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Please take this 5 minute survey to evaluate the ways to sustain and support the UDL Center. In the context of technology, accessibility most commonly refers to providing access for all people to web environments, including people with disabilities. The National Center on Universal Design for Learning website was designed to be compatible with screen readers in order to increase its accessibility.
Specialized formats of curricular content that can be used by and with learners who have print disablilities and include: braille, audio, large print, and electronic text. The student, who is visually impaired, relies on several different forms of accessible instructional materials in order to access her printed textbooks. A change in instruction that does not result in a change in the standards or instructional goals for a student. The idea or belief that schools and teachers must take responsibility for measurable student learning.
As part of the state's accountability system, all students must take a state-wide English Language Arts and Mathematics assessment.
The teacher was concerned because he noticed a change in the student's affect; usually she was energetic and lively, and today she appeared disinterested and preoccupied. Networks in the brain that enable us to engage with learning; networks specialized to evaluate patterns and impact emotional significance to them. Image description: This medial view of the brain shows the limbic lobe, site of the affective networks.
Preferences for movies, motivation to get up early and go to the gym, and nervous feelings before a big presentation are all everyday examples of your affective network in action.
Federal law that protects persons with disabilities from discrimination in the operations of public businesses and governments. When teaching how to draw, the art teacher used an apprenticeship model, giving novice students hands-on experience and the opportunity to learn from more experienced peers. Learners make progress when the task they put their minds to is neither overwhelmingly difficult nor boringly easy. The student found that Lois Lowry's The Giver was written at an appropriate level of challenge. Assessment is described as the process of gathering information about a learner’s performance using a variety of methods and materials in order to determine learners’ knowledge, skills, and motivation for the purpose of making informed educational decisions.
Assessments can provide teachers with data regarding students' progress and can also inform teachers regarding the effectiveness of their instructional techniques.
Devices or services that are used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a student with a disability.
Text-to-speech (TtS) software is an assistive technology that reads any digital text aloud. A general term that refers to any skilled and complex behavior that can be performed rather easily with little attention, effort, or conscious awareness; skills become automatic after extended periods of training with practice and good instruction. Image description: This avatar is a digital image of a young girl with ribbons in her hair.
The students created avatars to look like themselves: they had choices in hair, skin, eye color, and even in the types of clothing. The student is unable to decode the text of a short story he is assigned for his English class. A nonprofit research and development organization that works to expand learning opportunities for all individuals, especially those with disabilities, through Universal Design for Learning. A procedure of breaking up learning materials into manageable sections (e,g., grouping of words in sentences into short meaningful phrases).
Instead of asking the student to complete the entire chapter in one night, the teacher and the student worked together to chunk the assignment into more manageable pieces.
Live or animated support provided by an agent to help the performance of a task; aimed at improving the performance of the learner. The teacher used several techniques to develop students' cognitive skills during the lesson.
An umbrella term for the variety of approaches and models in education that involve the shared intellectual efforts by students working in small groups to accomplish a goal or complete a task. As a final project for the unit on The Revolutionary War, the teacher wanted to focus on collaborative learning.
A visual display that supports comprehension by depicting the relationships between concepts within a learning task. Changing the font size and increasing the sizing of images helped the student to see the math item more clearly; this change was construct irrelevant to the math skills being assessed by the item. The UDL framework can be applied to all aspects of the curriculum in order to decrease barriers and increase opportunities for learning. Since the student was not able to decode the text, he was not able to access the meaning or to fully participate in the class discussion.
An approach to teaching that includes various approaches to content, process, and product in order to meet the needs of student differences in readiness, interests, and learning needs.
Differentiated Instruction and UDL share the same goal: to maximize learning opportunities for all students. A book, article, or other published material that can be retrieved by and read via an electronic device.
The principal federal law affecting public education from kindergarten through high school in the United States.
A method for measuring knowledge and ability where evaluations are part of the learning activity rather than happening after the fact. A term used to describe students who are in the process of acquiring English language skills and knowledge; some schools refer to these students using the term limited-English-proficient (LEP). Associated with the prefrontal cortex in the brain, these capabilities allow humans to overcome impulsive, short-term reactions to their environment and to instead set long-term goals, plan effective strategies for reaching those goals, monitor their progress, and modify strategies as needed.
In order to support the student's executive functions in an assessment situation, the teacher provided him with a graphic organizer indicating all the items on his test.
The teacher provided the student with constructive feedback on ways to improve his project on the water cycle. Curricula designed to be adjustable from the beginning, so it can adapt to the needs of diverse learners without significant add-ons.


