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The earliest approach to the study of leadership sought to identify a set of traits that distinguished leaders from nonleaders.
General mental ability, which psychologists refer to as a€?ga€? and which is often called IQ in everyday language, has been related to a persona€™s emerging as a leader within a group. Psychologists have proposed various systems for categorizing the characteristics that make up an individuala€™s unique personality; one of the most widely accepted is the Big Five model, which rates an individual according to openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
Self-esteem is not one of the Big Five personality traits, but it is an important aspect of onea€™s personality. Research also shows that people who are effective as leaders tend to have a moral compass and demonstrate honesty and integrity.[440] Leaders whose integrity is questioned lose their trustworthiness, and they hurt their companya€™s business along the way. Condoleezza Rice had different responsibilities as the provost of Stanford University compared with her role as secretary of state for the United States. There are also some traits that are negatively related to emerging as a leader and being successful as a leader.
Many studies searched for a limited set of personal attributes, or traits, which would make someone be viewed as a leader and be successful as a leader. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. One of the earliest approaches to studying leadership Trait theories are based on qualities of an individual person.
Behavioral theories looked at how leaders behaved which developed into different leadership styles. This is a resource page that gives job seekers free access to professionally written and expertly designed resume samples. Make it as easy as possible for a potential employer to read through your resume, so keep the format simple. Don’t to be modest, shouting about your achievements and getting your name out there is vital to getting the job you want. Identify the key points that the job requires and the qualities that the employer is looking for in an applicant. Create the right impression and present your information in a focused, well-structured, and attractive way. Show that you can you maintain progress, continue to improve and enhance it, and deliver what is required. Employers want adaptive recruits, people who can rapidly fit into an existing workplace culture. High energy levels – shows you have the drive required to carry out difficult tasks or projects.
Initiative – being able to anticipate challenges and opportunities before they arise. Numeracy – understanding and using information such as numbers, statistics and graphs.
From Transactional to Charismatic Leadership How Does Charismatic Leadership Transform Followers?
14-2a Historic findings reveal that leaders and followers vary by Historic findings reveal that leaders and followers vary by - intelligence - dominance - self-confidence - level of energy and activity - task-relevant knowledge Contemporary findings show that Contemporary findings show that - people tend to perceive that someone is a leader when he or she exhibits traits associated with intelligence, masculinity, and dominance - people want their leaders to be credible - credible leaders are honest, forward-looking, inspiring, and competent Leadership Traits Leadership Traits : represent the personal characteristics that differentiate leaders from followers. 14-10 This model is based on the idea that one of two distinct types of leader-member exchange relationships evolve, and these exchanges are related to important work outcomes. 14-12 Substitutes for leadership Substitutes for leadership represent situational variables that can substitute for, neutralize, or enhance the effects of leadership. 14-13a Table 14-1a Characteristic Relationship- Oriented or Considerate Leader Behavior is Unnecessary Task-Oriented or Initiating Structure Leader Behavior is Unnecessary Of the Subordinate 1.
14-13b Table 14-1b Characteristic Relationship -Oriented or Considerate Leader Behavior is Unnecessary Task-Oriented or Initiating Structure Leader Behavior is Unnecessary Of the Organization 9. 14-14 Servant Leadership represents a philosophy in which leaders focus on increased service to others rather than to oneself.
The secret art of managing your boss Two Tips No smack talk No leapfrogging Perception What the F? What were the personality characteristics and physical and psychological attributes of people who are viewed as leaders?


