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Finally, I finished this tutorial for the teddy bear Valentine’s Day, birthday, Christmas, and baby shower popup card.
This tutorial is a big long because I’m still getting used to my new video editing software. If you are making the 2-part popup card, then fold the bear up at his attached foot and insert the tab on his other foot into the inside card.
If you are making the 3 part popup card, then insert each tab on each foot into the respective slots. Thank you for sharing, you are a genius when it comes to pop up cards now I have to learn how to cut them ) it wont be easy for a leftie. Individuals throughout organizations use the information they gather to make a wide range of decisions. Because many decisions involve an ethical component, one of the most important considerations in management is whether the decisions you are making as an employee or manager are ethical.
Despite the far-reaching nature of the decisions in the previous example, not all decisions have major consequences or even require a lot of thought.
However, decisions that are unique and important require conscious thinking, information gathering, and careful consideration of alternatives. Decision making can also be classified into three categories based on the level at which they occur. In this chapter, we are going to discuss different decision-making models designed to understand and evaluate the effectiveness of nonprogrammed decisions. The rational decision-making modelA decision making model which describes the series of steps that decision makers should consider if their goal is to maximize their outcome.
Let’s imagine that your old, clunky car has broken down and you have enough money saved for a substantial down payment on a new car.
Using the rational decision-making model to make major purchases can help avoid making poor choices.
Before we can move too much further, you need to decide how important each factor is to your decision in step 3. Of course, the outcome of this decision will be related to the next decision made; that is where the evaluation in step 8 comes in. While decision makers can get off track during any of these steps, research shows that limiting the search for alternatives in the fourth step can be the most challenging and lead to failure. Despite all its benefits, you may have noticed that this decision-making model involves a number of unrealistic assumptions.
In fact, the availability of too much information can lead to analysis paralysisA decision-making process where more and more time is spent on gathering information and thinking about it but no decisions actually get made., where more and more time is spent on gathering information and thinking about it, but no decisions actually get made.
The bounded rationality modelA model that recognizes the limitations of decision-making processes. In addition to the rational decision making, bounded rationality models, and intuitive decision making, creative decision making is a vital part of being an effective decision maker. The five steps to creative decision making are similar to the previous decision-making models in some keys ways. A NASA scientist describes his decision-making process leading to a creative outcome as follows: He had been trying to figure out a better way to de-ice planes to make the process faster and safer.
Researchers focus on three factors to evaluate the level of creativity in the decision-making process. Diversify your team to give them more inputs to build on and more opportunities to create functional conflict while avoiding personal conflict. Leaderless teams can allow teams freedom to create without trying to please anyone up front. Engage in brainstorming to generate ideas—remember to set a high goal for the number of ideas the group should come up with, encourage wild ideas, and take brainwriting breaks. Use the nominal group technique in person or electronically to avoid some common group process pitfalls.
Build a physical space conducive to creativity that is playful and humorous—this is a place where ideas can thrive. And finally, avoiding groupthink can be an important skill to learn.Adapted and expanded from “Six recommendations for avoiding Groupthink” in Janis, I.
The four different decision-making models—rational, bounded rationality, intuitive, and creative—vary in terms of how experienced or motivated a decision maker is to make a choice.
This is the main define statement for the page for english when no template defined file exists. Custom stickers, graphics and prints can be designed to your exact requirements, please ask for further details. You are sitting at your crafting table, surrounded by all your lovely paper and embellishments, waiting for inspiration to strike. Discover how easy it is to create stunning handmade greeting cards based off of a simple card sketch. These card sketches don't require any special tools and can be made with different types of paper and a few embellishments.
With 101 Creative Card Sketches, it's never been easier to make an eye-popping handmade greeting card. No more wasting expensive crafting supplies because a card did not turn out right the first time.
No more drooling over amazing handmade cards online that require specialty stamps and tools that you don't have. Using a simple card sketch, you can create a gorgeous handmade greeting card that's a perfect reflection of you! This Envelope Making Guide covers everything you will need to know about making envelope patterns and more. Thank you for considering 101 Creative Card Sketches as an addition to your card making toolbox.
I hope that you continue to find card making a fun and rewarding hobby for many more years to come. Just think, you will never have to waste time struggling to think of the perfect card design ever again! Photoshop is a very versatile graphics software and one of the things that it can do is creating beautiful artworks and illustrations. In this tutorial, you will learn how to create a complex glowing wallpaper using Photoshop.
