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Studying the characteristic of leadership is useful because we tend break things into characteristics to make big concepts easier to handle. Empathy: Creating a legitimate rapport with your staff makes it less likely that personal issues and resentment can creep in and derail the group. Consistency: Being a consistent leader will gain you respect and credibility, which is essential to getting buy-in from the group. Direction: Having the vision to break out of the norm and aim for great things --then the wherewithal to set the steps necessary to get there-- is an essential characteristic of good leadership.
Communication: Effective communication helps keep he team working on the right projects with the right attitude. Conviction: A strong vision and the willingness to see it through is one of the most important characterizes of leadership.
Of course, there are several other theories about leadership and leadership styles where different skills come into play. Smart Thinking Summary Mar 19, 16 03:30 PMLearn how to improve your leadership thinking in this Smart Thinking summary of the book by psychologist Art Markman. Great leadership development training doesn't need to start with a lot of money Sep 27, 15 06:10 PMBefore spending lots of money in leadership development training, you should consider a few steps you can take to learn the skill at little to no cost. This paper reviews research on leadership in sport and considers the implications of this work in relation to the complex task of effective football management. Mentally tough individuals tend to be sociable and outgoing; as they are able to remain calm and relaxed, they are competitive in many situations and have lower anxiety levels than others. This concept of cultural architects is a good example of the shared mental model in operation.
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. There are common traits that define leadership, and finding them only takes some study of those who have been successful. When your team knows that you are empathetic to their concerns, they will be more likely to work with you and share in your vision, rather than foster negative feelings. Those who are honest, especially about concerns, make it far more likely that obstacles will be addressed rather than avoided. By seeing what can be and managing the goals on how to get there, a good leader can create impressive change. If you communicate effectively about expectations, issues and advice, your staff will be more likely to react and meet your goals. By being flexible to new ideas and open-minded enough to consider them, you increase the likelihood that you will find the best possible answer. The leader who believes in the mission and works toward it will be an inspiration and a resource to their followers. But no matter what your approach, if you display the previous traits you will be well equipped to lead a team successfully. Trait, behavioral and interactional models of leadership are discussed and applied to football management.
In 2004-2005, more than half of the 92 managers that started the English professional league season had been fired by the end of the season, thus reflecting the precarious nature of the position.
The process of managing people whether in sport or business is a complex task and requires a sympathetic appreciation of the multi-dimensional roles required.
According to Beech (2002), the consensus is that management implies leadership, but that leaders need not necessarily be managers. Many professional football managers have emanated to their positions following playing careers.
Given that leading researchers such as Chelladurai (1990) have stressed the importance of specific, rather than general theories of leadership, and that association football maintains a high profile in many cultures, it would seem that investigations involving professional football managers are somewhat overdue. Leadership requires an understanding or respect for the power dynamic between the influencer and the follower.
Managers unable to communicate effectively with their players may inadvertently exacerbate problems due to a lack of understanding from their perspective. For some football clubs with limited resources, success might be defined in terms of maintaining their status (i.e. The trait approach assumed effective leadership was founded on innate personality dispositions rather than a function of learning and explicitly supposed that great leaders were born and not made. While these approaches failed in their main objectives (no single set of traits or behaviors have been consistently found to characterize effective leaders), the research that tested these conceptual models undoubtedly advanced the knowledge base and led to more complex theoretical models and research designs.
However, Stogdill (1974) summarized the contribution of trait approaches to the study of leadership (see table 2) by listing those traits and skills that have been found more frequently in related research. Consideration reflects the relationships between the leader and followers to involve factors such as friendship, mutual trust, warmth, building rapport and communication. For example, both Tharp and Gallimore (1976) and more recently Bloom, Crumpton, and Anderson (1999) used case studies to examine the behaviors of elite basketball coaches. Such theories stressed the importance of interactions between the leader, group members and the situation.
Grusky’s group structure model (initially applied to professional baseball) proposed that players who occupied more central positions, and thus performed more dependent and coordinative tasks that necessitated interaction with others, were more likely to develop essential leadership skills and ultimately were more likely to become managers.
Some theorists have suggested that the main problem with attempting to transpose general theories of leadership to sports settings is the failure to consider the unique characteristics of sports teams (Chelladuria & Carron, 1978; Terry & Howe, 1984).
