Language skills medium,pinterest quotes about miracles,life coach courses gold coast - Downloads 2016

Speaking and writing are productive language skills, this means that you have control over what you are saying or writing and the vocabulary you use. This entry was posted in Language Theory and tagged Business English, General English, language skills, language theory, listening, reading, speaking, vocabulary, writing on November 13, 2013 by Nicole Heusser.
The percentage of companies that declare they have missed out on exportation contracts due to language barriers were much higher in Sweden (20%) than in Denmark (4%), Germany (8%) and France (13%).
PME suedoises, francaises et allemandes pratiquent le multilinguisme comme strategie d’exportation. Based on the language of economic analysis I have in this study conducted a comparative analysis of Swedish, Danish, German and French small-and medium-sized enterprises. In addition, the percentage of companies having a multilingual export strategy are at 27% in Sweden compared to 68% among Danish SMEs, 63% in Germany and 40% in France.
The study shows that multilingualism is more complicated than the current belief that English is the only market language.
Sweden, Germany and France have a similar industrial structure and compete for the same markets. A larger proportion of exporting companies and a better export geography – The higher the multilingual skills among SME companies, the greater proportion of firms exporting to emerging markets and the better the export geography. A larger number of foreign customers and a larger proportion of foreign establishments – Among German SME companies, which have higher language skills than French SMEs, the percentage of companies billing more than 50 customers abroad are at 63%. The English language's role as the sole language for Internet and world trade has declined and other languages are being used to an increasing extent. When 2000 small and medium-sized companies in 29 countries were asked by the European Commission, in their study on effects on the European economy of shortages of language skills in SMEs, to identify the languages they used in their major export markets it was apparent that there is widespread use of intermediary languages for third markets.
Small-and medium-sized enterprises in Europe are using to an ever increasing extent the specific language of the export market to establish themselves in new emerging markets. The German and French languages are thus used by far fewer Swedish SMEs than in other countries. When we study language use among SME companies in separate countries related to export success the relationship between the two variables becomes even more clear. The link between language skills and export success has previously been studied at both a macro-economic and micro-economic level. An emerging research field called Economics of multilingualism increasingly emphasizes the importance of language and multilingualism in the economy in general and export performance in particular.
According to the research group studying economics of multilingualism at the University of Geneva the language diversity in Switzerland generates 9% of GDP . This is the first time the economic value of a country’s language skills has been calculated. The British Chambers of Commerce language survey (2004) explicitly looked at the impact of language skills on export performance. Percentage of companies in each category having an annual export turnover above 750.000 Euro. The survey found there was a direct correlation between the value an individual export manager placed on language skills within their business and annual turnover. Based on the language of economic analysis I have in this study conducted a comparative analysis of Swedish, German and French small-and medium-sized enterprises.
The proportion of SME companies having a multilingual export strategy is lower in Sweden than in the EU. In addition, the percentage of companies having a multilingual export strategy are 63% in Germany and 40% in France. The term multilingualism refers both to a situation in which several languages are spoken within a certain geographical area and to the ability of a person to master multiple languages. When we compare the proportion of multi-lingual inhabitants in the total population, we discover, however, that Sweden has a higher proportion of multilingual inhabitants than Germany and France. Sweden has a higher proportion of multilingual inhabitants among the total population compared with France and Germany.
Denmark also differs markedly from France and Germany, but is comparable with Sweden regarding multilingual skills of the population. Swedish small-and medium-sized enterprises use a smaller number of market languages compared with those in France and Germany. The difference in the proportion of exporting SME companies appears to be correlated to the number of languages used by SMEs in each country. Specific la nguage skills also seem to be associated with higher export performance to separate countries.When we consider the proportion of exporting firms in relation to separate countries, we can notice that Sweden has a significantly lower proportion of SMEs exporting to China, Turkey, Russia and Poland than France and Germany. When SMEs are looking to expand their business globally, Internet or more precisely a multilingual website can greatly help them to reach a global audience. There are no data available for Swedish SME companies concerning website and multilingualism.
Percentage of exporting German and French SMEs related to web language skills in the languages of the export markets.
The table above shows clearly that the German SME companies have a higher percentage of exporting companies to all studied countries and export markets.
Higher web language skills give the German SME firms a real advantage in Central and South America.
Furthermore, the German advantage in Russia and Poland cannot only be explained by Germany's geographical proximity to these countries. Germany's superiority in Poland can be partially explained by geographical proximity, but language skills also play a role.
Number of foreign- billed customers among German and French SMEs related to language skills.
Higher language skills among German SMEs appear to have direct effects on the number of foreign-billed customers. High multilingual skills also seem to yield a higher export turnover among SMEs.Lyssna Better language skills affect the ability of companies to expand abroad and have an impact on the level of export sales proportion. Export turnover share and foreign establishment among Swedish, German and French SMEs related to linguistic skills. Among the German small-and medium-sized enterprises 56% have an export turnover share that is between 10 and 39% versus 41% in France. In this study, I have put forward data at a micro-level to suggest that multilingualism provides export benefits.
Merchandise trade dominates the Swedish foreign trade, but exports of services have in recent decades become increasingly important and now comprises about 25% of total exports.
The difference between the Danish and Swedish exports of services becomes even clearer when we compare different export destinations.
In 2008, Denmark's s exports of services to Sweden amounted to a value of 37 billion Danish crowns. Several factors may explain the fact that Denmark's export of services perform better than the Swedish. The importance of language skills for exports will become more and more important as four out of five start-ups today are service companies. The effects of multilingualism on exports involve a number of policy conclusions when it comes to promoting exports.
In order to reduce dependence on neighboring markets measures to promote multilingualism need to be taken at the national level. Longer-term measures concern in particular the adaptation of education to the needs of employers through education to a greater number of languages, particularly at secondary and university levels. In this study I have shown that there is a link between multilingualism and export success of SMEs. Enhanced policy development requires a picture of SME companies needs of market languages at the national level.
France and Germany are important competitor countries to learn from in terms of SME enterprises' multilingual export strategies. While the Swedish SME company makes use of three languages, the number of languages used among Danish companies amount to 12. More than half of the Danish companies have in recruiting personnel with language skills hired people who speak the market language as a mother tongue or who have lived in any of the companies' export countries. Here I write about all things English - bite size chunks of grammar, interesting words, how to study effectively, vocabulary etc.


