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The security neutral identifies and validates the protection necessities before the acquisition or development of any data system.
Information security should be of constant concern throughout the implementation as throughout software system and hardware upgrades. The security of data systems comprises: operational systems, technological infrastructures, business applications, software system and applications developed by users.
The identification and classification of the most info components should be completed, and complemented by a outline risk analysis of the applicable info resource, so as to work out the target level of confidence for the system.
Acquiring maintenance of data systems need that protection strategies be enforced, and rules, policies and standards be revered.
The target level of confidence helps to spot needed controls and security measures (whether manual or automated) that has got to be mere and represented throughout the definition of wants within the preliminary analysis part of the event or maintenance of data systems. In the event software system is to be nonheritable, specific tests concerning security necessities should be conducted to verify the protection options of the merchandise before purchase.visit my post here!
Validation and management tests should be incorporated all told applications so as to discover knowledge which will are corrupted throughout information science. To ensure message and file authentication, info coding measures is also applied pro re nata. In order to shield info confidentiality, credibleness and integrity, coding measures is also enforced. The development and technical support environments should be secured and security procedures should be established to manage access. In order to cut back the risks concerning the publication and exploitation of famed technical vulnerabilities, a procedure should be adopted to quickly apply known corrective measures and guarantee their effectiveness. Since the existing power grid is designed neither by latest technologies nor to comply with rapidly climate changes, a new intelligent power grid is urgently needed and will soon be applied to power market.
Most of the world existing electricity power systems that have been served us for a long time will soon reach their limitations. Smart Grid which is also called intelligent grid or modern grid uses new technologies to reduce the environmental impact of power grid, energy conservation and increase efficiency, renewable energy utilization. The current electricity delivery uses a supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA) which suffers limited bandwidths and relatively slow data transmission rates that often require several seconds or more to respond to an alarm or system change and there is no visibility in the distribution network below the substation. Given the issues above, the existing grid has to change to meet the demand proposed by this modern society.
A modernization of the Nation electricity transmission and distribution system to maintain a reliable and secure electricity infrastructure that can meet future demand growth [ISO09]. Figure 2 shows some key technologies and applications of Smart Grid which will be discussed in Section 2 and 3.
Sensing and measurement technology builds up a dual-communication between customers and power companies. Smart Meter will replace the current analog mechanical meter for benefits it offers: It can store electricity price and rate from utility companies and inform the customers with best rate policy.
The phasor measurement units (PMUs) measure electrical waves on an electricity grid to monitor power quality and in some case respond automatically to them.
As the development of real-time and two way communications and availability of more information, the task of information management system becomes more complicated. Information collection and processing include detailed real-time data collection systems, distributed data collection and processing services, and dynamic resource sharing, large-capacity high-speed access, redundant backup of intelligent electronic device(IED), etc. The improvement of information management system provides an option to reduce peak load efficiently and better manage the grid. The Department of Energy (DOE) Electricity Advisory Committee summarized several benefits of Transmission and Distribution Technology (T&D) of smart grid.
HVDC may be used when asynchronous systems are interconnected, power is transmitted over long distances, or the control of real power is needed [Hen01]. HVDC and FACTS applications have the potential to provide a much-needed boost to the transmission system and some other technical advantages, especially when dynamic voltage support is needed.
The security and stability calculation and development of emergency plans of current power grids are still off-line analysis, thus, the results is comparatively conservative [Lin]. Step 2: It analyzes the data to identify a potential power failure during a high-demand period. Step 3:The utility redistributes power across its service area and send radio signal to turn on or off smart applications [Wordpress].
With self-healing function the power grid is able to maintain its stable operation, estimate weak stage, and deal with emergency problem. Considering the climate changes over decades, it is important to bring out a technology that uses renewable sources. Smart Grid technologies will allow the grid to better adapt to the dynamics of renewable energy and distributed generation, helping utilities and consumers more easily access these resources and reap the benefits.
Consumer Participation means a power grid has the ability to accustom demand side, environment, and generators.

A smart grid incorporates consumer equipment and behavior in grid design, operation, and communication.
