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Common-law marriages are quickly becoming the common alternative to marriage in this day and age. For those of you who prefer being legally married, can we at least agree that living together before marriage isn’t the worst sin in the world? I know a few couples who lived with their parents, got engaged and then moved in together after they got married – thinking married life would be just like when they were dating.
Living together before marriage allows you to see your partner’s regular activities, routines and habits. Living together before marriage is by far the best way to gauge how your partner approaches household chores.
Once you move in together, the vacuuming, laundry and dishes are now part of the shared chores of the home. Granted you don’t technically need to live together to learn if you’re financially on the same page, but living together does help. What I am saying though is living together before marriage will help you realize how compatible you really are (or aren’t). For example, if I never moved in with my fiancee (who was my boyfriend at the time), I would have never realized how much I wanted him to be my husband. I'm just another Random Blogger (as if the inter-web needs more of those, right?) ranting about life's many dysfunctions. A living will (aka advanced health care directive) is a legal document that a person uses to make known his or her wishes regarding life prolonging medical treatments. Living wills can contain a variety of choices as to the treatments or withholding of treatments you would like if you become unable to communicate them yourself. If you so choose, your living will can be as specific as stating whether or not you would or would not want the following treatments, under what conditions and for how long you would like the treatments.
It is important to have a living will as it informs your health care providers and your family about your desires for medical treatment in the event you are not able to speak for yourself. Unmarried couples do not have the same rights on relationship breakdown as married couples.
Lymm Family Law is a Limited Company in England and Wales registered at Companies House Company number 7416018.
This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organization, or the World Health Organization. Published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organization, and the World Health Organization, and produced within the framework of the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals. The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), established in 1980, is a joint venture of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the International Labour Organization (ILO), and the World Health Organization (WHO). The Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC) was established in 1995 by UNEP, ILO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, WHO, the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, the United Nations Institute for Training and Research, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Participating Organizations), following recommendations made by the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development to strengthen cooperation and increase coordination in the field of chemical safety. The World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to reproduce or translate its publications, in part or in full. Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the Universal Copyright Convention. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.
The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Germany, provided financial support for the printing of this publication.
Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents (CICADs) are the latest in a family of publications from the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) — a cooperative programme of the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labour Organization (ILO), and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
International Chemical Safety Cards on the relevant chemical(s) are attached at the end of the CICAD, to provide the reader with concise information on the protection of human health and on emergency action.
The primary objective of CICADs is characterization of hazard and dose–response from exposure to a chemical. Risks to human health and the environment will vary considerably depending upon the type and extent of exposure.
While every effort is made to ensure that CICADs represent the current status of knowledge, new information is being developed constantly.
The draft is then sent to an international peer review by scientists known for their particular expertise and by scientists selected from an international roster compiled by IPCS through recommendations from IPCS national Contact Points and from IPCS Participating Institutions. A consultative group may be necessary to advise on specific issues in the risk assessment document. Board members serve in their personal capacity, not as representatives of any organization, government, or industry. Board members, authors, reviewers, consultants, and advisers who participate in the preparation of a CICAD are required to declare any real or potential conflict of interest in relation to the subjects under discussion at any stage of the process. This CICAD on barium and barium compounds was prepared by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the United Kingdom’s Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to update the WHO Environmental Health Criteria monograph on barium (IPCS, 1990).
Barium is a dense alkaline earth metal that occurs in nature as a divalent cation in combination with other elements.
There is no evidence that barium undergoes biotransformation other than as a divalent cation. In humans, ingestion of high levels of soluble barium compounds may cause gastroenteritis (vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain), hypopotassaemia, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and skeletal muscle paralysis. The kidney appears to be the most sensitive target organ in rats and mice exposed repeatedly to barium chloride in drinking-water.
Inhalation exposure of humans to insoluble forms of barium results in radiological findings of baritosis, without evidence of altered lung function and pathology. Currently available data indicate that barium does not appear to be a reproductive or developmental hazard, although animal studies are limited.
Oral intake from drinking-water and food is the most prevalent route of exposure to barium compounds for the general population.
The critical end-points in humans for toxicity resulting from exposure to barium and barium compounds appear to be hypertension and renal function. Dissolved barium in aquatic environments may represent a risk to aquatic organisms such as daphnids, but it is apparently of lesser risk to fish and aquatic plants, although data are limited. Information on analytical methods for determining barium levels in environmental samples is available in Table 1.
Inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry is a relatively effective and sensitive method for measuring low levels of barium in water, blood, urine, and bones. Barium is the 16th most abundant non-gaseous element of the Earth’s crust, constituting approximately 0.04% of it. Because of its high specific gravity, low abrasiveness, chemical stability, and lack of magnetic effects, barite is used as a weighting agent for oil and gas well drilling muds, which counteracts high pressures encountered in the substrata (IPCS, 1990). Both specific and non-specific adsorption of barium onto oxides and soils have been observed.
Soluble barium and suspended particulates can be transported great distances in rivers, depending on the rates of flow and sedimentation.
While some barium in water is removed by precipitation, exchange with soil, or other processes, most barium in surface waters ultimately reaches the ocean.
Marine concentrations of barium generally increase with depth, suggesting that barium may be incorporated into organisms in the euphotic zone and subsequently sedimented and released in deeper waters (IPCS, 1990). Barium sulfate in soils is not expected to be very mobile because of the formation of water-insoluble salts and its inability to form soluble complexes with humic and fulvic materials. Despite relatively high concentrations in soils, only a limited amount of barium accumulates in plants. There is no evidence that barium undergoes environmental biotransformation other than as a divalent cation (IPCS, 1990). The levels of barium in air are not well docu mented, and in some cases the results are contradictory.
The concentration of barium in seawater varies greatly among different oceans and varies with factors such as latitude and depth within a given ocean.
The most important route of exposure to barium appears to be ingestion of barium through drinking-water and food. Due to the paucity of information on the levels of barium in ambient air, it is difficult to estimate the intake from this source.
The wiring used in some speciality arc welding processes has been shown to contain 20–40% soluble barium compounds, and fumes produced during these processes contain 25% barium (Dare et al., 1984). Barium sulfate is the major barium compound used in medicinal diagnostics; it is employed as an opaque contrast medium for roentgenographic studies of the gastrointestinal tract, providing another possible source of human exposure to barium (IPCS, 1990). A suspension of 23, 233, or 2330 mg 133Ba in isotonic saline was instilled into the trachea and then blown into the "deep respiratory tract" of rats (Cember et al., 1961). Animal studies provide evidence that barium compounds, including poorly water soluble barium sulfate, are cleared from the respiratory tract.
Differences in water solubility appear to account for observed differences in respiratory tract clearance rates for barium compounds. The highest concentrations of barium (approximately 91% of the total body burden) are found in the bone (IPCS, 1990). The remainder of the barium in the body is found in soft tissues, particularly aorta, brain, heart, kidney, spleen, pancreas, and lung (IPCS, 1990). Barium is excreted primarily in the faeces following oral, inhalation, and parenteral exposure, but it is also excreted in the urine.
Barium sulfate instilled in the trachea or bronchus of laboratory animals was present in the lungs for up to 126 days after administration and induced local increases in the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes 1 day post-instillation, followed by an increase in macrophages.
There is a limited amount of information available on the genotoxicity of barium compounds.
Ridgeway & Kanofsky (1952) examined the developmental toxicity of barium by injecting 20 mg barium chloride into the yolk sac of developing chick embryos. Only limited information is available on the immunotoxicity and neurotoxicity of barium compounds (IPCS, 1990). Opacities were detected on lung X-rays of three patients for up to 2 years following accidental aspiration of barium sulfate orally administered for observation of the gastrointestinal tract (Buschman, 1991).
In the mortality study (Brenniman & Levy, 1984), age-adjusted mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases (combined), heart diseases (arteriosclerosis), and all causes for both sexes together were significantly higher in the elevated-barium communities compared with the low-barium communities for the years 1971–1975.
The morbidity study (Brenniman & Levy, 1984) was conducted on two Illinois, USA, communities, McHenry and West Dundee, which had similar demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, but a 70-fold difference in barium concentrations in drinking-water. Let’s first talk about some obstacles that come about when wanting to live in your tiny house in any community other than Death Valley, CA or Taos, New Mexico. Co-Housing Community – I am going to admit that while I have not seen one of these I have heard of them. Hit the RV park – When Crystal and I were on the road in August and September we encountered a large number of campgrounds that were discouraging long stays.
Change the law – I am all for reform and I think that it is overdue time for tiny house dwellers to unite and find political rally. I’m a little confused about whether this tiny house is a permanent place for you to live or a temporary place until to find your own place to live. I don’t know the rules but am struggling with getting a small illegal unit up to the standards of Santa Rosa City code. A couple decades ago, you could hardly find organic food… now, it is getting pretty ubiquitous.
I don’t know where you are, but can you go solar and perhaps mix that with a small wind turbine?
Equip yourself with the skills to gain corporate sponsors and partners for your tiny house build.