That's also why I encourage you to post any replies in English when commenting on my posts. This means that if you make a purchase through one of these links, my blog receives a small percentage of the sale price. The study is based on statistical data from several national and international sources and shows that Swedish small-and medium-sized enterprises are using far fewer languages than those in other European countries. This means that the percentage of firms missing export contracts due to language barriers are much higher in Sweden and are 20%, compared to 4% for Denmark, 8% for Germany and 13% for France. Small-and medium-sized enterprises are using to an ever increasing extent the specific language of the export market to establish themselves in new emerging markets. I have therefore chosen to essentially compare these three countries regarding the relationship between multilingualism and export success. German SMEs make use of most market languages, up to 12, while the French SMEs use about 8 market languages. Lower investment in multilingual staff only gives the Swedish SMEs 3.9 export countries on average. Among German SMEs 43% are exporting to Central Asia, compared with 10% of French SMEs, and 8% of Swedish SMEs.
The relationship between export success and use of market languages remains even when taking into account other influential factors such as foreign exchange differences, macro-economic conditions, corporate structure and company size, geographical location and size of the domestic market, outsourcing strategies and R & D intensity of small-and medium-sized enterprises. The Chinese language's importance for trade relations, for example, has grown from 5% in 2000 to 20% in 2009. This is due to the tendency for companies to try to use the local language of the market if possible, and if not, then one of the major European languages, such as German, Spanish or French.
For example, English is used to trade in over 20 different markets, including the four Anglophone countries, UK, USA, Canada and Ireland. This is due to the tendency for small and medium-sized companies to try to use the local language of the market if possible, and if not, then one of the major European languages. An important observation here is that all European countries in the study group use Swedish or Scandinavian as a market language.
The table above shows that in countries where companies are using many languages the percentage of firms missing export contracts due to language barriers are lower. Frankel, (1997) Frankel & Rose (2002), and Heliwel (1999) attempted to measure language differences as trade barriers and have quantified the costs of language barriers as between 15%- 22% in terms of tariff equivalents.
The micro-economic analysis model was developed mainly in connection with the measurement of export effects of lack of language skills in business. Only 33% of Opportunists, who valued language skills the least, had an annual export turnover above €750,000. The survey of SMEs in 29 countries found that a significant amount of business is being lost as a result of lack of language skills. Therefore the importance of language barriers for trade is affected by a country's industrial structure.
The study is based on statistical data from several national and international sources which will be referred to in each specific table or diagram and list of references. The relationship between export success and use of market languages remains even when taking into account other influential factors. Multilingual export strategy means that SMEs i) always aim at communicating in the target country's language in negotiations ii) require office staff to have command of at least one foreign language. This means that the percentage of firms missing export contracts due to language barriers are much lower in Germany (8%) and France (13%) compared to Sweden (20%). German companies' use of language is divided into frequent use, to some extent, and occasional use. Swedish SMEs export, primarily to neighboring markets, mainly Scandinavia, which restricts the export and makes it vulnerable.
The higher the multilingual skills among SME companies, the greater the proportion of firms exporting to emerging markets and the better the export geography. Although Russia is closer to Sweden, only 12% of Swedish SMEs export there, compared with 29% of German SMEs and 19% of French SMEs.
By incorporating multilingual support in their website, companies are greatly increasing their chances to capture more business.
But when comparing German and French SMEs I find a connection between having a multilingual website and export performance. In Germany a larger number of web languages are used by a greater percentage of SME companies. This appears to be related to a larger percentage of companies presenting web language skills in each market language. Quite 39% of the German SME companies export to Russia compared with only 15% of the French. Here we can again observe differences in export performances that seem to correlate with the companies' linguistic skills in the specific language of the export market.
The proportion of companies where the share of export turnover is more than 40% is 40% for German SMEs and 27% for French SMEs.
Among German companies 49% present some form of foreign establishment, compared with 24% in France and 7% in Sweden. The export figures for separate countries suggest that the use of fewer market languages may lead to a poorer growth of exports of services.
The same reasoning can be applied at a macro level, particularly regarding exports of services. One explanation is that trade in services is less cyclical as many business services are based on long-term contracts. In this area, we can notice that Denmark has 10 times the share of UN procurement than Sweden. In 2008, Denmark's exports of services to Germany amounted to a value of 36 billion Danish crowns. According to statistics from the Danish Industry about 50% of Danish companies use Norwegian or Swedish when trading with these countries. The English language's role as the sole language for international business relations has declined and more and more companies use other languages, particularly the specific language of the export market.
In the short term, efforts need to be made reducing language barriers to market entry and facilitating the small-and medium-sized companies access to new emerging markets through supporting and financing professional development programs and language training. The languages of the migrant employees also provide a shortcut to multilingualism in order to increase small-and medium-sized companies' exports to new emerging markets. In order to deal with customers abroad SMEs need to acquire staff with specific language skills in an early stage when they plan to begin trading in new foreign countries. Making sure their website is multilingual when choosing to trade internationally give a better access to customers abroad.
This leads to a number of policy conclusions with regard to promoting exports and reducing dependence on neighboring markets.
This concerns especially the need for multilingual market communication and recruitment strategies, language training and professional development programs, and Web communications in enterprise.
The percentage of companies presenting a multilingual export strategy is 68% in Denmark and 27% in Sweden. Swedish, French and German SMEs all use multilingualism as a strategy for exportations to varying degrees.
Swedish SME companies use mainly the English language and to some extent, German and French and therefore tend to export to neighboring markets, particularly Scandinavia.
The market languages that are analyzed in my study in the context of SME's export success are English, Russian, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Polish and Chinese.
Meanwhile, the English language's importance has declined from 51% in 2000 to 29% in 2009.
German is used for exporting to 15 markets (including Germany and Austria), Russian is used to trade in the Baltic States, Poland and Bulgaria and French is used in 8 markets (including France, Belgium and Luxembourg). Data from six European countries show that companies using fewer market languages have a higher percentage of missed export contracts.
In addition, the SMEs in the other countries use market languages to a greater extent than the Swedish.
Particularly striking is the fact that Swedish SMEs still use English as their primary language despite the fact that SMEs in England, Ireland and Scotland in their business use at least eight languages, including Swedish.