In response, Chelladurai (1978, 1990, 1993) developed the multidimensional model of leadership to provide a conceptual framework that allowed leadership effectiveness to be studied in the sports domain.
The LSS has received extensive testing and generally good psychometric support (Chelladurai, 1993; Chelladurai & Riemer, 1998) and measures five dimensions of leadership which incorporate instructive behaviors, decision-making style, and motivational tendencies.
First, it appears that generally, as athletes grow older and more mature, that a greater preference for an autocratic and supportive style of leadership emerges (Horn, 2002). Interestingly, there is evidence that participants in highly interactive team sports such as basketball, football or volleyball prefer more autocratic leadership than do participants from co-acting sports such as swimming or bowling (Terry & Howe, 1984; Terry, 1984). In contrast larger discrepancies between actual, preferred and required behaviors are likely to produce less satisfaction and influence performance negatively. While both the democratic and autocratic styles of decision-making have inherent strengths and limitations, Chelladurai and Doherty (1998) stressed that the appropriateness of autocratic or democratic styles varied with the problem situation. The interactions between these four factors are predicted to determine leadership effectiveness. However, it appears that in an applied sense, Lombardi understood the need to be flexible, and to deal with people as individuals, even within a team setting.
There is a tendency to stagnate without reflection and actively seeking out new possibilities.
With a high sense of self-belief and an unshakeable faith that they control their own destiny, these individuals can remain relatively unaffected by competition or adversity. That would appear to include keeping players focused on what is important and connecting with team members’ core values (Loehr, 2005).
These researchers developed a training program that involved business managers learning how to (a) cope effectively with stressful circumstances, (b) give and get assistance and encouragement in social interactions, (c) engage in the self-care that supports effective coping and social support, and (d) use the feedback from these activities to deepen their hardiness attitudes.
Open channels of communication, voicing of needs, effective problem-solving, acceptance and appreciation characterize closeness.
When performances fall below expectations, commitment can guard against retaliation by promoting accommodation, and this is characterized by flexibility when change is necessary.
While this article has strived to evaluate what makes an effective football manager by drawing upon research related to leadership and coaching perspectives, this contribution alone is not sufficient in terms of expanding the knowledge domain.


For example, Chelladurai places great emphasis on the congruence between required, preferred, and actual leader behavior. Such research would be useful to assess stereotypical perspectives of football managers as authoritarian figures.
Grusky’s (1963) group structure model and the related research would provide a framework from which to examine the hypothesis that players from more interactive positions are more likely to emanate to management positions in football. It's almost like those are the guys who've bought into that picture, or who grasp that picture the best and therefore they can act as leaders, not necessarily in the formal sense, but as the cement that pulls all these bricks together in the common style. In action teams (as in football), where expertise, information and tasks are distributed across specialized individuals and where team success depends on rapid, complex and coordinated behavior, the existence of shared mental models appears to be crucial in regards to both interdependent and independent decision-making (Marks, Sabella, Burke, & Zaccaro, 2002).
A more formal attempt to investigate the effectiveness of such a leadership approach is clearly necessary in order to evaluate its utility in football settings.
While it is easy to agree with Weinberg and Gould (2003) who state that, ‘Determining what makes effective sports leadership is clearly not a simple process’ (p. These appear to include traits such as adaptability, self-confidence, and persistence; as well as skills such as intelligence, creativity and knowledge of the group (Stogdill, 1974).
Also, it is recognized that there will be some football managers (by way of traits, behaviors or interactions) who do not conform to the proposed composite view but who are effective.
The majority of professional clubs and national associations now employ sports scientists in their quest to gain a ‘competitive edge’ (Coleman, Fairweather, & Ferrier, 2003). One such initiative in Britain is the training program available to all football managers at Warwick Business School in the UK (certificate in Applied Management) (Russell, 2005).
In Germany, in contrast, aspiring managers have to undergo a mandatory apprenticeship of two years in the lower leagues. The average length of tenure per managerial position during this period averaged at just 2 years (The Guardian, 2002), a feature seldom conducive to the successful management of a complex business.
The implication is that managers should demonstrate a high level of education and training enforced by a governing body (Larson, 1977). Blair (1996) suggests that the role of a manager is to maximize the output of the organization by organizing, planning, staffing, directing and controlling; and that leadership is just one aspect of the directing function.