Advanced communications capabilities equip customers with tools to exploit real-time electricity pricing, incentive-based load reduction signals, or emergency load reduction signals. The good news is smart grid has significant improvement over power quality and reliability. Two-way communications all across the grid will let utilities remotely identify, locate, isolate, and restore power outages more quickly without having to send field crews on trouble calls. Through proactive grid management and automated response, the frequency and duration of power outages can be reduced, which will result in fewer anxious calls to utility call centers and improved consumer satisfaction.
The United States focused on upgrading the power network infrastructure maximally use intelligent information technology [He].
In 2006, IBM and global power professional institute cooperated developing a solution of smart grid. California has completed the installation of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) to 2 million homes and the initial analysis shows that power savings can be up to 16% ~ 30% [Jiang]. Support for smart grids became federal policy with passage of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Smart grids received further support with the passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which set aside $11 billion for the creation of a smart grid. Considering what we have discussed above, Smart Grid will be a new trend to power market that will use new technologies and bring us more benefits. Many of the technologies discussed above to support Smart Grid, such as smart meters, sensors, and advanced communications networks, can themselves increase the vulnerability of the grid to cyber attacks. Lack of technology standards has been considered as a major obstacle to smart grid deployment [OE]. Because smart grid is still a new concept and the technologies that there is misunderstanding amongst consumers, regulators, policymakers, what its costs and benefits are. A Smart Grid offers significant opportunities for utilities and consumers to wisely manage the energy consumption by the usage of advanced metering infrastructure and dual-way and real time communication.
Describes the details about Smart Grid, the applications, issues, and benefits especially in environment and energy.
Introduces basic theories of Phasor Measurement Units when used in estimation and monitoring.
This analysis also will permit you to work out if the organization’s security perimeter is also weakened by the addition of the new system. System development and maintenance activities must not ever be conducted on constant environments used for production.
The majority of those traditional electricity power grids are neither designed in purpose to comply with rapidly climate changes and the demand for a high energy-efficiency nor use the latest technologies. The power goes out about 2.5 hours each year which leads to high economy loss especially in industries require high quality power.
For the existing grid, supply has to change according to the demands continuously and the power grid will also need to maintain a buffer of excess supply, which results in lower efficiency, higher emissions, and higher costs.
Since Smart Grid is still in research stage, there is no coincidence with the accurate definition for it, what features should it have, what goal should it achieve, what is the important point for develop it. It allows customers to acknowledge and react to the present electricity grid, meanwhile it also provide supporting data to power companies, including power quality, equipment health, power meter damage, fault location, transformer and line load, temperature of key components, power consumption and forecast data. Electricity prices vary driven by demand-and supply situation including weather conditions, demand varies over time and capacity. The distinction comes from its unique ability to provide synchronized phasor measurements of voltages and currents from widely dispersed locations in an electric power grid. Information management system includes several functions: collection and processing, analysis, integration, improved interfaces, information security as shown in Figure 4. Information systems reduce complexity so that operators and managers have tools to effectively and efficiently operate a grid with an increasing number of variables. The benefits include capturing renewable production and delivering it when transmission capacity is available, relieving congestion, deferring transformer upgrades attributable to peak load growth, and providing down-circuit supply while outages are being restored. Power exchange in neighboring areas of interconnected systems can be achieved, preferably with FACTS to increase transmission capacity and stability.
FACTS is a combination of solid-state switches and computerized automation that enable nearly instantaneous customized control of power flows-- far faster than traditional electromechanical switches. The existing grid was designed to move power from centralized supply sources to fixed, predictable loads; this makes it challenging for the grid to accept input from many distributed energy resources across the grid.
Historically, the intelligence of the grid in North America has been demonstrated by the utilities operating it in the spirit of public service and shared responsibility, ensuring constant availability of electricity at a constant price, day in and day out, in the face of any and all hazards and changing conditions [WIKI].
In addition, smart grid can also allow the customers to save energy and sell them, for instance, by enabling distribution generation resources like residential solar panel, some small participator like individual homes and small business are allowed to sell their saved energy to neighbors or back to grid.
The usage of smart meter mentioned in section 2.1 can efficiently inform users the working situation of meters and the price in real-time.

Remote monitoring and control devices throughout the system can create a self-healing grid, which can restore and prevent outages and extend the life of substation equipment and distribution assets. Power companies can use sensors, meters, digital control equipments and analysis tools to automatically monitor network, optimize network performance, prevent power outages and restore power supply faster [Jiang].