The teacher found that it was more efficient to create flexible curricula that accounted for all learners from the start rather than modifying preexisting curricula. Special education and related services provided at public expense, under public supervision and direction, and without charge mandated by IDEA. Assessments given primarily to determine what students have learned in order to plan further instruction during the instructional episode; by contrast, an examination used primarily to document students' achievement at the end of a unit or course is considered a summative test.
The teacher's use of formative assessment allowed her to adjust her daily lessons and instruction in order to maximize just in time learning. In order to support his students' writing, the teacher provided graphic organizers to facilitate the organization of their ideas. The 2008 reauthorization established the first statutory definition for universal design for learning. A piece of text or a graphic within an electronic document that provides access to content within another document or website. While searching the web, the student clicked on a hyperlinked word, and a new window with a definition of the word. A federal law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation, IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to more than 6.5 million eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities. A student-centered and teacher-guided instructional approach that engages students in investigating real world questions that they choose within a broad thematic framework; students acquire and analyze information, develop and support propositions, provide solutions, and design technology and arts products that demonstrate their thinking and make their learning visible. As part of the inquiry-based instructional unit on green energy, students were responsible for collecting information about the school's energy efficiency, developing at least three recommendations, and presenting these recommendations to the school board. Materials that teachers use to teach and students use to learn (for example, printed text, digitized text, speech, images). For the unit on the Civil Rights Movement, the social studies teacher included a range of instructional media: video clips, the era's most popular songs, primary source documents, and a slide show of photographs. The 3rd grade team worked together to design an integrated unit on the ocean that incorporated content in marine biology, geography, ecology, history, mathematics, and literature. Subject matter benchmarks used to measure students' academic achievement; guidelines published by professional organizations or enacted by government specifying what is to be taught and learned. Refers to the IDEA’s mandate that schools educate students with disabilities in integrated settings, alongside students with and without disabilities, to the maximum extent appropriate. An effective way to allow a reader to focus on the more relevant information of the text; done by covering up unnecessary text as well as hiding other distractions. The teacher encouraged some of her students to place a piece of paper under the line of text that they were reading. The teacher used mastery-oriented feedback to notify one student in her reading group how he was doing. Materials are usually seen as the media used to present learning content and what the learner uses to demonstrate knowledge. In order to develop students' ability to manage information, the English teacher created a checklist of the materials that they were responsible for bring to class each day: grammar textbook, ELA textbook, and their writing manuals. As an ongoing theme throughout the school year, the teacher worked to develop students' media literacy. Something inherent to the mode of presentation that is immaterial that obstructs or impedes access to and or use.
The small font size of the student's copy of The Call of the Wild presented a media-specific barrier since the student could not clearly see the words on each page. The school created a "Reading Buddies" program where sixth grade students act as mentors to first grade students during reading time. At the end of the school year, the teacher asked students to reflect about their learning over the course of the year in their journals as a way to develop meta-awareness. The process of "thinking about thinking." For example, good readers use metacognition before reading when they clarify their purpose for reading and preview the text.
Methods are generally defined as the instructional decisions, approaches, procedures, or routines that expert teachers use to accelerate or enhance learning. A category of function; for example, vision, hearing, and touch are different sensory modalities. In order to incorporate a range of modalities in the lesson on the life cycle of plants, the teachers encouraged students to touch, smell, and feel the different seeds that were on the table. In order to demonstrate proper technique, the teacher modeled to students how to begin to dissect the frog. When a curriculum modification is made, either the specific subject matter is altered, or the performance level expected of the student is changed; a curriculum modification is made when a student is either taught something different from the rest of the class or taught the same information but at a different level of complexity.
The student's IEP team decided to make a modification to the unit on Mark Twain's Adventures of Tom Sawyer.
Combining several media in one presentation; for example a multimedia Web page may combine text, graphics, audio clips, and video. The student's multimedia presentation on climate change impressed her audience; her peers and her teacher were highly engaged by her use of graphics, video, and audio clips. The teacher used multiple means of action and expression to assess what students had learned during the unit on the nervous system; students had the option of creating a diagram, an animation, a magazine article, or a poster. To ensure that the activity offered multiple means of engagement, student choice was built in as a way to provide students with a sense of autonomy. A group of more than 40 national organizations that advocates for the incorporation of UDL in federal, state, and district education policy.
The 2001 re-authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)-- the principal federal law affecting public education from kindergarten through high school in the United States. A federal agency under the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) dedicated to improving results for infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities ages birth through 21 by providing leadership and financial support to assist states and local districts. In order to assess the student's optimal knowledge, the student was provided with models and prompts during the activity. Providing choices and flexibility in the manner or in the way a task or item is approached. Providing flexibility in the selection, method, or way a user may respond to a task or item. A method for measuring knowledge or ability based on a student's performance on a test or given task.
