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Improper sump pump installations can lead to moisture, odors, and noise coming from the sump pit. With so many basements flooding these days, many different models of sump pump systems have been designed to handle this. Below, we've provided a review of all four major sump pump designs, including the strengths and weaknesses of each one. Higher Capacity -- Pedestal sump pumps are one of the higher-capacity sump pumps available on the market. Noisy Operation -- Because the motor is out of the sump pit, the noise from the pump cannot be muffled by a lid. Submersible Sump Pumps are installed in a sump pit and are meant to be immersed in water when operating. High Capacity Operation -- Submersible sump pumps are high-capacity units that can keep any basement or crawl space dry. Long Lifespan -- Because the cast iron housing around the motor can disperse heat naturally into the water, these self-cooling pumps are long-lasting and reliable protection for your home. Initial Investment -- While a submersible sump pump will outlast several generations of similar pumps, they cost slightly more on their initial investment than comparable alternatives. Water-Powered Sump Pumps are installed above the pump pit and are powered by your water supply instead of electricity.
Runs Without Electricity -- Water-powered sump pumps operate by using your local water supply to help discharge water, allowing them to run through many power outages. Long Lifespan -- These pumps are long-lasting, durable systems that should continue operation for many years.
Requires High Home Water Pressure -- If your home has low water pressure, it will greatly affect how useful these pumps are. Requires No Sump Pit or French Drain -- "Floor Suckers" sit directly on the basement floor. No Installation Time -- These pumps are ready for use immediately, making them a good option for emergency use, or to clear out flooded waters before installing a different system.
Loud & Low Capacity -- These pumps are low-end models that will not be able to keep up with heavy floods. Pedestal sump pumps are often mass-produced designs with a double engine casing around the engine that retains more heat than single casings. This -- combined with the fact that pedestal pumps cannot be immersed in cooling water -- tends to make the engines overheat and break down prematurely. Pedestal sump pumps are raised high out of the water, and they generate a great deal of vibration when they're running.
While much higher in capacity than other models, these low-end pumps are not always strong enough to keep up with the water flowing into the sump pit. Because a pedestal sump pump cannot be submerged in the water, they cannot be installed within the sump pump liner. Pedestal sump pumps are more expensive than water-powered sump pumps and "floor sucker" models, but generally less expensive than submersible sump pumps. However, because they break down so chronically, you can expect a submersible sump pump, and even a water-powered sump pump, to far outlast a pedestal pump. For the longest life, find a submersible sump with a cast-iron center and an appropriately sized liner.
A reliable submersible pump should have no screen on the intake and should include a plastic liner with a stand that keeps it off the bottom, where any debris will settle. Submersible sump pumps are generally far more heavy-duty and higher-capacity than comparable other sump pump designs. It's important to note that while submersible pumps are more powerful, the sump pump should be appropriately powerful for the job. All sump pumps make at least a little noise, but submersible pumps are the quietest pumps available. The quietest submersible sump pumps include a liner with an airtight lid, as well as rubber grommets around pipe and wire entrances.
The price tag for a single submersible sump pump is higher than other models on the market.
Water-powered sump pumps are a long-lasting sump pump model that outlasts pedestal pumps and "floor sucker" models by a large margin. When used is a backup system for a submersible sump pump, water-powered sump pumps can be an appropriate part of a basement waterproofing system. While water-powered pumps can last for a very long time, they are one of the less-reliable options for basement waterproofing. Water-powered sump pumps are, unfortunately, among the lowest-capacity sump systems on the market.
Water-powered sump pumps are among the quietest sump pumps on the market- especially when compared to noisy "floor-suckers" and pedestal sump pumps.
To ensure the maximum noise reduction, make sure the discharge and intake lines are large enough for the water being pumped through. A water-powered sump pump system is longer-lasting than "floor sucker" pumps as well as pedestal sump pumps and shorter-lived than submersible pumps. A "floor sucker" sump pump can last for several years, but only because they only run when your basement is flooding at its worst. A floor sucker cannot compete with a normal pump system when it comes to actual hours of operation, and they should not be counted on to last during heavy volumes, when they're needed most.
A floor sucker sump pump will only turn on when the basement floods, making them the least reliable way to keep your basement dry of all models.
Even when a "floor sucker" is on and operating, it will not remove all water in your basement. During significant floods and heavy rains, these pumps are likely to be overwhelmed by flooding water, which will rise faster than these pumps can remove it. These pumps operate directly on your basement floor, discharging through a common garden hose. Picture shows magnetized particles clustered together, keeping them in suspension and lowering the surface tension of the water. The information used to design our magnetic units are from extensive testing over many years. In spite of these discoveries, 96% of manufacturers marketing Magnetic Water Treatment Devices, still do NOT use this patented magnetic configuration. Research carried out by NASA has demonstrated that astronauts who are cut off from the earth's magnetic field develop significant health problems which can be prevented by providing an artificial magnetic field within the space capsule. The cost of installing your Magnetic Water Softening - Limescale Remover System is worked out according to your location from Cambridge UK. Our Magnetic Water Softening System will take care of all your water descaling requirements permanently, forever.
Our Magnetic Water Softener, De-Scaler design was extensively tested over a period of 15 years and now used by the United States Federal sector. Below is a copy of the original document from a publication series, designed to speed the adoption energy-efficient and renewable technologies in the United States Federal sector. This means the Department of Energy had researched this information, determined it was accurate, and encouraged other government departments to adopt the use of these technologies to save the goverment money. In spite of this recognition, most manufacturers of Magnetic Water Treatment Devices, still do NOT use this patented magnetic configuration. In fact, the exact oposite will apply when using our design, in that, if you were to turn our unit around 180 degrees, you would experience hard water coming out the other end. So, what does the Federal Technology Alert say about the possible cost and energy savings of using this technology? The report says that magnetic treatment of water can reduce or eliminate the costs associated with the periodic maintenance of scale removal, or the costs associated with chemicals to remove the scale. Next, they also say that the energy savings are even more significant, since the thicker the scale is on the inside of the pipes, the more energy is needed th heat the water. FEMP is currently involved in a wide range of energy-assesment activities, including conducting New Technology Demonstartions, to hasten the penetration of energy-efficient technologies into the Federal marketplace.