The percentage of SME companies missing export contracts due to language barriers are 20% in Sweden compared with 1% for Ireland, 6% for Britain, 3% for Portugal and 7% for Poland. In several publications Grin (1990, 1996, 2002, 2006, 2009) has provided an overview of the study of the economics of language. English, which is used more and more in business, is also taught earlier and earlier, especially in the German-speaking part of Switzerland.
It is particularly the British Chambers of Commerce and The National Centre for Languages that have launched the model. These behavioural styles were then linked with different types of export performance in their companies. This increased to 54% for Developers, 67% for Adapters and 77% for Enablers, who placed the most value on language skills within their business. Across the sample of nearly 2000 businesses, 11% of respondents (195 SMEs) had lost a contract as a result of lack of language skills. Sweden, Germany and France have a similar industrial and economic structure and can therefore be compared with regard to the use of export languages among SMEs. The proportion of firms reporting that they miss contracts due to lack of language skills are 20% in Sweden compared with 11% in the rest of the EU. The proportion of the population speaking at least two languages besides their mother tongue are 48% in Sweden compared with 21% for France and 27% for Germany.
Among Danish SMEs 68% present a multilingual export strategy compared to only 27% in Sweden. SMEs in France and Germany use up to 12 languages, giving them better conditions for market access to emerging markets.
Sweden's market share in China has not developed enough so that it can be included in international trade statistics.
Against this background, it has been possible to further test the hypothesis of export impact of language skills with particular focus on the German and French SME companies web language skills in English, Spanish, Polish, Russian and Chinese. But enough information is available on the French and German SMEs foreign-billed customers.
Among the exporting small Swedish companies the export share of total turnover is relatively low. Companies' qualifications in specific market languages can therefore explain why Denmark has a higher export of services than Sweden. According to the research field of economics of multilingualism, linguistic skills are most important in the service sector. Another explanation is that trade in services to some extent is a-cyclical, that is less affected by economic fluctuations.
Over the past ten years, the Scandinavian countries increased their share of exports of services.
The importance of the Chinese language for trade relations has grown in less than ten years from 5% in 2000 to 20% in 2009.
Since small-and medium-sized enterprises represent nearly 99% of the total number of companies in Europe, one could imagine that if more small companies became successful export companies and those which are already exporting got even better, this could have a significantly affect on employment. In Denmark, 95% of companies use English in their business relations compared to 86% in Sweden. However, only 27% of Swedish SMEs present a multilingual export strategy, compared to 68% of Danish SMEs, 63% of German SMEs and 40% of French SMEs.
On the other hand small-and medium-sized companies in Denmark, England, Ireland, Germany, Poland, France and Portugal use up to between 8 and 12 market languages, which gives them better access to emerging markets. Although Sweden has a higher proportion of multi-lingual inhabitants than Germany and France, Swedish SMEs use a smaller number of market languages, which limits the export geography to Europe, mainly Scandinavia. Among German SMEs 30% are exporting to South America, compared with 13% of French and 8% of Swedish SMEs. Among German companies 49% have some form of foreign establishment, compared with 24% in France and 7% in Sweden. Grin (2006, 2009) defines the concepts and tools of economics of multilingualism at a macro-economic level. The researchers found that Swiss multilingualism generated 46 billion francs, which is 9% of GDP (Geneva, 2009). This seems to be correlated with the proportion of SME companies having a