The teacher used performance-based assessments to determine how students were arriving at their answers while performing a task, rather than just assessing after the activity was completed.


A systematic collection of a variety of teacher observations and student work, collected over time, that monitor growth of the student's knowledge, skills, and attitudes in a specific subject area; can be print based or digital. During a parent-teacher conference, the teacher shared the student's portfolio with the parents in order to discuss the student's progress. Includes printed textbooks and related printed core materials that are written and published primarily for use in elementary school and secondary school instruction and are required by a SEA or LEA for use by students in a classroom. Teaching approach that engages students in sustained, collaborative real-world investigations. Spontaneously moving your hands to illustrate a point can help boost a child's language development, researchers say.Gesture-plus-word combinations can make it easier for children to grasp what certain words and phrases mean - even during sign language.
Researchers at the University of Chicago say gestures help children learn (stock image shown). Goldin-Meadow, from the University of Chicago, examined how gesturing contributes to language learning in hearing and in deaf children. The gesture learning technique is apparently true for both hearing children and those who sign (research image shown).
The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. The limbic lobe includes primitve cortical tissue (stippled area), the fontal lobes, and underlying cortical structures (hippocampus and dentate gyrus, not shown).
She was able to comprehend the dialog and storyline, and she was challenged by a few vocabulary terms that she needed to look up in the dictionary. Even though he understands the language and story structure, he is unable to read for understanding since decoding is a barrier to his learning. However, in the image on the right, the items are chunked, and the student is responsible for completing only the first 3 items at one time. She asked students to make predictions, ask clarifying questions, and summarize information. The class was responsible for writing and producing a fifteen minute play that would capture a critical event that took place during the War. However, he realized that identifying the symbols for a math calculation problem is a construct relevant change to the assessment item. The distinction between the two frameworks lies within the goal; DI focuses on differentiating with a focus at the student level, whereas UDL focuses on designing flexible curricula with the needs of the broadest range of students in mind from the start. From 2001-2009, the law was known as the No Child Left Behind Act but is again referred to as ESEA in current policy discussions. She stated that she was impressed by the visual that he created to depict water's journey, and she suggested that he may also want to include labels for each step. Concept maps, story maps, advance organizers, story webs, semantic maps, and cognitive organizers are all commonly used graphic organizers.
This definition incorporates the three principles of UDL--representation, expression, and engagement--and emphasizes reducing barriers with appropriate supports and challenges built into instruction.
When individual forms of instructional media (text, video, audio) are combined to represent information in multiple ways they are called multimedia. This strategy allowed the students to focus on one line of text at a time and masked the other text on the page. Rather than telling him he was "very smart," she commented on how he was working hard at answering in complete sentences.
She used an array of formats to present content, and she varied the media with which students could use to express their learning. Expert teachers apply evidence-based methods and differentiate those methods according to the goal of instruction. To "practice what you preach." In regular practice and behavior, the teacher is a model of thoroughness, or self-evaluation, or courtesy, or whatever else is expected of students.
Instead of reading the original work, the student would read an abridged version written at his individual reading level. Students are different in the ways that they express their knowledge; therefore, it is crucial to allow them to express verbally, physically, with written text, etc. Students are different in the ways that they will become interested or motivated to learn; therefore, it is crucial to provide multiple ways to engage learners.
Students are different in the ways that they perceive and understand information; therefore, it is crucial to provide different ways of presenting content. Department of Education, OSERS supports programs that help educate children and youth with disabilities, provides for the rehabilitation of youth and adults with disabilities, and supports research to improve the lives of individuals with disabilities. Projects are organized around a driving question, and students participate in a variety of tasks that seek to meaningfully address this question. The findings back up previous research which found gesticulating helps youngsters develop their language, learning and cognitive skills. They will determine which option in the mode for presenting information will work best for her in this assignment. The paradoxes of high stakes testing: How they affect students, their parents, teachers, principals, schools and society. 89-329), legislation signed into United States law on November 8, 1965 as part of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society domestic agenda.
Accessing the general curriculum: Including students with disabilities in standards-based reform. Person versus process praise and criticism: Implications for contingent self-worth and coping.
108-446, establishes the NIMAS as a national standard and requires states and local districts to adopt the NIMAS for providing textbooks and instructional materials to students who are blind or print-disabled. For engaging with learning, UDL materials offer alternative pathways to success including choice of content where appropriate, varied levels of support and challenge, and options for recruiting and sustaining interest and motivation.



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