Technology for improving energy efficiency through the removal or prevention of scale. The magnetic technology has been cited in the literature and investigated since the turn of the 19th century, when lodestones and naturally occurring magnetic mineral formations were used to decrease the formation of scale in cooking and laundry applications. For example, magnetic or electrostatic scale control technologies can be used as a replacement for most water-softening equipment. The primary energy savings from this technology result from decrease in energy consumption in heating or cooling applications.
This Federal Technology Alert provides information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this technology.
The technology addressed in this FTA uses a magnetic or electrostatic field to alter the reaction between scale-forming ions in hard water.
The magnetic technology has been cited in the literature and investigated since the turn of the 19th century, when lodestones or naturally occurring magnetic mineral formations were used to decrease the formation of scale in cooking and laundry applications. The general operating principle for the magnetic technology is a result of the physics of interaction between a magnetic field and a moving electric charge, in this case in the form of an ion.
A search of the Thomas RegisterTM in conjunction with manufacturer contact yielded eleven manufacturers of magnetic, electromagnetic or electrostatic water conditioning equipment that fell within the scope of this investigation.
Exact numbers of units deployed by these manufacturers are virtually impossible to compile, as some of the manufacturers had been selling the technology for up to 40 years. Literature provided by and discussions with manufacturers described a typical installation for a boiler water treatment scheme as including the device installed upstream of the boiler. The primary caveat on installation of the magnetic technology is that high voltage (230V, 3-phase or above) power lines interfere with operation by imposing a second magnetic field on the water. The primary energy savings result from a decrease in energy consumption in heating or cooling applications. As was discussed above, magnetic and electric fields interact with a resultant force generated in a direction perpendicular to the plane formed by the magnetic and electric field vectors. The result of these forces on the ions is that, in general, positive charged ions (calcium and magnesium, primarily) and negative charged ions (carbonate and sulfate, primarily) are directed toward each other with increased velocity. A similar reaction occurs at a heat exchange surface but the force on the ions results from the heat input to the water.
When the scale-forming reaction takes place within a heat exchanger, the mineral form of the most common scale is called calcite.
These smaller-grained or softer-scale deposits are stable upon heating and can be carried throughout a heating or cooling system while causing little or no apparent damage. Water savings are also possible in recirculating systems through the reduction in blowdown necessary.
Electrostatic, where an electric field is imposed on the water flow, which serves to attract or repel the ions and, in addition, generates a magnetic field. Most of the devices are in-line--some invasive, some non-invasive--as opposed to side-stream. The potential cost-effective savings achievable by this technology were estimated as part of the technology assessment process of the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP).
New technologies were solicited for NTDP participation through advertisements in the Commerce Business Daily and trade journals, and, primarily, through direct correspondence.
The energy savings and market potentials of each candidate technology were evaluated using a modified version of the Facility Energy Decisions Screening (FEDS) software too (Dirks and Wrench, 1993). Non-chemical water treatment technologies were judged life-cycle cost-effective (at one or more Federal sites) in terms of installation cost, net present value, and energy savings. As part of the NTDP selection process, an initial technology screening activity was performed to estimate the potential market impact in the Federal sector. Of particular interest to the manufacturer would be physical parameters such as water flow rate, and water quality parameters such as hardness, alkalinity, and iron concentration. The manufacturer may also want to know whether the installation is for use in conjunction with a boiler or a cooling tower, and for once-through or recirculating water systems. Other factors of interest may include whether the cooling or heating system is sensitive to particulate matter, and if so what particle sizes. As mentioned previously, the technology can be applied wherever hard water is found to cause scale. Non-chemical scale control technologies can be used for either boiler scale control or cooling tower scale control. When space requirements do not allow installation of lime softening equipment or ion exchange equipment. When particulate matter in the water can be tolerated by the process; otherwise solids separation is required.
When frequent system shutdowns are required for descaling even with a diligent chemical scale control program. In remote locations where delivery of chemicals and labor cost makes conventional water softening or scale control methods cost prohibitive. This technology is littered with disreputable manufacturers or vendors, the actions of whom have given the technology an undesirable history in the eyes of many.
Be aware of process water requirements since these requirements may dictate the need to install solids separation equipment or iron removal equipment in order to maximize the performance of the technology. Installation near high voltage electrical equipment or strong magnetic fields is to be avoided since these fields will interfere with the performance of the technology. The third issue is the potential for downtime, which needs to be coordinated with other facility activities. A fourth issue would arise with the corrosion control chemistry, which will likely need some adjustment under a non-chemical scale control technology. The most significant issue may be whether a solids separation device is needed to remove the particulates formed.
