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During the middle school years, students are beginning to develop higher order language abilities. If your child or student has difficulty with any of the above mentioned skills it is important to make the proper referrals to get the student help. Summer fairs: 12 ways to keep kids safe around animalsSummer fairs and recreational festivals often offer opportunities for children and adults to interact with animals.
Home selling: 10 simple tips for boosting curb appealHow can a home seller attract potential buyers to explore the property and consider purchasing it? This is a brand new edition of a bestselling title, updated for the newest CfE Higher English course, and particularly directed at offering support for Paper 1: Reading for Understanding, Analysis and Evaluation.
Children who are physically fit have faster and more robust neuro-electrical brain responses during reading than their less-fit peers, researchers report. The researchers tracked brain activity in participants using electroencephalography, which captures signals from dozens of electrodes on the scalp. These differences correspond with better language skills in the children who are more fit, and occur whether theya€™re reading straightforward sentences or sentences that contain errors of grammar or syntax. The new findings, reported in the journal Brain and Cognition, do not prove that higher fitness directly influences the changes seen in the electrical activity of the brain, the researchers say, but offer a potential mechanism to explain why fitness correlates so closely with better cognitive performance on a variety of tasks.


The researchers used electroencephalography (EEG), placing an electrode cap on the scalp to capture some of the electrical impulses associated with brain activity. These patterns are called a€?event-related potentialsa€? (ERPs), and vary according to the person being evaluated and the nature of the stimulus, Scudder said.
For example, if you hear or read a word in a sentence that makes sense (a€?You wear shoes on your feeta€?), the component of the brain waveform known as the N400 is less pronounced than if you read a sentence in which the word no longer makes sense (a€?At school we sing shoes and dance,a€? for example), Scudder said. The researchers found that children who were more fit (as measured by oxygen uptake during exercise) had higher amplitude N400 and P600 waves than their less-fit peers when reading normal or nonsensical sentences. Most importantly, the researchers said, these differences in brain activity corresponded to better reading performance and language comprehension in the children who were more fit.
More work must be done to tease out the causes of improved cognition in kids who are more fit, Hillman said, but the new findings add to a growing body of research that finds strong links between fitness and healthy brain function. Many studies conducted in the last decade, on children and older adults, a€?have repeatedly demonstrated an effect of increases in either physical activity in onea€™s lifestyle or improvements in aerobic fitness, and the implications of those health behaviors for brain structure, brain function and cognitive performance,a€? Hillman said. The language development during the Middle School years is just as unique and developmentally important. It provides you with the support and advice you will need to succeed in this element of Higher English, which is worth 30% of the available marks in your examination.


The squiggly readouts from the electrodes look like seismic readings captured during an earthquake, and characteristic wave patterns are associated with different tasks. The N400 also had shorter latency in children who were more fit, suggesting that they processed the same information more quickly than their peers.
If certain skills are not acquired during the Middle School years, higher level language development, understanding and learning will be effected.
Ralston are highly experienced English teachers, and authors of several English textbooks and study guides. However, students with language disabilities, weak academic habits or lack of exposure may have difficulty acquiring these higher level language skills. They previously wrote the very successful 'Higher English Language Skills' book together, as well as a wealth of other books for English students and teachers.



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language skills higher english



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