Specifically, people who have high mental abilities are more likely to be viewed as leaders in their environment.[434] We should caution, though, that intelligence is a positive but modest predictor of leadership. Several of the Big Five personality traits have been related to leadership emergence (whether someone is viewed as a leader by others) and leadership effectiveness. For example, to celebrate Microsofta€™s 25th anniversary, Ballmer enthusiastically popped out of the anniversary cake to surprise the audience. Conscientious people are organized, take initiative, and demonstrate persistence in their endeavors.
The degree to which people are at peace with themselves and have an overall positive assessment of their self-worth and capabilities seems to be relevant to whether they will be viewed as a leader.
For example, agreeable people who are modest, good natured, and avoid conflict are less likely to be perceived as leaders.[442] The key to benefiting from the findings of trait researchers is to be aware that not all traits are equally effective in predicting leadership potential across all circumstances.
Some traits are consistently related to leadership, such as intelligence (both mental ability and emotional intelligence), personality (extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, self-esteem), and integrity. As a result, some researchers began to examine what effective leaders do rather than what effective leaders are. The samples are targeted at a variety of job roles and in our opinion are some of the best resume templates available on the internet. It’s therefore essential that you promote yourself properly in it, and write it as a marketing tool that outlines your most relevant skills and experience.
You need to show your future potential and value, the best way to do this is do this is by boldly highlighting what can you bring to the role and company. Then begin to make a list of all of your skills and experiences that match what the recruiter is looking for. They can be carried over from one job to another, and are useful across a range of different roles and industries. Trait and Behavioral Theories of Leadership Trait Theory Behavioral Styles Theory Situational Theories Fiedler’s Contingency. Is charismatic leadership only critical for senior executives and not for entry level supervisors or managers?
Research shows that substitutes for leadership directly influence employee attitudes and performance. A superleader is someone who leads others to lead themselves by developing employees’ self-management skills.
Trait Behavioral Theories of Leadership Trait Behavioral Theories of Leadership Situational. Learning Objectives You should learn to: –Explain the difference between managers and leaders –Describe. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Second Canadian Edition. Because of the problems in measurement of personality traits at the time, different studies used different measures. In addition to having high IQ, effective leaders tend to have high emotional intelligence (EQ).
Leaders with high self-esteem support their subordinates more, and when punishment needs to be administered, they punish more effectively.[438] It is possible that those with high self-esteem have greater levels of self-confidence and this affects their image in the eyes of their followers. Some organizational situations allow leader traits to make a greater difference.[443] For example, in small, entrepreneurial organizations where leaders have a lot of leeway to determine their own behavior, the type of traits leaders have may make a difference in leadership potential. The main limitation of the trait approach was that it ignored the situation in which leadership occurred. Each template has been designed to make an immediate impression on hiring managers, they are a perfect solution for job seekers who need inspiration on how to stand out and who are not sure what to include in their CV.
Transferable skills can be acquired through employment, voluntary work, hobbies, sports, virtually anything. Initiating Structure: Ohio State Studies identified two critical dimensions of leader behavior.
Superleaders attempt to increase employees’ feelings of personal control and intrinsic motivation. Listening Servant-leaders focus on listening to identify and clarify the needs and desires of a group.


Stewardship Servant-leaders assume that they are stewards of the people and resources they manage. People with high EQ demonstrate a high level of self-awareness, motivation, empathy, and social skills.
Because they are both dominant and sociable in their environment, they emerge as leaders in a wide variety of situations. Finally, people who have openness to experiencea€”those who demonstrate originality, creativity, and are open to trying new thingsa€”tend to emerge as leaders and tend to be effective as leaders. Self-esteem may also explain the relationship between some physical attributes and emerging as a leader.
In large, bureaucratic, and rule-bound organizations, such as the government and the military, a leadera€™s traits may have less to do with how the person behaves and whether the person is a successful leader.[444] Moreover, some traits become relevant in specific circumstances. Therefore, it is more useful to specify the conditions under which different traits are needed. The researchers examined two independent patterns of behaviors or styles that are used by effective leaders. In recent years, though, after advances in personality literature such as the development of the Big Five personality framework, researchers have had more success in identifying traits that predict leadership.[432] Most importantly, charismatic leadership, which is among the contemporary approaches to leadership, may be viewed as an example of a trait approach.
The psychologist who coined the term emotional intelligence, Daniel Goleman, believes that IQ is a threshold quality: it matters for entry- to high-level management jobs, but once you get there, it no longer helps leaders because most leaders already have high IQ. Out of all personality traits, extraversion has the strongest relationship to both leader emergence and leader effectiveness. For example, research shows a strong relationship between height and being viewed as a leader (as well as onea€™s career success over life). For example, bravery is likely to be a key characteristic in military leaders but not necessarily in business leaders. The effect of physical height on workplace success and income: Preliminary test of a theoretical model. The behavioral approach assumed that what the leader does is the primary variable that determines effectiveness. Commitment to Servant-leaders are committed to people the growth of beyond their immediate work role. Initiating Structure: organizing and defining what group members should be doing University of Michigan Studies University of Michigan Studies identified two leadership styles that were similar to the Ohio State studies - one style was employee centered and the other was job centered Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid represents four leadership styles found by crossing concern for production and concern for people 14-3 Research shows that there is not one best style of leadership. They people commit to fostering an environment that encourages personal, professional, and spiritual growth. This is not to say that all effective leaders are extraverts, but you are more likely to find extraverts in leadership positions. Individual attributes and leadership style: Predicting the use of punishment and its effects.
Individual differences in leadership emergence: Integrating meta-analytic findings and behavioral genetics estimates. Building Servant-leaders strive to create a sense of Community community both within and outside the work organization. However, it is still not obvious which behaviors are most effective, because numerous other factors can influence performance and success. Healing Servant-leaders strive to make themselves and others whole in the face of failure or suffering. Source: “CEO’s Need to Listen, Examine, Assist,” The Arizona Republic, April 22, 2001, p D2.
Self-esteem: Relationship with leader behavior perceptions as moderated by the duration of the superior-subordinate dyad association, Personality and Social Psychology Buletin, 10, 51a€“59. A meta-analysis of the relation between personality traits and leadership perceptions: An application of validity generalization procedures.



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leadership traits vs. behaviors



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