Cost information was requested from each manufacturer for three different-size units, based on flow rate: 1 gpm (gallons per minute), 100 gpm and 1,000 gpm. In general, the electronic units were more costly than the magnetic units for an equivalent flow rate. Weight was an important characteristic in the installation estimate because the permanent magnet units may exceed 1,000 pounds. Since these units are typically delivered in the sizes quoted off-the-shelf, there is no design cost by the manufacturer. Although no specific incentive programs were identified, the Department of Energy and the Advanced Research Projects Agency have funded research in this area. Energy consumption reductions will lead directly to reductions in air combustion emissions. The information in this section was compiled primarily from case studies, along with selected contact with users and third party researchers. Energy savings result from both reductions in pumping energy input to the system and reduction in fuel consumption. One important note was that fuel consumption savings often trailed installation of the technology by a significant period due to the fact that the savings is driven by the amount of scale on the heat exchange surface. As mentioned above, maintenance requirements typically are reduced upon implementation of the non-chemical technology. For the case study, a hypothetical facility is used and the application of a permanent magnet device is described. The current system is a conventional lime softening plant consisting of lime storage facilities, a slaker where the powered lime is mixed with water, a mixing basin for adding controlled amounts of the lime solution to the water, and a settling basin where the precipitated solids are removed.
Data on lime consumption can typically be found in purchasing records, or also in a water treatment system operator's log. Electricity consumption information can be calculated from nameplate capacity of the mixing and pumping equipment involved.
A magnetic scale control device will be investigated as an alternative to chemical scale control. For the proposed location and required flow rate, a unit was identified that would fit the current piping configuration without a need for adapters.
Savings are expected to result from discontinuance of chemical consumption and decreased energy consumption (10% of process energy and all of the water treatment energy). Second is the energy savings resulting from decreased pressure drop within the heat exchanger. Table 3 illustrates typical consumption data for the baseline and alternative and the potential annual costs savings. Basement Systems' Research & Development department has carefully researched each sump pump model available on the market to determine which model we're willing to stand by when we waterproof your basement. These pumps are mounted above the water line, with a long line from the float switch down into the pit. Higher Capacity -- Pedestal sump pumps are one of the higher-capacity sump pumps available on the market.
Water-Powered Sump Pumps are installed above the pump it and are powered by your water supply instead of electricity.
Runs Without Electricity-- Water-powered sump pumps operate by using your local water supply to help discharge water, allowing them to run through many power outages. Long Lifespan-- These pumps are long-lasting, durable systems that should continue operation for many years.
Requires High Home Water Pressure-- If your home has low water pressure, it will greatly affect how useful these pumps are. Loud & Low Capacity -- These pumps are low-end models that will not be able to keep up with heavy floods.
Custom-fit suspension systems are Osprey's bread and butter, so it makes sense that the Hydraulics Hydration Reservoir is shaped with a rigid backer plate to prevent any interference with how your pack fits and carries. By selecting a sump pump that is reliable, quiet, long-lasting, and strong enough to keep your basement dry, you can be sure that your space is best protected from groundwater seepage. The most common of these sump pumps are pedestal sump pumps, submersible pumps, water-powered sump pumps, and "floor-sucker" models. We serve Denver, Aurora, Littleton and many surrounding areas, including Boulder, Arvada, Fort Collins, Longmont, Greeley, Cheyenne, Englewood, Loveland, Broomfield, Parker, Golden, Brighton, Louisville, Westminster and nearby. Pedestal pumps also "wander" in their sump pits and can jam their sump pump switch on the side, forcing it to stay on or off. When combined with a battery backup submersible pump, they provide the best protection of available models. The pump operation, sucking sounds, and discharge line will all contribute to significant noise during operation. If the pump drifts too close to the edges, the switch that turns the pump on and off may be jammed in an ON or OFF position, leading to problems.
They're excessively loud, and the open sump pit below them will collect debris, while allowing odors and humidity into your basement.
However, submersible models are generally of a higher quality when compared to other models of sump pump,.

The discharge lines should also be large and straight, so that the sump pump isn't trying to noisily force water through narrow pipes.
A submersible pump will outlast all other designs, bringing you the best value for your investment. If your home has low water pressure, then your pump may not operate at full strength, resulting in a wet basement. They discharge 3-5 gallons of usable water from your plumbing for every gallon of groundwater pumped out of your house, and during heavy flooding, they are often overwhelmed, resulting in a flood. They use no electricity -- however, they do use 3-5 gallons of water for each gallon of groundwater discharged. The literally suck the water from the floor, creating noise from the motor, suction, and through the discharge line (garden hose). They install with no need to create a sump pit or drainage channel, making them fast and inexpensive to install. These are notoriously low-end pumps that can't keep up with heavy rains, and they will never last long. The information gathered to perfect this Permanent Magnet Water Softener-Descaler Technology was eventually patented. This specific technology of applying magnetic fields to liquids is recognized, and reported to be the prefered method of use. First, they clearly state that anything that interferes with the flow of heat from a heating element to the water, in a water heater or a boiler, reduces the efficiency of that system. They go on to say that magnetic treatment is the most cost effective method for this application, and calculate a reduction in maintenance coss of up to 100%. Annually, in its 500,000 buildings and 8,000 worldwide, it uses nearly two quadrillion Btu (quads) of energy, costing over $8 billion.
Today, advances in magnetic and electrostatic scale control technologies have led to their becoming reliable energy savers in certain applications.
Specifically, chemical softening (lime or lime-soda softening), ion exchange, and reverse osmosis, when used for the control of hardness, could potentially be replaced by non-chemical water conditioning technology. This savings is associated with the prevention or removal of scale build-up on a heat exchange surface, where even a thin film can increase energy consumption by nearly 10%. The process of magnetic or eletrostatic scale control and its energy savings and other benefits are explained. However, the availability of high-power, rare-earth element magnets has advanced the magnetic technology to the point where it is more reliable.
Instead of causing the dissolved ions to come together and form non-adherent scale, a surface charge is imposed on the ions so that they repel instead of attract each other. Specifically, chemical softening (lime or lime-soda softening), ion exchange, and reverse osmosis (RO), when used for the control of hardness, can be replaced by the non-chemical water conditioning technology.