From an applied perspective, those individuals who are responsible for appointing managers would be well advised to consider the extant literature, theories and research concerning leadership which is the focus of this review. While this undoubtedly provides an applied understanding of how professional football clubs operate, some potential limitations exist such as relying on past traditions and ways of doing things, rather than amalgamating these experiences with updated research knowledge and scientific principles. The relationship recognizes that every act between the two parties is a ‘political act’ with potential for coercion (Miller, 1985). Perceptions and interpretation of information conveyed by the manager may have its origins in the formative stage of an individual’s development (Seligman, 1991). In contrast, the behavioral approach posited effective leadership to be a function of a leader’s dominant behaviors.
For example, Penman, Hastad, and Cords (1974) tested the degree of correlation between coaching success (male, interscholastic head football and basketball coaches) and authoritarianism. These traits and skills are not specific to sport and should not be considered as essential pre-requisites, but rather as potentially useful leadership characteristics. Initiating structure is based upon the establishment of rules, regulations and operating systems that are designed to move a group towards pre-established goals. Findings revealed that these coaches were engaged in giving instructions (what to do and how to do it – sometimes using short modeled demonstrations) and encouraging effort and intensity.
On this basis, the particular traits and behaviors of an effective leader are believed to vary in accordance with environmental (situational factors).
Examination of baseball records confirmed Grusky’s hypothesis as catchers and infielders did become managers more often than pitchers or outfielders. Chelladurai proposed that effective leadership is dynamic and is based on a complex series of interactions between leader, group members and situational constraints. Weinberg and Gould (2003) make a similar observation when referring to NBA coach Doug Collins, whose autocratic and emotional style appeared to be most effective in providing direction for young, unpredictable teams. These preferences might reflect older athletes becoming more serious about their performances and more goal-oriented. Finally, Weiss and Fredrichs (1986) found a relationship between poorer team performance and frequency of social support which probably indicates that losing teams need more social support from leaders in order to sustain motivation. Also, labeling styles in absolute terms implies that there is no middle ground, when past researchers have indicated that blends of autocratic and democratic styles do exist (Blake & Moulton, 1969), and it is not unreasonable to suggest that flexible managers can use the styles interchangeably as the situation dictates.
Kramer and Shaap (1968) report that Lombardi developed a great understanding of his players and knew which players required more positive reinforcement, and which would respond to greater levels of criticism. For example, the work of existential psychologists (Kobasa, 1979; Kobasa, Maddi, & Khan, 1982) led to greater understanding of the stress-illness relationship, and the cognitive mechanisms that allow individuals to function efficiently and tolerate highly stressful situations without becoming ill. This concept can easily be transferred to football management where a cursory glance at professional managers in England quickly reveals a distinction between those who have applied scientific principles to training and embraced new developments in sports science, as opposed to those who have more rigid, set ideas about how things should be done, which is usually rooted in past traditions. Extending hardiness and mental toughness research to football managers should be encouraged since it is apparent that some managers thrive on the pressures of the job while others succumb to the stress and appear ill at ease. This research has focused on how coaches and athletes influence each other and the interdependency that is evident.
Importantly, such qualities as trust and respect have been associated with successful coaching (Janssen & Dale, 2002), while their absence is linked to less harmony and less support (Douge, 1999).
A lack of commitment has been shown to be linked to criticism, communication breakdown and a lack of common goals (Jowett, 2003). While conducting research that uses professional sports managers as participants is likely to be difficult (given the demands of professional sport), it is necessary to further understand effective football management. One interesting line of enquiry might be to examine how football managers attempt to manage any discrepancies between the above and to assess professional players’ preferences in regards to leadership style, and, as a consequence, evaluate interaction between managers and players. According to Kellett (2002), the coach as an authoritarian dominant enforcer of discipline, using threats to discipline players to obtain improvements in performance, is normalized in coaching literature and evidently still pervasive in modern sport. Certainly, effective football managers are likely to value the unique abilities of their team members and learn how to integrate them into a coordinated and efficient scheme (Buckingham, 2005).
213), by examining the theories and research findings from the coaching and leadership literature, it is possible to formulate a composite view of an effective football manager.