Created and edited by Kent Griswold of Tiny House Blog, Tiny House Magazine is the only magazine for micro, tiny, small, and unconventional tiny house enthusiasts. Since common-law couples are entitled to the same rights as married couples, why not opt for the less traditional approach to married life? In fact, I think couples living together are taking an important step toward that marital commitment. Sure, we’re engaged to be legally married (one day), but currently we’re living together in common-law matrimony. Guys, are you okay with seeing your girl with no makeup on, wearing bummy clothes and doing her lady things in the bathroom, bedroom or wherever she may?
You wear your best clothes and act properly to present yourself in the best possible light. Living together will reveal if you can agree on who does what chores, when, how often and more importantly, if you’re comfortable with the way the other person does things. It’s important to know where you both stand on money, among many other things, before you tie the knot. More specifically, your NJ living will states your desires regarding the provision, withholding or withdrawal of treatment to keep you alive as well as your provisions about painkillers. Possible treatments in your living will may include: dialysis, CPR, mechanical ventilation, nutritional and hydration assistance and resuscitation. A certification from your doctor stating that you are incapacitated is also required for your living will to become effective.
Whether you are about to move in together and require advice about how you can protect your wealth in the event of the relationship failing or your relationship has broken down, we can advise you of the best way forward.
The overall objectives of the IPCS are to establish the scientific basis for assessment of the risk to human health and the environment from exposure to chemicals, through international peer review processes, as a prerequisite for the promotion of chemical safety, and to provide technical assistance in strengthening national capacities for the sound management of chemicals. The purpose of the IOMC is to promote coordination of the policies and activities pursued by the Participating Organizations, jointly or separately, to achieve the sound management of chemicals in relation to human health and the environment. Applications and enquiries should be addressed to the Office of Publications, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, which will be glad to provide the latest information on any changes made to the text, plans for new editions, and reprints and translations already available. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. CICADs join the Environmental Health Criteria documents (EHCs) as authoritative documents on the risk assessment of chemicals. CICADs are not a summary of all available data on a particular chemical; rather, they include only that information considered critical for characterization of the risk posed by the chemical. Responsible authorities are strongly encouraged to characterize risk on the basis of locally measured or predicted exposure scenarios. Unless otherwise stated, CICADs are based on a search of the scientific literature to the date shown in the executive summary. Authors of the first draft are usually, but not necessarily, from the institution that developed the original review. They are selected because of their expertise in human and environmental toxicology or because of their experience in the regulation of chemicals.
Representatives of nongovernmental organizations may be invited to observe the proceedings of the Final Review Board. The source documents were the US EPA’s Toxicological review of barium and compounds (US EPA, 1998), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry’s Toxicological profile for barium (ATSDR, 1992), and the HSE’s Barium sulphate risk assessment document, which concentrates on occupational exposure (Ball et al., 1997). In addition to its natural presence in the Earth’s crust, and therefore its natural occurrence in most surface waters, barium is also released to the environment via industrial emissions.


Barite, the mineral from which barium sulfate is produced, is a moderately soft crystalline white opaque to transparent mineral. It is also used as a filler in a range of industrial coatings, as a dense filler in some plastics and rubber products, in brake linings, and in some sealants and adhesives. The toxicokinetics of barium ions would be expected to be the same as the toxicokinetics of soluble barium salts.
Insoluble barium sulfate has been extensively used at large doses (450 g) as an oral radiocontrast medium, and no adverse systemic effects have been reported. Intravenous infusion of barium chloride results in increased blood pressure and cardiac arrhythmias.
Long-term studies of barium exposure in laboratory animals have not confirmed the blood pressure, cardiac, and skeletal muscle effects seen in humans and laboratory animals orally exposed to acutely high levels.
No adverse effects have been reported in ecological assessments of terrestrial plants or wildlife, although some plants are known to bioaccumulate barium from the soil. The two most prevalent naturally occurring barium ores are barite (barium sulfate) and witherite (barium carbonate). Emissions may result from mining, refining, or processing of barium minerals and manufacture of barium products. The presence of barium is mainly attributable to industrial emissions, especially the combustion of coal and diesel oil and waste incineration, and may also result from dusts blown from soils and mining processes. Once freshwater sources discharge into seawater, barium and the sulfate ions present in salt water form barium sulfate.
When soluble barium-containing minerals weather and come into contact with solutions containing sulfates, barium sulfate is deposited in available geological faults.
The concentrations are extremely variable and depend on local geology, water treatment, and water hardness (NAS, 1977).
Barium is also present in wheat, although most is concentrated in the stalks and leaves rather than in the grain (Smith, 1971b).
Particles containing barium may be inhaled into the lung, but little is known regarding the absorption of barium by this route.