The defined scope includes commercial or industrial-type magnetic, electromagnetic or electrostatic devices marketed for scale control. One manufacturer claims as many as 1,000,000 units (estimated total of all manufacturers represented here) are installed in the field. Manufacturers vary in their preference of whether the device should be installed close to the water inlet or close to the boiler.
The increased velocity should result in an increase in the number of collisions between the particles, with the result being formation of insoluble particulate matter. Heat increases the motion of the water molecules, which in turn increases the motion of the ions, which then collide. Calcite is an adherent mineral that causes the build-up of scale on the heat exchange surface. This transport property allows the mineral to be moved through a system to a place where it is convenient to collect and remove the solid precipitate.
Blowdown is used to reduce or balance out the minerals and chemical concentrations within the system. The first is elimination or significant reduction in the need for scale and hardness control chemicals. Responses were obtained from manufacturers, utilities, trade associations, research institutes, Federal sites and other interested parties. In addition, significant environmental savings from the use of many of these technologies are likely through reductions in CO2, NOx, and SOx emissions. Three of these were financial, including net present value (NPV), installed cost, and present value of savings. These values represent the maximum benefit achieved by implementation of the technology in every Federal application where it is considered life-cycle cost-effective.
While the evidence supporting the technologies may be thought of as mainly anecdotal, the fact remains that upon visual inspection after installation of these devices the formation of new scale deposits has been inhibited.
By this it is meant that a manufacturer or their qualified representative is responsible for equipment integration. The device works by initiating the precipitation of scale, thus particulate matter will be present in the treated water. The range of applications and climates in which the technology can be applied are addressed.
Since the technology is a physical process, as opposed to chemical water softening, it is expected to perform best in locations with harder water. Boiler scale control applications are the majority of the installations, but the control of silica scale in cooling water applications is also possible. Work with a reputable manufacturer (such as those included herein) through their engineering department or their designated installer. However, this should not be a major impediment since downtime for cleaning and maintenance of cooling towers, or boiler inspection is part of the regularly scheduled activities for most installations.
In many cases the layer of scale on heat transfer surfaces is beneficial from a corrosion control standpoint. Field applications have shown the technology to be capable of controlling scale for extended periods of time, months or years, eliminating the periodic cleaning or descaling of process equipment that is typical of conventional, chemical-based scale control technologies. This scheduled maintenance activity can be performed in conjunction with the heat exchange surface inspection and requires less than a person-day to disassemble and inspect the system. As is typical of process equipment, cost per unit of treatment decreases with increasing capacity.
Costs also ranged considerably with unit size, with the 1-gpm units ranging in cost up to $500. There is a trade-off between installing a heavier permanent magnet unit requiring no outside power versus a lighter electronic unit for which an electrical connection needs to be made, and possibly electrical lines run to the point of installation. Facilities engineering and design for calculations and updating plant drawings should amount to less than two person-days for the large units, and less than an hour for the small units.
Some utility or trade associations have supported the electronic technologies with funds and exposure. There will also be additional indirect reductions due to decreased transportation of fuels and decreased fuel processing. As mentioned previously, the use of magnetic or electric fields to treat water had its origins near the turn of the 19th century.
Manufacturers claim to have installations operating satisfactorily for as long as 30 years. The non-chemical technologies may not be universally applicable for scale control, just as any technology may not be a universally applicable solution to the problem it was designed to solve. Nor do they work as efficiently when iron is present, as was mentioned above, or when other magnetic minerals are present. The first is air quality due to emissions reduction associated with decreases in fuel consumption.
The conditions are based on information gathered during the user interviews and reading of published and unpublished case studies. The process water is used in a recirculating boiler water system with flow of 1,000 gpm or 1.4 MGD (million gallons per day). Downstream of the water treatment facilities is a conventional shell-and-tube heat exchanger used to heat the water for both building heat and process water.
In this case, alkalinity is sufficient so as to not require the addition of soda ash during the softening process.
The latter would be more accurate since it would more closely reflect lime used for water softening, whereas the former would list only lime purchases including those for water softening, pH adjustment and other uses.
The firing rate data or other operation data would be the most accurate but might not always be available. For this report, it was derived from information compiled by the Electric Power Research Institute. The first step was consultation with the manufacturer, including submitting water analysis data and a schematic of the current system showing the proposed location of the equipment to facilitate manufacturer selection and equipment sizing. This is not quantified here, but could be quantified if the pressure drop through the current system was known, along with the energy characteristics of the pump so that reductions in pressure could be related to energy consumption. Chemical softening will be reduced, and likely eliminated, by the use of non-chemical treatment technologies. Not shown are water consumption and water discharge, which do not change between the alternatives. We serve Grand Rapids, Lansing, Kalamazoo and many surrounding areas, including Jackson, Muskegon, Battle Creek, Traverse City, Niles, Alpena, Mount Pleasant and nearby.
The water cools the unit to help prevent burnouts, while the sump pit can be covered for noise reduction. These systems use your town water supply and depend on your home's water pressure for pumping capacity. Additionally, the durable TPU reservoir material keeps water tasting exactly the way it should, and the bite valve keeps the hose secure when you're cruising up the trail. This would include applications both to cooling water treatment and boiler water treatment in once-through and recirculating systems. Secondary energy savings can be attributed to reducing the pump load, or system pressure, required to move the water through a scale-free, unrestricted piping system.
When subjected to heating, the divalent ions form insoluble compounds with anions such as carbonate. Similar advances in materials science, such as the availability of ceramic electrodes and other durable dielectric materials, have allowed the electrostatic technology to also become more reliable. Thus the two ions (positive and negative, or cations and anions, respectively) of a kind needed to form scale are never able to come close enough together to initiate the scale-forming reaction.
This would include applications both to cooling water treatment and boiler water treatment, in once-through and recirculating systems.
