadership development.
It conforms to the traditional type of world representation during the European Middle Ages and this representation of the known world accords with the contemporary monkish cartographic world view.

Most of the diagrammatic manuscript mappaemundi of the period 1150-1500 are oriented to the East.
This late medieval mappamundi, represents a transitional type of cartography that was beginning to unfold in Western Europe before the Renaissance.
Eastern Asia contains, interestingly enough, all red dots except for Zandala, the fake paradise.
There are, however, two surviving original maps that Durand believes are based on this genre: this one and the Zeitz map of about 1470 (#251).
Fra Mauro felt it necessary to apologize for not following the parallels, meridians, and degrees of the Geography on his world map of 1459 (#249), because he found them too confining to show discoveries (presumably in Asia) unknown to Ptolemy. This is the India which Columbus was looking for, because it was marked in the right place on his maps.
In the post-Columbian series, the isthmus of Panama is represented with its true width, because it had been heard of by Columbus and other explorers from the aborigines; in the pre-Columbian series, the union of the peninsula with Asia is much broader, because nobody had exact information about it. The pre-Magellanic maps have South America extending only to some degrees South; on post-Magellanic maps the land extends to 53 degrees South.
On these pre-Columbian maps, the drainage net is much better drawn than on any other representation made before 1850. So Gallez believes that the deep and sound European knowledge of South America before its exploration by Columbus and his Spanish and Portuguese challengers has been firmly established. But the detail of its hydrographic features mapped by Martellus in 1489 (#256) is a fact, even if this fact remains historically unexplained. In this way we have identified the Dragona€™s Tail on three maps drawn between 1440 and 1470. As cultured persons, both Pigafetta and Magellan would have seen such maps as Walspergera€™s or others of the same family, and they would surely have taken aboard some copies of them. They mention respectively: dy Risen vechten und streiten wider dy lint wurm and Homines gigantes pugrant cum draconibus.
An inscription on all the maps reads, a€?Ptolemy placed the inhabited world as 180A? from north to south.a€? Of course, Ptolemy did no such thing. Heinrich, a€?Eine neue mittelalterische Weltkarte der vatikanischen Bibliotheka€?, Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fur Wrdkunde 26 (1891), pp. Heinrich, Die Entdeckung Amerikas in ihrer Bedeutung fA?r die Geschichte des Weltbildes (Berlin: W.
Heinrich, a€?Eine neue mittelalterische Weltkarte der Vatikanischen Bibliothek,a€? Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fA?r Erdkunde zu Berlin, XXVI (1891), 371-406. The cartography of such maps is very poor: for instance, on the maps of Hieronymo Girava 1556, Johann Honter 1561, Giacomo Gastaldi 1562 and Francesco Basso 1571, the Rio Amazonas has its source in Patagonia and flows from south to north.
Gallez believes that the non-recognition of the sphericity of the earth on these mappaemundi was a definitive hindrance, because in such a flat and circular world, there seems to be no place for a large and protruding peninsula like the Dragona€™s Tail. It provides self-assessment questionnaires, observational exercises, and reflection and action worksheets in each chapter. The chart with a diameter of 57.5 cm is surrounded by circles representing the heavenly spheres and the a€?heaven of crystala€?. But among the maps contemporary with that of Andreas Walsperger is the 1459 world map of Fra Mauro (#249), the so-called Borgia world map (#237) of the first half of the 15th century, and the Zeitz mappamundi (#251) of the last quarter of that century are all oriented to the South. Its contributions to cartography were but a fraction of its legacy of scientific manuscripts, including astronomical treatises, star catalogs, and tables of planetary motions, eclipses, and conjunctions, as well as general works on mathematics, including trigonometry. Andreas Walsperger, in this mappamundi of 1448, stated a€?In this figure is contained a mappa mundi or geometrical description of the world, made from the cosmography of Ptolemy proportionally according to longitude, latitude, and the divisions of climate, and with the true and complete chart for the navigation of the seasa€?.
Examples of such maps are those made in Florence and Rome in 1489 by Henricus Martellus (#256). There is no record extant of anyone reporting that they had seen any land or island south of the equator, nor did anybody pretend to have explored the inner part of a trans-Atlantic continent and to have mapped its rivers.
We may thus believe that this knowledge already existed before Martellus, and we should look at older maps in search of the sources which he could have had at his disposal.
Then there is a small, almost square peninsula which bears the name Aurea Kersonesis, leaving no doubt about its identification. They thus knew that, following their maps, they would have to sail to the south along the coast of the Dragona€™s Tail until they reached the Land of Giants, and that at the end of that land, they would find a passage to the West, to the Sinus Magnus, and thus a way to the Moluccas. Both maps confirm the fact that Walspergera€™s mention of giants in Patagonia was not a fancy of the cartographer: it was part of the geographical lore of the time. His maps showed the world only as far as 16A? south of the equator, and he opined that the rest was probably uninhabited or uninhabitable.
A new chapter on handling conflict has been added to the Second Edition, giving a multi-faceted view of conflict and methods for resolving conflict in leadership situations.
To the East, left on the chart, where the earthly Paradise is established as a city with towers and walls, are the sources, going from left to right, of the rivers of Paradise: Pison, Tigris, Euphrates and Gichon.