Four rats from each group were sacrificed at intervals up to 20 days after administration, and lungs, kidneys, spleen, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were extracted and examined radiologically for the presence of the 133Ba.
The clearance half-times were proportional to solubility in dogs exposed to aerosols of barium chloride, barium sulfate, heat-treated barium sulfate (likely oxidized), or barium incorporated in fused montmorillonite clay particles (Cuddihy et al., 1974).
Reeves (1986) noted that osseous uptake of barium was 1.5–5 times higher than that of calcium or strontium. High concentrations of barium are sometimes found in the eye, primarily in the pigmented structures (Reeves, 1986). The study in dogs also reported skeletal muscle flaccidity and paralysis (Roza & Berman, 1971). Topical and ocular applications (24-h exposure) of barium nitrate and barium oxide in rabbits caused mild skin irritation and severe eye irritation (RTECS, 1985).
Following a single exposure period, thickening of the alveolar septa, loss of ciliated epithelial cells, and formation of multi cellular epithelium were noted. When injection was made on day 8 of development, developmental defects were observed in toes. Intravenous infusion of barium chloride into anaesthetized dogs resulted in muscle flaccidity and paralysis, which appeared to result from severe hypo potassaemia (Roza & Berman, 1971). Analysis indicated that 49% of the workplace airborne dust was barium sulfate, although particle size was not stated.
The method of administration was unstated, but the suspension was presumed to have been instilled into the trachea and then blown into the lungs. A trend towards increased total serum calcium with barium exposure was noted but was not considered to be clinically significant. Barium was the only drinking-water contaminant that exceeded drinking-water regulations of the time in any of the public drinking-water supplies.
Our old county required you to own .55 acres to live and 2 full acres to build new construction. You would, of course, have to have a willing homeowner with said backyard as well as very kind, quiet neighbors. Whereas snowbirds used to be able to rent a spot for months the current economy has some RV parks sustaining from long term camping so as not to come across an awkward situation in which a person literally lives at the campground. I am fairly aware of the cohousing community, in general, but thank you so much for the link.
It seems to me that a small, green unit, like a tiny house should be allowed and encouraged considering the problem with affordable housing. We would buy one as it is well within our abilities to build one and we have had penned this in our overall plan for our land.
We hired a land-use lawyer expert to advise us and he said we are within our rights, but do we really want the legal fight?
So we are going to buy some more vacant land, move another tiny home there and take a stand on purpose.
So many people ask me how to site, how to insure, how to get a loan… Let’s get some glue to our discussions, yes?
Likewise, living in a tiny house isn’t for everyone (yet) but it should be as accessible. I know Andy Hawkins over at Tiny White North is trying to put together an active and solid (and even moderated) forum for tiny houses.
This downloadable e-Book will give you the confidence and integrity to approach any sponsor with a Win-Win attitude. Available in PDF and for both iOS and Android devices, the magazine is a digital gem for the tiny house set! As you can see the years have treated it well and it looks (and feels) just as comfortable as ever. Ladies, are you going to keep your cool when your man is lounging around in his boxers, watching TV, playing video games or farting repeatedly? You’re still considered an overnight guest, so we’ll tidy up, vacuum, do laundry (or hide our dirty laundry) before you come over.
Once you get married, “my money” and “your money” suddenly becomes “our money.” But sharing money also means sharing debts, loans, and lines of credit.
Knowing your partner’s day-to-day activities and habits, how they approach household chores and how they handle money is important before taking that leap into married life.
Every couple is different, but for us, the decision to live together before marriage was a great one! You would never buy a car without test driving it ?? Thanks for stopping by and leaving a comment.
Contact an experienced Robbinsville, NJ living will attorney at Pinard Law, LLC without delay to ensure that your healthcare decisions will be taken care of in the event you are unable to speak for yourself.
They may be complemented by information from IPCS Poison Information Monographs (PIM), similarly produced separately from the CICAD process.
Before acceptance for publication as CICADs by IPCS, these documents undergo extensive peer review by internationally selected experts to ensure their completeness, accuracy in the way in which the original data are represented, and the validity of the conclusions drawn.
The critical studies are, however, presented in sufficient detail to support the conclusions drawn.
To assist the reader, examples of exposure estimation and risk characterization are provided in CICADs, whenever possible. In the event that a reader becomes aware of new information that would change the conclusions drawn in a CICAD, the reader is requested to contact IPCS to inform it of the new information. Authors are required to take reviewers’ comments into account and revise their draft, if necessary. Boards are chosen according to the range of expertise required for a meeting and the need for balanced geographic representation. Observers may participate in Board discussions only at the invitation of the Chairperson, and they may not participate in the final decision-making process. Current (1998) literature searches for toxicological data were used in the preparation of the US EPA (1998) review. The most important impurities are iron(III) oxide, aluminium oxide, silica, and strontium sulfate.