The reason for this precaution is that the action of the magnetic field on the hardness-causing ions is very weak.
Devices intended for home use, as well as other non-chemical means for scale control, such as reverse osmosis, are not within the extended scope of this FTA. Where not withheld by the manufacturer because of business sensitivity reasons, customer lists included both Federal and non-Federal installations.
Example savings resulting from the removal of calcium-magnesium scales are shown in Table 1. Positively charged particles will move in a direction in accord with the Right-hand Rule, where the electric and magnetic fields are represented by the fingers and the force by the thumb. Once a precipitate is formed, it serves as a foundation for further growth of the scale crystal. In addition, scale exhibits an inverse solubility relationship with temperature, meaning that the solubility of the material decreases as temperature increases.
When the reaction between positively charged and negatively charged ions occurs at low temperature, relative to a heat exchange surface, the mineral form is usually aragonite.
If the chemical consumption for scale control is reduced, it may be possible to reduce blowdown also. In a typical plant, this savings could be on the order of thousands of dollars each year when the cost of chemicals, labor and equipment is factored in.
Invasive devices are those which have part or all of the operating equipment within the flow field.
Based on these responses, the technologies were evaluated in terms of potential Federal-sector energy savings and procurement, installation, and maintenance costs. The first technology was assessed assuming the technology was applied to the treatment of boiler make-up water. The actual benefit will be lower because full market penetration is unlikely to ever be achieved. In addition, in most cases, scale deposits present within the system at the time of installation have been removed. Unlike many other technologies where much of the knowledge has been reduced to a quantitative model, the non-chemical water treatment industry still relies largely on experience as the means of providing quality installation, service and, consequently, customer satisfaction. If the system is sensitive to particulate matter there may be a need for a solid separation device such as a filter, a settling basin, a cyclone, or a sump to collect solids and to allow for their easy removal from the system. In general, only a few locations do not require or would not benefit from some type of hardness control. Experience has been cited with both retrofit installations and in new installations (see References for a brief listing of applicable reports and publications). These people have much more experience with the technology than the typical water treatment engineering firm. Stray electrical current in the pipe will have the same effect as installation near a strong electrical or magnetic field. Smaller devices, up to approximately 2" pipe size, are available with solder or pipe thread fittings.
With this layer not present when using a non-chemical technology, the concentration of corrosion control chemicals may need adjustment in order to provide the proper protection. The choice among these or other solids separation technologies should be made in conjunction with the manufacturer who will have the best idea of particle size distribution, and thus the relative efficiencies of the separation technologies. The resources--time, chemicals, and equipment--previously devoted to periodic scale removal from heat exchange surfaces will be made available for other tasks.
For the 1,000-gpm units the range of costs was considerably greater, from $900 to over $1,000,000. Installation time estimates were on the order of one hour, with additional parts costing less than $10.
For example, the American Water Works Association sponsored a conference to discuss the non-traditional treatment technologies.
The chemical use reduction may lead to reduced safety, training and reporting requirements. Permanent magnets use no electricity, so both the on-site electricity used for chemical treatment as well as the off-site energy required to produce and transport the chemicals will be eliminated.
The latter will also lead to reductions in water use, water pollution, and solid wastes from mining and processing operations.
Commercialization of the technology began after World War II, with the largest advances coming in the last 20 years with the development of rare earth magnets and inexpensive electronic controls. First, users have noted a dramatic reduction in scale formation to the point where the need for chemical scale control is eliminated. The history of the technology is also littered with cases where the magnet field was applied incorrectly or did not have sufficient strength to affect the reaction. On systems where descaling was infrequent or absent altogether, or where the chemical scale control program was not as effective in controlling scale formation, fuel consumption savings ranged up to 30%. For this reason, many of the manufacturers recommend installing the technology only after the system has been descaled, thus savings in fuel consumption would be immediate. Second, the periodic heat exchanger inspection and cleaning cycle is reduced to an inspection cycle. The electrostatic units need to have the electrodes checked periodically, semi-annually, and the electrodes replaced when noticeably worn or damaged, perhaps every five years.
If the system is not cleaned prior to installation of the non-chemical technology, the scale in the system will detach and its removal will be necessary. The second is a corresponding decrease in solid wastes, ash and other fuel combustion residues to be disposed.
The purpose is to illustrate the types of data required to prepare a site-specific cost analysis, not to illustrate what any particular user might experience in the way of cost savings.
In some cases there may be energy or monitoring data available for the process that would be available as part of the water treatment system operator's records. The estimate by the in-house facilities engineering staff calls for three days to install the system, one-half day each for set-up and clean-up, one day to remove a section of pipe to make space for the device (including installing flanges), and one day for installation and leak testing. If the water velocity through a section of pipe is too low, it will be necessary to use adapters to decrease the size of the pipe through the device, thus increasing the velocity.
Methods for calculating the fuel consumption were discussed above in the technology descriptions. There will also be a corresponding energy decrease from the shutdown of chemical mixing equipment and water treatment equipment used in the softening process. Capital cost for the alternative treatment system, estimated at $10,000 at the beginning of the 15-year analysis period, is not shown either.
Images,snapshots,and pics often capture a sentiment,a mood,a feeling,or even an idea of a person who's at the center of attention. The Federal Energy Managment Program was established in 1974 to provide direction, guidance, and assistance to Federal agencies in planning and implementing energy management program that will improve the energy efficiency and fuel flexibility of the Federal infrastructure. In addition, a hypothetical case study is presented to give the reader a sense of the actual costs and energy savings. These insoluble compounds have a much lower heat transfer capability than heat transfer surfaces such as metal. The redirection of the particles tends to increase the frequency with which ions of opposite charge collide and combine to form a mineral precipitate, or insoluble compound. The end result for a user is the same with either technology; scale formation on heat exchange surfaces is greatly reduced or eliminated. Other applications mentioned by the manufacturers include use on petroleum pipelines as a means of decreasing fouling caused by wax build-up, and the ability to inhibit biofouling and corrosion.