Although forwarding mental toughness and courage as two important components might be regarded as premature given limited research attention, it is likely that the ability to tolerate stress, rebound from adversity and to seek out new practices rather than remaining ‘rooted in the past’ will be important factors. According to Chelladurai and Carron (1978), if a manager adapts his or her behavior to comply with the players’ preferred behavior, the individual may be more readily inclined to repay the manager through an elevated performance (Lin, Jui-Chia, & Esposito, 2005). Indeed, the FA has created a ‘Psychology Football Strategy’ to increase awareness within professional clubs (Pain & Harwood, 2004).
This new qualification is unique in European football and contains training in marketing, media relations, sports psychology, branding, and influencing skills. The challenge to develop a management education course is to allow prospective candidates to learn effectively from their experience (Borrie & Knowles, 2003).
The effects of formal structure on managerial recruitment: A study of baseball organization. The need for improved training and support services for football managers is discussed, and a theoretical, composite view of an effective football manager is proposed.
However, the goal of an effective and successful manager is arguably the ability to select, retain and develop the best people; this may ultimately be the key to longevity in the role.
By definition, therefore, the professional status of managers in the UK is a relatively new phenomenon, heralded by the creation of the FIFA ‘Pro licence’ in 1997, with the first graduates following in 1998. In contrast, the modern football manager must acknowledge the importance of his role from a business or financial perspective (Perry, 2000).


Since football management is essentially a role that is likely to include leadership and coaching responsibilities, research evidence from both leadership and coaching domains will be reviewed in this paper.
The degree to which a manager offers ‘human capital’ to a club (the level of previous success and experience) may be crucial in determining which managers are appointed by clubs to new positions (Audas, Dobson, & Goddard, 1997), but this might not always be the best selection procedure if managers have a dominant style that is incongruent with players’ preferences and situational factors.
Effective leadership will encompass an understanding of motivation and is likely to minimize any loss of productivity through the development of both task and group cohesion, allowing a group to operate at, or close to its potential. To improve the intellectual exchange between player and manager it may be necessary to integrate specialist sports psychology consultants into the team to facilitate reflection from both parties. According to Weinberg and Gould (2003), leaders typically have two functions: (i) to ensure the demands of the organization (club) are satisfied by the group effectively meeting its targets and (ii) to ensure the needs of group members are satisfied.
The assumption was that an individual could learn to be an effective leader by adopting behaviors that other successful leaders used (i.e. It is important to note that the absence of such traits does not necessarily preclude an individual from being a successful leader.
In non-sport settings it appears that successful leaders score highly in both consideration and initiating structure.
A qualitative study that employed in-depth interviews with 17 elite gymnastic coaches (Cote, Salmela, Trudel, Baria, & Russell, 1995) also found an emphasis on supportive, technical and corrective feedback.
Fiedler argued that task-oriented leaders (those whose primary focus is on achieving goals, and performance related variables) are likely to be most effective in either very favorable or very unfavorable situations. Grusky’s findings were also supported by subsequent research (Gill & Perry, 1979; Loy, Curtis, & Sage, 1979) but as Gill (2000) suggests, the work did not extend far beyond Grusky’s initial propositions.
The model suggests that positive outcomes (performance and satisfaction) will occur when there is congruence between the leaders actual behavior (i.e.
However, when Collins failed to adapt his style as the teams matured, this autocratic approach was seen as a liability and, in two similar situations, Collins was fired after making a positive initial impact. Interestingly, Chelladurai and Carron (1983) suggested that the relationship between age and preference for autocratic style may occur because athletes become ‘socialized’ into preferring less responsibility in a social system (sport) that is generally an autocratic enterprise.
In professional football, where large squads of players are involved, it is likely that more autocratic styles will predominate by necessity, as Chelladurai and Doherty (1998) point out, democratic styles are less effective for complex problems and are more time consuming. Kobasa (1979) found that executives who were exposed to highly stressful environments but remained healthy (as opposed to those who became ill) were characterized by a set of distinct cognitive attributes which has been described as the hardy personality.
Although research into mental toughness is still at an early stage and has mostly focused on the sports performer, extending such research to incorporate football managers would clearly enhance knowledge of what some researchers have described as arguably one of the most important psychological attributes in achieving excellence (Jones, Hanton, & Connaughton, 2002; Williams, 1998). Initially, Jowett and others highlighted the importance of the three C’s of closeness, commitment and complementarity to coach-athlete relations (Jowett, Paull, Pensgaard, Hoegmo, & Riise, 2005). It is evident that few studies have attempted to test theory or to evaluate models with specific regard to association football, and more specifically in football management.