Studies in rats using a soluble salt (barium chloride) have indicated that the absorbed barium ions are distributed via the blood and deposited primarily in the skeleton. No experimental data are available on barium sulfate; however, due to the limited absorption of barium sulfate from the gastrointestinal tract or skin, it is unlikely that any significant systemic effects would occur. The lack of reports of skin or eye irritation in humans, despite its widespread use, suggests that barium sulfate, often used as a contrast medium, is not a strong irritant.
Although no in vivo data are available, in vitro data indicate that barium compounds have no mutagenic potential. The free element is a silver-white soft metal that oxidizes readily in moist air and reacts with water.
NIOSH (1987) suggested a flame atomic absorption method to determine soluble barium particles in air following collection on a cellulose ester membrane filter and re-extraction with hot hydrochloric acid solu tion. Barite occurs largely in sedimentary formations, as residual nodules resulting from weathering of barite-containing sediments, and in beds along with fluorspar, metallic sulfides, and other minerals. Crude barite ore is washed free of clay and other impurities, dried, and then ground before use. Adsorption onto metal oxides probably acts as a control over the concentration of barium in natural waters.
Barium sulfate and carbonate are the forms of barium most likely to occur in particulate matter in the air, although the presence of other insoluble compounds cannot be excluded. Barium was not incorporated into organic components but was bound primarily to the cell membrane or other non-extractable components. If there is insufficient sulfate to combine with barium, the soil material formed is partially saturated with barium.
No distinct pattern between ambient levels of barium in the air and the extent of industrialization was observed.
This large variation may be explained in part by differences in study duration (length of time that gastrointestinal absorption was monitored), species, age, and fasting status of the animals; however, these experimental parameters did not affect gastrointestinal absorption of barium consistently among the different studies. Gastrointestinal absorption was approximately 50% (barium chloride) in beagle dogs compared with 30% (barium sulfate) in rats and mice.
Barium sulfate and barium chloride were absorbed at "nearly equivalent rates" (based on blood and tissue levels) in rats following a single gavage dose of similar barium concentrations (McCauley & Washington, 1983). The clearance half-time of the 133Ba from the deep respiratory tract for all dose levels was determined to be between 8 and 10 days and was not influenced by the dose administered. Determination of plasma potassium concentrations in the dogs revealed severe hypopotassaemia, which was attributed to an extracellular-to-intracellular shift of potassium. Kidney lesions were characterized by tubule dilatation, renal tubule atrophy, tubule cell regeneration, and the presence of crystals, primarily in the lumen of the renal tubules.
Histological evaluations of an extensive number of tissues did not reveal barium-related lesions.
The animals were fed an NIH-07 mash diet; the barium con tent of the diet was not reported. The diet was characterized as a "low metal" diet, and it included 60% rye flour, 30% dried skim milk, 9% corn oil, 1% iodized chloride, and assorted vitamins; the barium content was not reported.
Most in vitro studies have found that barium chloride and barium nitrate did not induce gene mutations in bacterial assays with or with out metabolic activation. After 2 years of exposure to the barite ore dust, fine nodulation was observed on lung X-rays, apparently due to the presence of barium sulfate. None of the subjects was taking any medications, and none had hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. No significant changes were observed in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, LDL:HDL ratio, and apolipoproteins A1, A2, and B.
This study did not measure the barium exposure of individual subjects and did not control for several important variables, such as population mobility (approximately 75% turnover in two of the four high-barium communities from 1960 to 1970), use of water softeners that would remove barium from and add sodium to the water supply, use of medication by study subjects, and other risk factors, such as smoking, diet, and exercise.
The levels of other minerals in the drinking-water of the two communities were stated to be similar. In our research I have come to learn that most local officials don’t even understand zoning codes. This way you have less neighbors to be concerned with and usually more slack zoning ordinances. I would imagine that such a community would have to be built much like any other housing development complete with rules, laws, and neighbors! It is the electric that we will need (for one year, at least) and the sewage we don’t need.