multilingual export strategy, 48% in the EU and 27% in Sweden. Sweden also has a very low proportion of the population who do not speak any other language than their mother tongue, 10% vs. The low proportion of SME companies having a multilingual export strategy and the high percentage of firms missing export contract stands in contrast to the high proportion of multi-lingual inhabitants in the population and constitutes a clear indicator that Sweden does not make full use of its language assets regarding exports. This is an interesting contrast, given that Poland is a neighbor of both Sweden and Germany. In principle, a larger number of languages and a higher percentage of companies using these at their website should yield a higher proportion of companies exporting to the market where the specific language is spoken.
Among the French SME companies, only 1% use Russian as a web language, compared with 6% for the German ones.
Overall, we can notice that the proportion of SMEs exporting to a certain country or area can be correlated with the percentage of companies using the language of the export market as a web language. The number of foreign-billed customers is an indicator that can be used instead of sales to measure the impact of language skills on economic performance of exports. When we look at Denmark and Sweden, we can notice that Denmark's exports of services have a better performance than the Swedish. Danish companies use English, German, Scandinavian languages, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic, Polish, Portuguese and Italian. Small - and medium-sized enterprises' export performance is of strategic importance in order to reduce vulnerability within the field of exports and employment.
This means that these countries are comparable in terms of language barriers to market entry, despite differences in industrial structure. Fewer market languages thus makes Swedish exports more vulnerable and inhibits the export performance. In England 45% of SME firms make use of French and 37.1% of German, compared with 25% and 14% among Swedish SMEs. Thirteen other languages, including Turkish, Arabic, Hindi-Urdu, Indonesian are used sporadically. The difference in corporate linguistic skills, when comparing the countries, seem to play a certain role.
Both the organizational models and services themselves are interesting from an international perspective. According to existing statistical data 25% of Swedish companies use German as a market language compared with 80% of Danish companies. International statistics (WTO 2008) show that Britain, Germany and France rank second, third and fourth among the world's largest exporters of services. The fact that Denmark's export of services is twice as high as the Swedish can also probably be explained by the fact that 10% of Danish companies use Chinese as a market language. Against this background, Chinese has to be regarded as a new modern language, on a par with German, French and Spanish. 41% of German SMEs export to East Asia and Oceania, compared with 28% of French and 14% for Swedish SMEs. There are good opportunities in both countries for the sector to become a more important export industry. There are no corresponding statistical data for Swedish companies, but most reports show that Chinese constitutes a substantial trade barrier for Swedish exports to China. Chinese should therefore in the future be a selectable option among other contemporary languages in high school and at the university. Among the criteria for recruitment is that language skills being formal or not have to be combined with other education such as sales, marketing and communications.



Interpersonal skills in organizations 3rd edition free download
Seal of approval youtube
Coaching class in bhopal

language skills medium



Comments to «Language skills medium»

  1. Vampiro writes:
    Sets you on the path for true important to me when it comes down.
  2. LEOPART writes:
    Using quantum physics, then we need usually.
  3. Roni_013 writes:
    Due to the fact it really DOES carried out.
  4. Y_A_L_A_N_C_I writes:
    All assisting professionals this small component of the Web and.
  5. KAYFIM_MIX writes:
    (Scratch tickets or quantity games) in any when you tell them.