In studying American football, Riemer and Chelladurai (1995) found that congruence between preferred and perceived leadership was critical to enhancing member satisfaction in regards to social support.
In effect, the organization can become less dependent on one single person, the manager, and leadership becomes plural as important players can ‘think’ for the manager on the field of play. From the behavioral perspective, it is evident that consideration (including communication and building rapport) and initiating structure (processes, and goals) are important parts of what leaders do. Furthermore, the manager’s ability to cultivate a shared mental model among players and coaching staff is likely to be important in regards to team coordination processes and performance.
However this development evidently fails to address the psychological needs of the manager. Cognitive skills grow from experience (Abraham & Collins, 1998) and a course which allows individuals to reflect on their skills will inevitably enhance their effectiveness in a dynamic, diverse and complex activity. Contrasting leadership styles and organizational effectiveness: The case of athletic teams.
Since the psychological aspects of football management have received scant attention from researchers, future research that focuses on the psychological requirements and demands of football management is encouraged. It appears that effective management behavior necessarily varies across specific contexts as the characteristics of the players and the environment change (Chelladurai, 1978). Indeed, Carron and Chelladurai (1981) found that cohesion was dependent upon player and coach relationships.
Ultimately, researchers such as Smith, Smoll and Curtis (1979) showed that leadership behaviors could be learned by using a coaching workshop to increase coaches’ positive behaviors and decrease their negative behaviors when coaching children. In this case, a task-oriented football manager who would prioritize performance goals over developing positive interpersonal relations is likely to be a more effective leader than a relationship oriented manager, in the context of a team fighting to avoid relegation.
Despite this, applying these same propositions to the study of association football would certainly provide a new perspective and perhaps allow further examination of the processes by which former players emanate to managerial positions and the success achieved by past players compared to managers who did not play professional football. Clearly, such anecdotal observations do little to advance knowledge of leadership, but it is evident that research in this area is warranted given the potential applied importance of knowing which types of leaders suit particular situations and why. The lack of research evidence in regard to football management means there is scope for researchers to address any number of potentially important areas. However, these researchers also found that perceived (actual) leadership in training, instruction, and positive feedback were stronger determinants of satisfaction than either preferred leadership or the congruence between preferred and perceived leadership.
Recent sport specific research (Mascarenhas, Collins, Mortimer, & Morris, 2005) has similarly shown that video-based shared mental model training was effective in improving the performance of rugby union referees. The manager may have the official authority, at least in the eyes of the media, but his effectiveness is a function of the cumulative effect of all those participating within the organization. Sports specific research suggests that providing clear instructions and contingent positive reinforcement are also key behaviors. Self-perceptions as compared with measured personality of selected male physical educators.
Coach effectiveness training: A cognitive-behavioral approach to enhancing relationship skills in youth sports coaches. The influence of leader behaviors, coach attributes, and institutional variables on performance and satisfaction of collegiate basketball teams.
Loehr (2005) stressed that the common theme of effective leadership is the “positive impact that individuals can have on group dynamics relative to a team objective” (p.155). Extending this research to incorporate manager and player relationships would certainly help to extend knowledge of interpersonal relations within football. Thus, when leaders emphasize training, instruction, and positive feedback, task demands and member performance are likely to be more important than member preferences. This approach also appears to be similar to recent developments in business management research and ideas concerning dispersed leadership (Bolden et al., 2003).
Assessing the development of perceived communication skills by elite basketball coaches and athletes. Some theorists (Ogilvie & Tutko, 1966, 1970) even forwarded coaching profiles that were supposed to be characteristic of successful coaches.
In addition, behavior does not occur in a vacuum, and antecedent factors such as leader and member characteristics will influence both the actual behavior of the leader and group preferences for leadership behaviors.
Riemer and Chelladurai also found some differences in the preferred amounts of democratic behavior and social support between offensive and defensive players. Although Ogilvie and Tutko considered traits such as authoritarianism, tough-mindedness, independent thinking, emotional maturity and realism as important characteristics, it is apparent that these theorists produced no evidence to support their profile (Weinberg & Gould, 2003).
The challenge for football managers is to show flexibility in adapting their dominant leadership style to suit specific leadership situations, and with large squads of highly paid players, to keep everyone satisfied.



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leadership traits in education



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