I think we have found the answer to the power issue as we have chicken coops and will have a goat shed on our land. So we moved it to a less conspicuous, but less desirable spot on our 1 acre property – neighbors are quiet for now. The point is to minimize your lifestyle, downsize, learn what you NEED to live and not always what you want, minimizing your carbon footprint, etc. And as an added bonus we have included templates for email requests, traditional letters, and even cold calls. Here are the benefits I’ve experienced with choosing to live together before tying the knot. You’ve gotten comfortable, so you start wearing what you want, acting more like yourself, and taking a more relaxed approach. Living together shows u what its like when you have to wake up, come home and go to sleep with the same face beside you EVERYDAY. I particularly like your point around financial compatibility as this can be such a contentious point in many marriages so you need to be in the same space. For additional information, the reader should consult the identified source documents upon which the CICAD has been based. These examples cannot be considered as representing all possible exposure situations, but are provided as guidance only. The first draft undergoes primary review by IPCS and one or more experienced authors of criteria documents to ensure that it meets the specified criteria for CICADs.
The resulting second draft is submitted to a Final Review Board together with the reviewers’ comments. Updated literature searches of on-line databases were conducted in January 1999 to identify any references containing toxicological or ecological information on barium that were published subsequent to those incorporated in the above-listed source documents. For example, drilling muds are ground to an average particle diameter of 44 µm, with a maximum of 30% of particles less than 6 µm in diameter. The principal route of elimination for barium following oral, inhalation, or intratracheal administration is in the faeces. Barium does not exist in nature in the elemental form but occurs as the divalent cation in combination with other elements (ATSDR, 1992). Some of the more commonly used synonyms of barium sulfate include barite, barytes, heavy spar, and blanc fixe.


Some sources produce very pure white barite, which is used in coatings, while barite from other sources is off-white and is used in applications where the colour is unimportant. Electrostatic forces account for a large fraction of the non-specific sorption of barium on soil and subsoil. The residence time of barium in the atmosphere may be several days, depending on the particle size. This estimate is supported by evidence that outer-shelf sediments have lower barium concentrations than those closer to the mainland. No studies of barium particle uptake from the air have been reported, although vegetation is capable of removing significant amounts of contaminants from the atmosphere. The presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract appears to decrease barium absorption, and barium absorption appears to be higher in young animals than in older ones (US EPA, 1998). Similar concentrations of barium were found in the bones of rats fed diets with equivalent doses of barium chloride or barium from Brazil nuts.
Following termination of barite exposure, Doig (1976) showed a clearing of lung opacities in workers.
Less than 0.1% of the instilled dose of 133Ba was detected in the tissues analysed (excluding lungs).
Levels in these tissues were higher than the whole-blood concentration, suggesting that they con centrated barium. Simultaneous infusion of potassium into the dogs abolished the cardiac effects and the skeletal muscle flaccidity but did not affect hypertension.
However, the physicochemical properties of barium sulfate and the lack of reports of skin or eye irritation in humans despite its widespread use, particularly for X-ray purposes, suggest that barium sulfate is not irritating or corrosive to either skin or eyes. However, the investigator reported unspecified changes in bronchiolar epithelium that were still present following a 28-day recovery period. There were no clearly chemical-related clinical findings of toxicity or cardiovascular (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, electrocardiogram) effects.
Barium had no significant effect on the growth of males, but increased the growth of older females. In males, longevity (defined as the mean life span of the last surviving five animals of each sex in each treatment group) was significantly reduced. All animals received a rye-based diet with low trace metal content based on that used by Schroeder & Mitchener (1975a,b). The presence of barium sulfate in the lung tissue was confirmed by chemical analysis and light microscopy at autopsy 11 years after cessation of exposure. Forty-one of these patients exhibited complete elimination of the barium sulfate from the lungs within 1 week; it was stated that in some of these patients, this clearance occurred within 24 h.
Barium concentrations in the drinking-water consumed by the subjects prior to the study were known to be very low. Serum glucose, albumin, and potassium levels and urinary levels of sodium, potassium, or metanephrines (catecholamine breakdown products) were unchanged. As a result, it is not possible to assign a causal relationship between mortality and exposure to barium. And then there are those obstacles that come about for those who intend on living full time for not defined amount of time in a tiny house. We will be using a composting toilet and our grey water will go through a leech pit and then irrigation system; all maintained by us. Yeah, unless you could hook your cave up to a septic system and have it appraised for tax purposes, you are probably illegal!
We do call it a modular home in the truest sense of the word because if we need it to we can expand on it and make it fit our families needs. Our chickens love watching TV and our goats end the day in a whirlpool – both of which need electricity. If we can live simply without noise or waste pollution off grid, then what’s the real issue? If you can say without a doubt that you are still in love after a year or two of living together being married will be a lot easier.
It is better finding out sooner rather than later to determine whether or not you think it is going to work out.