Since it’s nearing Easter time, here’s how you can use some Photoshop techniques to paint Easter Eggs and make your final design into wallpaper. In this tutorial you will learn how to combine basic colours, shapes and brushes to create eye catching kaleidoscope poster in Photoshop CS5.
This tutorial will show you some techniques that can help you create cool wallpapers, advertisements, or many other graphics. Learn how to use Warp tool plus to create great looking abstract shapes to decorate your design in a really simple procedure. Create abstract colorful illustration using simple tools and techniques like Ellipse Tool, Brush Tool, Gradient Tool, Layer Style, etc. Make an abstract colorful background with bokeh effect using Photoshop’s drawing tools, blending modes, and lighting techniques.
Following this tutorial, you will learn how to draw different shapes, apply gradient, blend different shapes in the background, and more – all to create an abstract glowing background.
In this Tutorial, you’ll learn how to create a Cosmic Typo Wallpaper using some nice textures and layer styles also creating a custom typo in Illustrator. This task we’ll see how is it possible to represent the vector wallpapers, create your own brushes and use different layers.
This lesson will show to you as by means of simple actions to create a beautiful and interesting wallpaper.
This tutorial will show you how to create a beautiful under water scene using brushes and custom shapes in Adobe Photoshop CS5. The purpose of this tutorial is to show you how to get one very interesting mosaic effect in Photoshop. This tutorial will show you how to create an abstract background image using Photoshop only. This tutorial will show you how to create abstract Windows 7 wallpaper using Adobe Photoshop basic techniques.
The images on the paper are rubber stamping done with a All Night Media wood mounted stamp. Note: Before stamping, you need to roughly wrap the gift to get an idea where the design will go. And here's another gift note card and gift wrapping using an ordinary copy paper or white mah-jong paper and rubber stamps. For a small gift, like the dog charm pendant, I used the gift to decorate the birthday card. Just a simple folded cream color triangle card with the words 'Happy Birthday' stamped in matching blue. Sign up for the enewsletter and receive free informations, template and cliparts each month. Children can print and and use this blank outline of a death mask to add their own detail - a great project when studying the customs of Ancient Egypt.. One of a series of colouring pages of children from around the world in historical costume, this one shows children from Ancient Egypt in typical dress.
Children can learn about Ancient Egypt while colouring in this fun map which points out the famous landmarks of the Ancient Egyptian world. Despite their gruesomeness, children are fascinated by canopic jars and will enjoy colouring in these.
This version is slightly faster to make and cuts the bear out of the same card as the inside card.


This version lets you make the bear and the inside card out of different colored card stock.
They seem easier to glue (when I make your 180 degree cards, I tend to have some problems with the centrefold).
I made one of these (the Valentine card) and when I finished, I closed the card and then opened it again and when I opened it, the head was still folded.
For example, before you come to class, you make simple and habitual decisions such as what to wear, what to eat, and which route to take as you go to and from home and school. These are called nonprogrammed decisionsUnique, nonroutine, and important decisions that require conscious thinking, information gathering, and careful consideration of alternatives.. Petersburg, Russia, location, McDonald’s trains all restaurant managers (over 65,000 so far) at Hamburger University where they take the equivalent of two years of college courses and learn how to make decisions. We will cover four decision-making approaches starting with the rational decision-making model, moving to the bounded rationality decision-making model, the intuitive decision-making model, and ending with the creative decision-making model. If each is equally important, then there is no need to weight them, but if you know that price and gas mileage are key factors, you might weight them heavily and keep the other criteria with medium importance.
For example, if you purchase a car but have nothing but problems with it, you are unlikely to consider the same make and model in purchasing another car the next time!
In fact, one researcher found that no alternative generation occurred in 85% of the decisions studied.Nutt, P. First, when making a decision you may want to make sure that you establish your decision criteria before you search for all alternatives. It assumes that people understand what decision is to be made, that they know all their available choices, that they have no perceptual biases, and that they want to make optimal decisions.
Our guess is that you rarely sit down and complete all eight steps in the rational decision-making model. A senior executive at Hewlett-Packard admits that his company suffered from this spiral of analyzing things for too long to the point where data gathering led to “not making decisions, instead of us making decisions.”Zell, D. According to this model, individuals knowingly limit their options to a manageable set and choose the best alternative without conducting an exhaustive search for alternatives.
The model argues that in a given situation, experts making decisions scan the environment for cues to recognize patterns.