Conversely, the action of the magnetic field on the iron ions is very strong, which interferes with the water conditioning action. Those manufacturers who did withhold the customer list indicated a willingness to disclose customer contacts to legitimate prospective customers. Generally, the preferred installation location for use with cooling towers or heat exchangers is upstream of the heat exchange location and upstream of the cooling tower. Where avoidance is not possible, the installation of shielded equipment is recommended to achieve optimum operation. A secondary energy savings can be attributed to reducing the pump load, or system pressure, required to move the water through a scale-free, unrestricted piping system. The treatment efficiency increases with increasing hardness since more ions are present in solution; thus each ion will need to travel a shorter distance before encountering an ion of opposite charge.

Therefore, at the hottest point in a heat exchanger, the heat exchange surface, the scale is least soluble, and, furthermore due to thermally induced currents, the ions are most likely to collide nearest the surface. Aragonite is much less adherent to heat exchange surfaces, and tends to form smaller-grained or softer-scale deposits, as opposed to the monolithic sheets of scale common on heat exchange surfaces. Therefore, these devices require the removal of a section of the pipe for insertion of the device. The increased diameter is partially a function of the magnetic or electromagnetic elements, and also a function of the cross sectional flow area. The second technology was assessed assuming the technology was applied to both the treatment of boiler make-up water and cooling tower water treatment. The remaining criteria were environmental and dealt with reductions in air emissions due to fuel or energy savings and included SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, particulate matter and hydrocarbon emissions.
Design and integration considerations for the technology are discussed, including equipment and installation costs, installation details, maintenance impacts, and relevant codes and standards. Larger devices may have flange fittings that would necessitate the installation of matching flanges in the current pipe arrangement.
On the reverse side, many users are claiming the presence of a fine powdery film on the surfaces the treated water contacts. Note, however, the need for periodic inspection of the heat exchange surfaces is not reduced or eliminated.
No information was uncovered as part of this effort to indicate any instance where a boiler or cooling tower equipment manufacturer voided a warranty for equipment. In addition, as California municipalities face water shortages, they have turned to a number of measures to lower water consumption and increase water quality. For the electronic units, on-site energy requirements may vary from as little as 10% of the chemical-based treatment system energy consumption--typical, to 10 times the energy consumed by the chemical-based treatment system.
However, using the estimates of one manufacturer as a basis, there could be upwards of 1,000,000 units installed in the United States in commercial or industrial facilities, inclusive of all units installed by all manufacturers. This latter was especially true early in the life cycle of the technology when ferrous-based magnets were the norm. The handling and storage requirements for the chemicals--lime, soda ash, salt and acid--have been eliminated, as has training for their use, storage and handling. Filters, sumps and hydrocyclones are all effective means of capturing the solids, but each will require periodic cleaning. Of course, this will only be applicable in the situation in which an end user combusts fuels on-site for the production of power. The water-softening process removes a significant fraction of the hardness, but not all, leading to semiannual inspections and annual cleaning of the heat exchanger. Three people are required, as well as a device capable of lifting 1,000 pounds in order to position the device and facilitate removal of the old section of pipe. The fuel consumption savings is simply the net difference, in this case estimated equal to 10% of the baseline fuel consumption. The estimated chemical savings here was 480 tons per year and the corresponding electricity savings was 31,000 kWh per year. Throughout the years,pictures has become one of the most popular ways to capture memorable moments. A listing of current manufacturers and technology users is provided along with references for further reading. Since this reaction takes place in a low-temperature region of a heat exchange system, the scale formed is non-adherent. Downstream of the cooling tower but upstream of the heat source was also mentioned as a possible installation location, primarily for the use with chillers or other cooling equipment.
Some manufacturers also have limitations on direction of installation--vertical or horizontal--because of internal mechanical construction.
The flow area through the devices is generally equivalent to the flow area of the section of pipe removed.
However, no specific effort was made to contact manufacturers of boilers and cooling tower equipment to assess specific warranty conditions or policies. Estimated installation time ranged from one to four person-days, requiring less than $1,000 in additional materials. This last process has been noted as taking from 30 days to over a year, depending upon the thickness and composition of the scale. High levels of particulate matter will also negatively influence the efficiency of the technology by reducing the collision frequency of the desirable reactions.
In each case the fuel consumption savings was proportional to the thickness of the scale layer removed. The reduction in these periodic activities frees up the previously time allocated for application to other activities. A third area is the reduction in release, or potential for release, of water treatment chemicals stored at a facility. And certainly,for a tantamount of consumer and shoppers you cant put a price tag on family and holiday pics. Thus additional fuel consumption would be required to transfer an equivalent amount of energy. At the prevailing temperature conditions, this form is preferred over the adherent form, which attaches to heat exchange surfaces. A third potential savings is from reductions in heat exchanger tube replacement due to failure. Non-invasive devices are completely external to the pipe, and thus can be installed while the pipe is in operation.
The costs of the two technologies were different based on information provided by the manufacturers, thus leading to different results. Of course, it is realized that the scale layer, and therefore energy consumption, builds over time and is not an instantaneous effect.) This savings is also equal to the loss in heat transfer efficiency due to scale formation on the heat exchange surface. Decades after the invention of the first camera, a large number of consumers and shoppers continue to take pics, in a hgh tech fashion. Failure of tubes due to scale build-up, and the resultant temperature rise across the heat exchange surface, will be eliminated or greatly reduced in proportion to the reduction in scale formation. The Pacific Northwest states, the North Atlantic coastal states, and the Southeast states, excluding Florida, are locations where naturally occurring soft water is most likely to be found.