Some belong to a subgroup of maps called the Vienna- Klosterneuburg map corpus, the world maps, according to Dana Benett Durand, which were compiled with the help of coordinates.
There is one lone red dot on the West African coast, but there is no place-name given - could this be a relic of the Portuguese voyages? Most of these were recopied versions of earlier medieval works, but nevertheless Klosterneuburg constituted a seed-bed of scientific innovation. The best preserved copy is in the British Library and there is also a poorer copy in the University of Leiden. Then there is a bay with the same position, form and extension, as the Sinus Magnus on the Martellus map and on Behaima€™s globe, which has been identified as the Sinus Magnus.
Considering that in 1489 Martellus knew about the inner courses of many South American rivers, we have no reason to doubt that, forty years earlier, Walsperger knew of the Patagonians. The meeting with the Tewelche in Saint Julian was the full confirmation, for Magellan and Pigafetta, of what they already knew from their maps. The 180A? on his maps was the measure of longitude from the Fortunate Islands to the east coast of China. Some belong to a subgroup of maps called the Vienna- Klosterneuburg map corpus, the world maps, according to Dana Benett Durand, which were compiled with the help of coordinates.A A  After its translation into Latin by Jacobus Angelus about 1406-7, the popularity of Ptolemya€™s Geography increased steadily throughout the 15th century, as reflected in the frequency of printed editions from 1475 onward. Crone it fails to reach the standard to which the public of the time was already accustomed.
Case studies have been added to the end of each chapter, including more global examples, and followed by questions to stimulate class discussion. Around Alpha and Omega they form a group (Seraphim, Cherubim, Throne and Dominationes), the very first beginnings (Principatus), the archangel and angel.
Thus it is not surprising that, around the mid-15th century, a mappamundi was oriented to the South. In particular, the maps and coordinate tables associated with this school help to fill in a period of relative cartographic obscurity between the Claudius Clavus map of about 1425 and the tabulae modernae of the later Ptolemaic manuscripts about 1450. Walspergera€™s map testifies generally to an enduring belief in fables and monsters: a€?And around this pole [the Antarctic one] are most amazing monsters not only of the animal variety but even among humansa€?.
The Walsperger map comes with a statement of purpose, announcing that it has been a€?made geometrically from the cosmography of Ptolemy proportionally according to longitude and latitude and the divisions of the climates.a€? Yet latitude and longitude do not appear on the map. One of the earliest world maps showing such influence by displaying, for example, the closed Indian Ocean of Ptolemy, is the 1414 Pirrus de Noha map (#239) accompanying a manuscript of Pomponius Mela. In particular, the maps and coordinate tables associated with this school help to fill in a period of relative cartographic obscurity between the Claudius Clavus map of about 1425 and the tabulae modernae of the later Ptolemaic manuscripts about 1450.A  Between 1425 and 1430, Mustinger and his collaborators were working on a map genre that assimilated the Jerusalem-centered medieval world map with elements from Ptolemy and the portolan [nautical] charts, which when reconstructed are similar in their general geographical configuration to the circular Vesconte-Sanudo maps (#228).
Andreas Walsperger, in fact, did not even think it necessary to address the issue, probably considering it congruent with the wider culture of his readers and patrons. Sweden is an island with the towns Stockholm and Upsalia; and in Russia there is Norgadia [Novgorod]. Another red dot is found on Taprobana and the island where Saint Thomas is thought to be buried, and another marks the stone tower on the narrow land bridge to East Asia. Konrad Kretschmer, who discovered the Walsperger map back in the 1890a€™s, said with disgust, a€?Not a single line of the map is from Ptolemy!a€? This is not quite fair, as random features from Ptolemy appear, such as the Aurea Kersonesus [Golden Chersonese] in the Far East, an enclosed Caspian Sea - though a Caspian gulf is also retained - and the stone tower that marks the border with India. Some explanations also include the influence of the contemporary Islamic cartography, the cosmographical concepts of Aristotle, and, of course, the maritime commercial focus of Walspergera€™s time of the Indian Ocean and thus towards the South.
Reality is recognized in the Holy Land, where all dots are black, and Russian orthodoxy is apparently considered beyond the pale, as all places in Russia are also marked with black.
It had not yet freed itself from the fabulous appurtenances and the ancient monastic pattern. No wonder that, having regard to his maps, he concluded that this river flowed from Paradise. On the other hand, Heinrich Winter blames the pernicious influence of Ptolemy for the mapsa€™ abandonment of the accurate geographic forms of the contemporary sea charts.
This feature is reminiscent of the sea charts, which found it useful to put religiously keyed symbols or flags on the various ports. A scale for calculating distances is found at the bottom of the Walsperger map [it is more decorative than trustworthy]. Above Jerusalem, which in accordance with the traditional manner is placed at the center of the world sphere, the Red Sea is depicted. The eastern prolongation of the continent, extending as far as Java Insula, and separated from Asia only by a narrow strait, once again brings us back to the true Ptolemaic tradition of an enclosed Indian Ocean, as does the placement of the Nile River in the heart of Africa.

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introduction to leadership concepts and practice chapter 2 zip

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