All of the models include problem identificationThe step in which the need for problem solving becomes apparent., which is the step in which the need for problem solving becomes apparent. After recognizing the problem, he had immersed himself in the literature to understand all the options, and he worked on the problem for months trying to figure out a solution. Linus Pauling, the Nobel prize winner who popularized the idea that vitamin C could help build the immunity system, said, “The best way to have a good idea is to have a lot of ideas.” One popular way to generate ideas is to use brainstorming. Here are some guidelines for enhancing organizational creativity within teams.Adapted from ideas in Amabile, T. Choosing the right approach will make you more effective at work and improve your ability to carry out all the P-O-L-C functions. There are different types of decisions, ranging from automatic, programmed decisions to more intensive nonprogrammed decisions. We can provide group discounts for clubs and organisations, so if you have any questions please don't hesitate to contact us. The design has a cool wavy pattern with interesting lighting effects, like the Blackberry 9000 wallpaper.
You will be using the brush engine, patterns, blend modes and basic filters to achieve this effect. We will also appreciate your comments and additions to these Photoshop tutorials in making backgrounds and wallpapers.
A paper bag is the best gift wrapping idea for any shape gifts especially small items like sweets. Just look at the things around you; whether at home, at your working place or on the street. I mentioned in the previous post that you can use this card for other occasions by adding additional clip art parts.
While it can be argued that management is decision making, half of the decisions made by managers within organizations fail.Ireland, R.
For example, the decisions made by executives and consulting firms for Enron ultimately resulted in a $60 billion loss for investors, thousands of employees without jobs, and the loss of all employee retirement funds.
For example, in 2005, McDonald’s became aware of a need to respond to growing customer concerns regarding foods high in fat and calories. In other words, if you want to make sure you make the best choice, going through the formal steps of the rational decision-making model may make sense. The first step, therefore, has already been completed—we know that you want to buy a new car.
This would prevent you from liking one option too much and setting your criteria accordingly. Nobel Prize–winning economist Herbert Simon observed that while the rational decision-making model may be a helpful tool for working through problems, it doesn’t represent how decisions are frequently made within organizations. For example, this model proposed that we should search for all possible alternatives before making a decision, but this can be time consuming and individuals are often under time pressure to make decisions. It was not until he was sitting outside of a McDonald’s restaurant with his grandchildren that it dawned on him. BrainstormingA process of generating ideas that follows a set of guidelines, which includes no criticism of ideas during the process, the idea that no suggestion is too crazy, and building on other ideas (piggybacking).
Structured decision-making processes include rational decision making, bounded rationality, intuitive, and creative decision making. Fortunately, even without knowledge of Photoshop, you can now produce some amazing designs by following online tutorials.
In my personal life I spend time on photography, mountain climbing, snorkeling and dirt bike riding. But Sherron Watkins, a former Enron employee and now-famous whistleblower, uncovered the accounting problems and tried to enact change.
These types of straightforward decisions are termed programmed decisions;Decisions that occur frequently enough that we develop an automated response to them. This is a nonprogrammed decision because for several decades, customers of fast-food restaurants were more concerned with the taste and price of the food, rather than the healthiness.
Finally, operational decisions are decisions that employees make each day to run the organization. Then, in step 5, you need to use this information to evaluate each alternative against the criteria you have established. For example, let’s say you started browsing for cars before you decided your decision criteria. Moreover, even if we had access to all the information, it could be challenging to compare the pros and cons of each alternative and rank them according to our preferences.
With the flattening of organizations and intense competition among organizations, individuals and organizations are driven to be creative in decisions ranging from cutting costs to creating new ways of doing business. ImmersionThe step where the decision maker thinks about the problem consciously and gathers information. The golden arches of the “M” of the McDonald’s logo inspired his solution: he would design the de-icer as a series of M’s!Interview by author Talya Bauer at Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA, 1990. Each of these can be useful, depending on the circumstances and the problem that needs to be solved. All products which are in stock are usually dispatched the same day, depending on availability.
I hope you can help because our trifold will be among hundreds in our schools involvement fair and we need to get some attention.Thank you very very very much and I hope to hear from you soon!***************************Hello MosumThank you for writing to me and for being so complimentary.
Similarly, the decisions made by firms to trade in mortgage-backed securities is having negative consequences for the entire U.S. In response, McDonald’s decided to offer healthier alternatives, such as substituting apple slices in Happy Meals for French fries and discontinuing the use of trans fats. For example, remember the restaurant that routinely offers a free dessert when a customer complaint is received.
You may come across a car that you think really reflects your sense of style and make an emotional bond with the car. Anyone who has recently purchased a new laptop computer or cell phone can attest to the challenge of sorting through the different strengths and limitations of each brand, model, and plans offered for support and arriving at the solution that best meets their needs. An important part of the bounded rationality approach is the tendency to satisficeAccepting the first alternative that meets minimum criteria., which refers to accepting the first alternative that meets your minimum criteria.