The wastes associated with disposal and management of used chemical containers will also be reduced. Instead of the antiquated bulky cameras with huge lenses,consumers and shoppers frequently use SmartPhones and digital cameras to capture images and to take holiday pics. The balance of the United States could benefit from some type of water treatment to control scale formation, using either one of the traditional technologies such as lime softening or ion exchange, or the non-chemical technology discussed in this FTA. From family gatherings,to family picnics to traditional weddings to the holidays,consumers and shoppers often seize the opportunity at planned events and during the holidays for instance Thanksgiving and Christmas to take pictures of loved ones,family,friends and co workers.
Since founding csaccac Inc in 2010, as Founder and President,I fill many hats including Product Tester and photographer. And truthfully speaking,in the beginning I experienced some difficulty;however,after I purchased my first digital camera I began to feel comfortable and enjoy the ease of taking pics with a digital camera. Months after I purchased my first digital camera,I set my sights on a tripod, a universal stand to hold my digital camera.
The main reason I purchased a tripod__ at the time, I wanted to create high quality self pics and group pics. Eventhough, I've had my tripod for some months,I am still learning the ins and outs of both my digital camera and tripod. Well,if you havent guessed or envisioned what the featured product for the month of November 2013 looks like or remotely even resembles __then as productor tester I guess I'll do the honors first__it's my tripod. Eventually, I wanted to find out what the craze had been all about and the reason that consumers seemed to ofA  been trading in personal computers for Tablets,_well, at least leaving them at home. Ultimately, I placed online an order for a NookHD+ then opt to pick up the tech item from the store instead of waiting for it to be shipped to my place of residency.
AA  few weeks with the NookHD+, I was hooked_eventhough, IA  wasna€™t a fan of touchscreen only. And in all honesty, since the beginning of the Smart Phone craze, I had insisted upon that all of my primary tech gadgets used for work, research and blogging had to be equipped with a QWERTY keyboard. However, in this particular instance,The NookHD+, again, touchscreen only, I made an exception. As I continued to learn the ins and outs of my newly purchased NookHD+ , at the same time, I began to inquire about the accessories compatible with the tech gadget.
In doing so, I foundA  the tech item had a Stylus Pen specifically made to use with the NookHD+. Weeks later, I purchased a different kind of Stylus Pen , I noticed while standing atA  the checkout counter at Walgreens,pictured next to this article is that Stylus Pen. Quite astonishing the Stylus Pen worked wellA  with both of my tech gadgets ( Smart Phone & Tablet). A frequent question a tantamount of consumers and shoppers find themselves entertaining especially during the holidays when manufacturers and retailers offer what they consider to be great deals and bargains. After giving the device a run for its money as well as a brief critique of the various apps and functions,I stated in my review of the Nook HD+ how pleased I was with the tech gadget. Further into the critique, I also commented that I was soooo pleased with the tech gadget that I wanted to protect my investment. Based on my income and budget,I considered the purchase of the Nook HD+ to be a major purchase of the year.
Shortly after, I purchased the Nook HD+,I began to look at the recommended accessories for the tech gadget. Eventually, after I and my Nook HD+ survived the return and exchange 14 day trial period,I chose to protect my investment with a Nook HD+ cover. As I began to search and think of different items that could be the product of the month for September,I began to heavily weigh in on August's product of the month,the Nook HD+cover.
Hours later,I arrived to the assertion that there's more than one way to protect your investment. With the assertion___, there's more than one way to protect your investment, I made the final choice to make Smart Phone covers as the product of the month for September. Furthermore, within the past five years,Ive purchased several Smart Phones from Virgin Mobile. To be truthful, I've even purchased Smart Phone insurance,a good choice because a few months later my Smart Phone had an accident.
Despite all of the stuff I tried, sampled, tasted and tested during the recent months, as a result of a long review and critique besides from featuring the Smart Phone as a product of the month,I began to think of the different ways Ia€™ve used to protect my Smart Phone as an alternative product of the month. For instance,Smart Phone insurance has been one the ways I protect my investment from unexpected accidents. Ostensibly, there's more than one way to protect your Smart Phone from accidents such as, for example, you accidentally drop and break your Smart Phone or in some weird, odd, freak accident as you rush out the door you accidentally step on your Smart Phone or heaven forbids the same thing happens to you that happen to me, a few months ago, I dropped my Smart Phone in the toilet. Without a question, eschewing further debate, Smart Phone insurance is a great investment for consumers and shoppers who use their Smart Phone daily and for work. Best of all, Smart Phone insurance usually saves the consumer from digging deep into their pockets. So, what about before those mishaps and accidents, if you havena€™t figured it out__ there's more than one way to protect your investment. Even though, at first, I might of skipped over protecting my investments, I am more open to the idea of investing and protecting my major purchases. Here's an example of what I am talking about, I currently have several Smart Phone covers to protect my Smart Phone from breakage, moisture, and malfunctioning. Varying in price,color,size and shape, most of today's Smart Phone manufacturers and retailers offer to consumers and shoppers Smart Phone covers as an accessory. From passwords, to anti-theft apps, to screen locks and codes, there's more than one way to protect your investment. Regardless of the price, and hopefully it is within your budget, a true frugal savvy shopper knows the importance of protecting their investment.
Above everything else,both I and my Nook HD+ survived the return and exchange process,quite remarkable,I even have the receipt to prove it. Unlike sooo manyA  items, I ve returned and exchanged in the past,__it,meaning my Nook HD+ survived the fourteenth days as printed on the receipt. A business practice that's part of Barnes and Noble store policy that allows customers fourteen days to return an item.