The reader is referred to EHC 1701 for advice on the derivation of health-based guidance values. Following introduction into the respira tory tract, the appearance of barium sulfate in the faeces represents mucociliary clearance from the lungs and subsequent ingestion. Animal studies involving respiratory tract instillation of barium sulfate have shown inflammatory responses and granuloma formation in the lungs; this would be expected with exposure to substantial amounts of any low-solubility dust, leading to a change in lung clearance and subsequently to lung effects. The estimated limit of detection by this method is 2 µg per sample, and its precision is 2.5% at 43–180 µg per sample. Deposition on soil may result from human activities, including the disposal of fly ash and primary and secondary sludge in landfills (IPCS, 1990). The retention of barium, like that of other alkaline earth cations, is largely controlled by the cation-exchange capacity of the sorbent.
Most of these particles, however, are much larger than 10 µm in size and rapidly settle back to earth. However, other alkaline earth metals displace barium from aluminium oxide (McComish & Ong, 1988). Twenty-four hours after an intratracheal injection of 133BaSO4, 15.3% of the radioactivity was cleared from the lungs. The hypertension did not appear to be mediated through the renin–angiotensin system, because it was not prevented by bilateral nephrectomy of the dogs.
The only reported adverse effects were depressed water consumption in the high-dose groups of both sexes and slight decreases in relative adrenal weights in mid-dose males at 8 weeks and in all exposed groups of females at 13 weeks; these changes were not dose related. A retinal lesion ("focal absence of the outer layers of the retina") was observed but did not appear to be dose or duration related; its relationship to barium exposure is uncertain. Electron microscopic examination of kidneys in all the rats in the blood pressure studies demonstrated no changes in arteriolar vessel walls or in tubules of the nephrons. Reported exposure-related effects included reduced body weights in some mid-and high-dose rats, dose-related decreased water consumption, and significantly increased relative kidney weights in high-dose females (the only indication of potential adverse renal effects). The incidence of proteinuria in males exposed to barium for approximately 152 days (at 173 days of age) was significantly higher than in controls. The authors measured weekly body weight changes and water consumption, which were used to estimate daily barium exposure in both mice and rats.
Several histo pathological findings were observed, including fibrosis (although mostly characteristic of silicosis).
Electrocardiograms revealed no changes in cardiac cycle intervals, including the QT interval; the study authors noted that the lack of shortening of the QT interval provided evidence that the slight increase in serum calcium was not clinically significant.
Although the study attempted to exclude communities with high rates of population change, two of the four high-barium communities had about 75% change in population between 1960 and 1970; these were kept in the study for lack of satisfactory replacements. We haven’t gotten a great deal of understanding or cooperation from our local politicians either.
I know some couples that struggle living together due to poor communication or high expectations from their significant other. A further literature search was performed up to April 1999 to identify any extra information published since this review was completed. Another approach is to collect respirable dust samples and assess them gravimetrically (US OSHA, 1990). Although levels of barium in wildlife have not been documented, barium has been found in dairy products and eggs (Gormican, 1970; IPCS, 1990), indicating that barium uptake occurs in animals.
In three communities in New York City, USA, barium was measured in dust fall and household dust (Creason et al., 1975). Thirty-seven people were each administered a single dose (between 88 and 195 µg of barium) of one of five barium sulfate X-ray contrast media (Clavel et al., 1987).
This is supported by the finding that barium carbonate in a vehicle containing sodium bicarbonate was poorly absorbed.
Dose-dependent cardiac arrhythmias were also noted in conscious rabbits following infusion of barium chloride (Mattila et al., 1986). Blood pressure and end-points sensitive for glomerular damage (electron microscopic examination or urinary excretion of protein) were not investigated. No significant increases in incidences of neoplasms were observed in the barium-exposed rats, but the study duration is less than a lifetime and may not have been of sufficient duration for the detection of late-developing tumours. Female rats at 532 and 773 days of age had higher serum choles terol concentrations, and males at these ages had serum glucose levels different from controls; the authors attached no biological or toxicological significance to these serum chemistry results. Furthermore, the measured haematological characteristics as well as feed and water consumption were not affected during the 16-month experiment. The incidences of lymphoma leukaemia and lung tumours in the male and female mice exposed to barium were not significantly different from the inci dences in the control mice. After the completion of the exposure period (60 days), males and females from the same dosage groups were housed together until there was evidence of mating or until the end of the mating period (8 days). The histo pathological findings were considered to be due to the silica and anthracite exposure; the X-ray opacities seen were attributed to the presence of the barium sulfate. In addition, no significant arrhythmias, no increase in ventricular irritability, and no apparent conduction problems were seen with barium exposure. They will gladly give us temporary but to make it permanent we have to have a free-standing building. Information on the nature of the peer review and the availability of the source documents is presented in Appendix 1. Atomic absorption spectroscopy is the most commonly used analytical method for measuring low levels of barium and its compounds in air, water, wastewater, geological materials, and various other materials.