Eighty-nine percent of managers surveyed admitted to using intuition to make decisions at least sometimes, and 59% said they used intuition often.Burke, L.
Please note that, while creativity is the first step in the innovation process, creativity and innovation are not the same thing.
If decision makers are able to generate several unique solutions to a problem, they are high on flexibility. Research shows that the quantity of ideas actually leads to better idea quality in the end, so setting high idea quotasA set number of ideas a group must reach before they are done with brainstorming.
I will make some suggestions for you and I am hoping others who read your request will be able to contribute some ideas as well :) I think simplicity is the key with trifolds.
The automated response we use to make these decisions is called the decision ruleAutomated responses used to make programmed decisions.. Then, because of your love for this car, you may say to yourself that the fuel economy of the car and the innovative braking system are the most important criteria. For example, many college graduates do not conduct a national or international search for potential job openings; instead, they focus their search on a limited geographic area and tend to accept the first offer in their chosen area, even if it may not be the ideal job situation. Innovation begins with creative ideas, but it also involves realistic planning and follow-through.
A key to success in creative decision making is having or acquiring expertise in the area being studied.


After he tested and verified his creative solution, he was done with that problem except to reflect on the outcome and process.
If they are too busy, people tire of trying to read all of the information and move away too quickly. Each of these people made a decision, and each person, as well as others, is now living with the consequences of his or her decisions. For example, many restaurants face customer complaints as a routine part of doing business.
The manager of the restaurant implemented the free dessert policy as a way to handle customer complaints, which is a tactical decision. Conversely, successful managers are clear about what they want at the outset of the decision-making process, set objectives for others to respond to, carry out an unrestricted search for solutions, get key people to participate, and avoid using their power to push their perspective.Nutt, P. After purchasing it, you may realize that the car is too small for all of your friends to ride in the back seat when you and your brother are sitting in front, which was something you should have thought about! Strategic management in turbulent times: The short and glorious history of accelerated decision making at Hewlett-Packard.
Satisficing is similar to rational decision making, but it differs in that rather than choosing the best choice and maximizing the potential outcome, the decision maker saves time and effort by accepting the first alternative that meets the minimum threshold.
Then, incubationThe step when the decision maker sets the problem aside and does not think about it for a while.
If you are able to generate several distinct solutions to a problem, your decision-making process is high on flexibility. Another unique aspect of brainstorming is that the more people are included in brainstorming, the better the decision outcome will be because the variety of backgrounds and approaches give the group more to draw from. You can add a graduation cap for a graduation card and maybe put a costume on the bear for Halloween.
Because this is a recurring problem for restaurants, it may be regarded as a programmed decision. They had recently introduced a new product, ChargeUp with Lipitrene, an improved version of their popular sports drink powder, ChargeUp. And, the servers at the restaurant are making individual decisions each day evaluating whether each customer complaint received is legitimate to warrant a free dessert.
You only have a certain amount of money saved, and you don’t want to take on too much debt, so price range is an important factor as well.
Setting criteria before you search for alternatives may prevent you from making such mistakes. A variation of brainstorming is wildstormingA variation of brainstorming where the group focuses on ideas that are impossible and then imagines what would need to happen to make them possible. To deal with this problem, the restaurant might have a policy stating that every time they receive a valid customer complaint, the customer should receive a free dessert, which represents a decision rule. But a phone call came from a state health department to inform them that several cases of gastrointestinal distress had been reported after people consumed the new product. If you know you want to have room for at least five adults, get at least 20 miles per gallon, drive a car with a strong safety rating, not spend more than $22,000 on the purchase, and like how it looks, you’ve identified the decision criteria. Another advantage of the rational model is that it urges decision makers to generate all alternatives instead of only a few. During incubation, the individual sets the problem aside and does not think about it for a while.
I wanted to make something simple, since I may be making a lot of these for my baby shower. Making strategic, tactical, and operational decisions is an integral part of the planning function in the P-O-L-C (planning-organizing-leading-controlling) model. All of the potential options for purchasing your car will be evaluated against these criteria. By generating a large number of alternatives that cover a wide range of possibilities, you are likely to make a more effective decision in which you do not need to sacrifice one criterion for the sake of another.
For example, if you are looking to purchase a house, you may be willing and able to invest a great deal of time and energy to find your dream house, but if you are looking for an apartment to rent for the academic year, you may be willing to take the first one that meets your criteria of being clean, close to campus, and within your price range.