In short,the 14th day, adhering to store policy was the final day that I couldA  actually return my Nook HD+ and get cash back. It goes without saying ,I readA  the instructions,totally unavoidable with a new tech gadget,as well as,downloaded apps,and,uploaded wallpapers.
Not quite sure,on the day I purchased my Nook HD+__ifA  in fact, I would be satisfied with my purchase,I chose at the time not to purchase any kind of accessories. As it turns out,I was soooo pleased with my purchase of the Nook HD+,I wanted to protect my investments. It doesnt matter if you're on lunch break,on a mini vacation,at a webinar or conference,filling out an online report or having to send emails can be a hassle if you don't have a wifi connection,a Broadband device is just one of the many tech gadgets that consumers and shoppers frequently use to get an internet connection. Constantly,on the go,I wanted to have access to wifiA  while away from my place of residency. Because,I perform an arrary task that frequently requires wifi access ,I purchased a Broadband to Go device from Virgin Mobile. Egregiously,as a Virgin Mobile customer and fan,I live by Virgin Mobile products except in the case of Virgin Mobile wifi devices.
Recently,I purchased Virgin Mobile's MiFi 2200 to conciliate my worries about not being able to access wifi home. Aside from very slow internet speed,the device could only connect to one tech gadget and,the 3G USB plug n play stick broke too easily. Affordable,great to have on hand for shopping emergencies,the latest in recycling,a recyclable tote makes shopping less of a hassle.
Ditching the old biodegradeable plastic bags for a recyclable tote,it's a smart move and a great investment for frugal,savvy,and environmentally conscious consumers and shoppers.Available in most local chain stores and at grocery stores,recyclable totes are becoming the better choice than leaving stores with the traditional biodegradeable plastic bag. Part of a movement to get consumers and shoppers involved in recycling and to think about going green,consumers and shoppers now have the option of trading in those plastic bags for a recyclable tote.
A frequent shopper,I usually purchase a couple of recyclable totes to hold store purchases and other stuff.
Eventhough,I like having the choice to purchase a recyclable tote,I havent completely stop using biodegradeable plastic bags. However,I have to point out the fact that when a consumer and shoppers purchase a recyclable tote they're not limited to using the tote only in that store,that's why they're called recyclable totes because they can be used more than once. In fact, most recycable totes last for more than a week,I should know because I still have a few leftover from the previous month. A great deal,a really good find,a price you wont find anywhere else,and the best price among competitors,I love a great sale and I love rewards for shopping. Savings and Rewards,for most consumers and shoppers,it's all about getting the best price for items purchase daily. From household supplies to groceries,anyone who shops frequently knows consumers and shoppers love a really good sale_,the economic recession of 2008 could be the culprit. In fact,since the 2008 economic recession savings and rewards has become extremely important to American families on a budget. For many American consumers and shoppers,the unexpected downturn of the American economy caused a disruption in their daily activies thus forcing consumer and shoppers to rethink the way they shop and how they shop. As a frequent shopper and consumer,I am constantly looking for a great deal and sales on items I purchase regularly,mainly because I do live on a strict budget.
Admittedly,after the 2008 economic recession,I rediscovered coupons,and began clipping coupons frequently.
In addition to clipping coupons,I also began to check sale ads at home and at the door of stores before shopping.
Along with making a shopping list,clipping coupons at home,checking sale ads at the door and comparing prices,these days one of the best ways to save and get the best deals,I feel without a question has to be with a savings and reward card. And speaking honestly, a savings and rewards card from your local chain store should be a consumer or shoppers BF(bestie).
A must have for consumers and shoppers who seriously want to save,a savings and rewards card.
Throughout the years, my experience with last minute shopping in most instances was not too pleasant. Admittedly,I empathize as well as concur with consumers who express sentiments that last minute shopping makes the shopper(consumer) feel uncomfortable and forlorn with the just thought of buying a gift at the last minute. Often tight on funds to purchase a gift ahead of time,last minute shopping for an overwhelmed consumer with a limited budget could cause the consumer to be late and in some instance not to attend the event or special function.
Subsequently, over the years, I have come to realize that last minute shopping it's not the best of fun. As a result, I definitely would not recommend last minute shopping to a consumer as a shopping tip. Unequivocally, shopping for special events and functions such as finding an appropriate could take several visits different stores. Finding the appropriate could mean spending an entire day in a Hallmark store reading cards, it could also mean spending all day on the phone with friend or relatives discussing gift registry,preferences,stores,likes and dislike of the recipient. Ostensibly,the older you get the adults in your life expect two things from you one not to embarrass them in public and two if you don't have a gift to bring at least show up at special functions on time. Indeed, an earnest shopper as well as a meticulous shopper knows finding the right gift or card for a special function could require hours of shopping and visiting different stores.
Shopping done precipitously could result in purchasing the wrong size,color, or something way out in left field. Don't wait until the last minute to shop for a party,baby showers,bachelorette bash,birthdays,holidays ,and anniversaries avoid uncomfortableness and the feeling of being inadequate,plan the week before.
On certain days, I have even shopped the day of the event that often leaves me feeling embarrassed ashamed, and guilty about my finances even worse depress. Incontrovertibly,last minute shopping in many instances could causes the consumer to become distraught,exasperated, and disconcerted not surprisingly all the emotions take away from the planned day. What's more important being punctilious for the planned event or arriving with a hand picked gift for the recipient or recipients?
Ultimately,the answer remains with the shopper (consumer) The answer should be non bias and based on the event as well as the recipient and not the shoppers wallet . The meticulous consumer that normally keeps track of birthdays, holidays,and anniversaries with calendars,through emails,P DA's ,Smart phones and other tech savvy gadgets of courses would not necessarily share the same feelings of a last minute shopper .

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