Barium and its compounds are used in diverse industrial products ranging from ceramics to lubricants.
In 24 h, the total amount of barium collected in the urine ranged from 18 to 35 µg and showed a positive correlation with the amount of barium ingested.
The buffering capacity of sodium bicarbonate may have impaired the hydrochloric acid-mediated conversion of barium carbonate to barium chloride. Clearance half-times of 66 and 88 days were calculated for the cranial and caudal regions of the trachea in rats intratracheally administered 2 mg 133BaSO4 (Takahashi & Patrick, 1987).
Faecal elimination accounted for around two-thirds of the radioactivity administered, and the urine for around 10%. These renal lesions were characterized by tubule dilatation, renal tubule atrophy, tubule cell regeneration, hyaline cast formation, multifocal interstitial fibrosis, and the presence of crystals, primarily in the lumen of the renal tubules.
However, a significant increase in the average systemic blood pressure was detected in the barium-exposed rats after 1 month exposure and thereafter. Barium chloride induced gene mutations in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells with, but not without, metabolic activation (NTP, 1994). This rodent study reported fertility index, fetal and maternal toxicity, and developmental toxicity end-points in fetus and neonates.
All beverages and food were provided, and subjects were instructed to consume only what was provided.
It had been there for over 20 years when a developer decided to build some McMansions RIGHT THERE!
Sample preparation typically involves digestion with nitric acid, although dilution with other agents may also be employed to solubilize barium. Overall, this study indicated that very little of the administered barium is absorbed, with the majority of the compound being eliminated in the faeces. No significant increases in the number of gross tumours were observed in the barium-exposed male or female rats.
Since this study used a diet low in essential metals, specifically calcium, the observation of barium chloride-related effects on hypertension in rats is of questionable significance to humans. Neither barium acetate nor barium chloride decreased the fidelity of DNA synthesis in avian myeloblastosis virus DNA polymerase (Sirover & Loeb, 1976). There were no indications of reproductive or developmental toxicity in any of the exposure groups. The sub jects were also instructed to keep their level of exercise constant and to abstain from alcohol, and smokers were told to smoke consistently throughout the study. I recently read about a trend where couples live apart to avoid complicating their relationships. This CICAD was approved as an international assessment at a meeting of the Final Review Board, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 26–29 June 2000.
Flame atomic absorption spectroscopy and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy are analytical methods used to determine levels of barium in water and wastewater in the ranges of parts per billion and parts per trillion. Barium compounds are used in cement, specialty arc welding, glass industries, electronics, roentgenography, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, inks, and paints.
Another study also indicated that a very small proportion of barium sulfate was absorbed after ingestion of barium sulfate as a radiopaque (Mauras et al., 1983). There were no biologically significant changes in serum electrolytes or haematology values that were considered to be chemical related.
In mammalian cells, barium chloride did not induce sister chromatid exchanges or chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, with or without activation (NTP, 1994). However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because of below-normal pregnancy rates in all groups of exposed, as well as control, rats and mice. The issue was the new residents decided the planes were too loud and actually brought a lawsuit against the airstrip to have it removed. Other analytical techniques include the less sensitive methods of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and neutron activation analysis and the less commonly used methods of scintillation spectroscopy and spectrography (ATSDR, 1992).
Significant negative trends were observed in the incidences of mononuclear cell leukaemia in male rats, benign and malignant adrenal pheochromocytoma in male rats, and mammary gland neoplasms (fibroadenoma, adenoma, or carcinoma) in female rats. In summary, except for the mouse lymphoma assay, results of in vitro tests have been generally negative.
Blood was collected at the beginning and periodically, particularly as four consecutive daily samples at the end of each of the three study periods. The International Chemical Safety Cards for barium (ICSC 1052), barium chlorate (ICSC 0613), barium chloride (ICSC 0614), barium chloride dihydrate (ICSC 0615), barium oxide (ICSC 0778), barium peroxide (ICSC 0381), and barium sulfate (ICSC 0827), produced by the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS, 1993, 1999a–f), have been reproduced in this document. In general, analytical procedures measure total barium ion present and do not allow for speciation of barium compounds. The incidences of neoplasms in the barium-exposed mice were not significantly higher than in control mice. No significant or dose-related changes were observed in other neuro behavioural end-points. Twenty-four-hour continuous electrocardiographic monitoring was performed on 2 consecutive days at the end of each study period.




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