Two weeks later, it became clear that the gastrointestinal problems were unrelated to ChargeUp with Lipitrene.
When we recognize that managers often need to make decisions under challenging circumstances with time pressures, constraints, a great deal of uncertainty, highly visible and high-stakes outcomes, and within changing conditions, it makes sense that they would not have the time to formally work through all the steps of the rational decision-making model. Then comes illuminationThe insight moment, when the solution to the problem becomes apparent. I would literally make that thing the focus of the whole poster board and make it the largest item on display. Yet when CEOs, financial analysts, and healthcare workers are asked about the critical decisions they make, seldom do they attribute success to luck. We do not exactly know how many ideas he had over the course of his career, but his ideas are fairly different from one another. This unfortunate decision caused Nutrorim to rethink the way decisions were made under pressure so that they now gather information to make informed choices even when time is of the essence.Garvin, D.
To an outside observer, it may seem like they are making guesses as to the course of action to take, but it turns out that they are systematically making decisions using a different model than was earlier suspected. This is the “eureka” moment similar to what happened to the ancient Greek inventor Archimedes, who found a solution to the problem he was working on while he was taking a bath. After teaching math in Africa with the Peace Corps, Hastings was accepted at Stanford University, where he earned a master’s degree in computer science.
After I made the first baby shower card, I had to make the Valentine’s day, Birthday and Christmas card.
Research on life-or-death decisions made by fire chiefs, pilots, and nurses finds that these experts do not choose among a list of well-thought-out alternatives.
Finally, the verification and applicationThe stage when the decision maker consciously verifies the feasibility of the solution and implements the decision. Soon after starting work at a software company, he invented a successful debugging tool, which led to his founding the computer troubleshooting company Pure Software in 1991. Then people will stop to see if your text answers the question, if they want to know the answer :)Also, make all lines lead the reader towards the main idea. After a merger and the subsequent sale of the resulting company in 1997, Hastings founded Netflix, which revolutionized the DVD rental business through online rentals with no late fees.
See how I have made the middle piece higher than the side pieces, then added the heart to make people tend to follow on from it to the title?Are people going to walk quickly by your trifold? Therefore, increasing effectiveness in decision making is an important part of maximizing your effectiveness at work.
The intuitive decision-making model argues that, in a given situation, experts making decisions scan the environment for cues to recognize patterns.Breen, B. This chapter will help you understand how to make decisions alone or in a group while avoiding common decision-making traps. Use red for the headings (mount the whole heading or individual letters on black cardstock too if possible) and your pieces of information, written on white paper in large black writing matted on black cardstock. Then use pieces of double sided foam tape or a hot glue gun to pop them up off the background (which will probably also be white). I roughed this idea out for you in the image I attached.Think about subject matter first, then the images and decorations. An examination of leadership and employee creativity: The relevance of traits and relationships. If you have a message you need to get across, you don't want people looking only at images and moving on.
Use some decorative borders as well but be sure to leave enough white space to allow people to focus on the words you want them to read. Once a pattern is recognized, they can play a potential course of action through to its outcome based on their prior experience. Due to training, experience, and knowledge, these decision makers have an idea of how well a given solution may work.
It will make people focus on what you HAVE put on the board.You could make one of the images you want to use very large so that it could be glued to a piece of heavier card and cut out, then add foam tape to the back to pop it up off your trifold background like the heart image above. If they run through the mental model and find that the solution will not work, they alter the solution and retest it before setting it into action. If it still is not deemed a workable solution, it is discarded as an option and a new idea is tested until a workable solution is found.
I added some sparkle as this also attracts people, but if you use too much glitter it may have the opposite effect. Once a viable course of action is identified, the decision maker puts the solution into motion.
For example, research shows that individuals who are open to experience, are less conscientious, more self-accepting, and more impulsive, tend to be more creative.Feist, G. Ask others (who have not seen your trifold yet) to stand a distance away and see if they can tell what your poster is about. Novices are not able to make effective decisions this way because they do not have enough prior experience to draw upon.
Another planning idea, if you have time, is to make some 'practice' trifolds with smaller pieces of paper and images cut to size.
Move them around trying different arrangements and colours till you have a result that pleases you, then make your real trifold using your practice one as a guide.Have a look at other people's trifolds on the web by Googling 'trifold poster board' and clicking on 'images'. You may like some of the layouts you discover that way so you could adapt them to your own needs.
Here's one with reds and blues that stood out for me in my own search:Cornstarch Display BoardI hope these ideas help and that you will post a picture of your finished trifold for me here soon.



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