IBM will provide data collection and analysis software to help reduce costs and carbon emissions. The law, Title13, sets out $100 million in funding per fiscal year from 2008 to 2012, establishes a matching program to states, utilities and consumers to build smart grid capabilities, and creates a Grid Modernization Commission to assess the benefits of demand response and to recommend needed protocol standards. Accordingly, it is essential that Smart Grid deployment leverage the benefits of increased threat awareness while mitigating against heightened security concerns. These concerns were confirmed by consumer responses in which 95 percent of respondents indicated they are interested in receiving detailed information on their energy use; however, only 1 in 5 were willing to pay an upfront fee to receive that information.
Stakeholders that are generally aligned conclusions based on a different understanding of the smart grid. It also provides opportunities to wisely manage the fuel resources by potentially reducing the national need for additional generation sources, better integrating renewable and non-renewable generation sources into the grid operations, reducing outages and cascading problems, and enabling consumers to better manage their energy consumption. Department of Energy 2008 Smart Grid Implementation Workshop, June 19, 2008), Keynote address.
This separation aims to eliminate the chance of confusing check knowledge with actual knowledge. This survey paper provides a comprehensive look at smart grid: the key technologies, main features, the perspectives and obstacles of its developments.
The voltage is stepped- up from generating stations located in the center for transmission through more than 10,000 transmission stations, stepped- down for utility distribution in over 2,000 distribution substations, may be further stepped- down at points along the utility distribution lines, and again at pad- and pole-mounted transformers to provide low-voltage service to one or a several customers [DOE01].
Moreover considering the varying situations in different countries-economic development, developing strategies and policies, it is hard to obtain a unified definition [Hu]. These data will be gathered, stored and analyzed by new systems in order to be used by power companies. Phasors are representations of the waveforms of alternating current, which ideally in real-time, are identical everywhere on the network and conform to the most desirable shape. During periods of peak load, utilities companies will alter customers to reduce the operation of non-essential applications thus avoid dispatching high-cost generating units which are often among the least efficient and dirtiest. The transmission of large power blocks over long distances should, however, be realized by means of HVDC links directly to the locations of power demand.
The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) calculates that a national smart grid could reduce annual GHG emissions by 60-211 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MMT CO2e) compared to business-as-usua by 2030, an amount equal to 2.5-9 percent of GHG emissions from electricity generation in 2006 [EPRI08] [EPA08]. And because resources such as solar and wind power are intermittent, the grid will require integrated monitoring and control, as well as integration with substation automation, to control differing energy flows and plan for standby capacity to supplement intermittent generation. Thus, the customers can better manage their energy use and reduce energy costs given information. The same will hold true for larger commercial businesses that have renewable or back-up power systems that can provide power for a price during peak demand events, typically in the summer when air condition units place a strain on the grid [WIKI]. Through such automation, rising consumer expectations for power quality and reliability can be met in the face of growing electricity demand and an aging infrastructure and workforce [OE].
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 directs the National Institute of Standards and Technology to coordinate the development of smart grid standards, which FERC would then promulgate through official rulemakings [DOE3]. It will be a difficult task, but one that can be addressed by being aware of the risks and leveraging security best practices from other industries[OE].
Regulatory approval for rate increases needed to pay for smart grid investments is always difficult, and the receptiveness of regulators varies from state to state [OE]. This requires it to both implement a system-wide installation of monitoring device and to maximally communicate with components. A Smart Grid can be a mechanism for achieving the worldwide goals in the areas of energy security, climate change, grid reliability, economic growth, and national competitiveness. With real-time information given by smart meters, households can charge cell phones, watch TV and do their laundry at peak-off time to reduce the electricity cost.
In the 1980s, it was realized that the clock pulses from global positioning system (GPS) satellites could be used for very precise time measurements in the grid. With the incorporation of micro grids affected areas can be isolated from the main networks limiting disruption.
Smart Grid capabilities will make it easier to control bi-directional power flows and monitor, control, and support these distributed resources [OE]. Even it still has obstacles of development, DOE has the opportunity to address many of these challenges and accelerate the deployment schedule so that the nation can achieve the many benefits a Smart Grid offers. With large numbers of PMUs and the ability to compare shapes from alternating current readings everywhere on the grid, research suggests that automated systems will be able to revolutionize the management of power systems by responding to system conditions in a rapid, dynamic way [Liu01].

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