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Micro-mass Communication: In this type of communication, we communicate with smaller number of people such as professor to his students.
Macro-mass communication: In this type of mass communication, we communicate with a large group of people.
Mass communication is a very effective and powerful tool of government and plays an important role in the stability of government and the unity of nation. Awareness about Society: Through mass communication, man becomes aware of reality and facts. Cultural Promotion: Pakistan is a federal state consists of four provinces where each province has its own cultural heritage which is different from other province’s culture. Mutual Understanding: Mass communication provides the platform to people to present their views and express their feelings and thoughts. Public Opinion Building: Public opinion is the power which can make and destroy the government without any difficulty.
Accountability: Mass media is a reflection of society and people are the judge to exclude conclusion from different news items.
Watchdog of National Interests: Journalism provides protection to national interests of the country by keeping check on different elements of society which can be harmful for the country. We are guiding in Assignments and Handwritten AIOU Assignments of Classes Matric to Master Degree.
In your view how does the new technology of communication influence mass communication theory and practice? The new technologies are introducing many changes to mass communication, and communication theories must be developed or revised to keep up with the changes.
One of the ways the new technology is affecting mass communication in general is by giving the user more control over the communication process.
The trend toward greater control and activity on the part of the user means communication theorists are going to have to shift to models and theories that recognize the interactivity of the new media (Rogers & Chaffee, 1983). The coming of cable television and, to a lesser extent, VCRs also means mass communication theorists should change the way they think about the audience, particularly the audience of television.
Tehranian (1990) argues that the new technologies, like the old, should be viewed neither as technologies of freedom nor of tyranny, but basically as technologies of power that lock into existing or emerging technostructures of power.
In a related sense, Stevenson, Burkett and Myint (1993) argue that the new communication and information technologies can strengthen the centralised industrial, command economy or decentralise empowerment for finding creative solutions to local and global problems through new social technologies. The link between technological growth and socioeconomic development is hinged on various arguments.
Some researchers have also indicated the need for the new ICTs to address problems of human needs.
Although many governments may be giving top priority to acquisition of the new technologies because they are perceived as pivotal to overall development, there is however a growing anxiety or unease among these governments to curtail the use of the technologies by groups engaging in unauthorized conduct or groups which challenge the authority of various regimes.
Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, the German political scientist contributes the famous model called “Spiral of Silence”.
The one view dominated the public scene and others disappeared from the public awareness as it adherents became silent. In this sense, the theory is extremely scientific.  Spiral of Silence believes that there is fate- opinions are dependent on the  majority opinion of the group.
The Spiral of Silence is useful to apply in situations when trying to explain why people cover up or change their opinions when in a group setting especially when they think they are alone in their opinions.
In a company, the managing director decides to increase their working hour from 8 to 10 and send e-mail to all employees. 3.   “Fear of Rejection” By rejecting their personal opinion from the public will help to avoid fight. 1.    Spiral of silence theory describe as a dynamic process, the predication about public opinion in mass media which gives more coverage for the majorities in the society and gives very less coverage for minorities. 2.    In this social environment, People have fear of rejection to express their opinion or views and they known well what behaviors will make a better likelihood. 4.    Sometimes the minorities withdraw their expressed opinion from public debates to secure themselves from the majority. 5.    Maximum numbers get more vocal space in the society and lesser number become less vocal space or become silent. 3.    Spiral of silence theory – which helps to raise question about considering the role and responsibility of media in the society. Blogs…have put the power of personal publishing into everyone’s hands and created a new kind of public sphere — one in which we can think out loud together. The communication medium commonly known as a blog (which was derived from the word weblog or web log), was created through the contributions of web programmers and writers who wanted to share their experiences with others remotely in real time. Blogs are a rising medium, gaining in popularity by both experts and amateur writers alike.
Online applications and user-friendly interfaces make blogging a relatively simple way for individuals and businesses to “speak” to the world.
This document will attempt to explain the evolution, usage, popularity, effects, and controversy surrounding blogs. Before evaluating the ethic issues and effectiveness of blogs, we must first explore the origins. So, you may be wondering, “How and when did ‘blogs’ actually acquire their name?” The concept of chronologically posted articles, or “logging the web”, was dubbed “weblog” in 1997 by Jarn Barger, online author of Robot Wisdom. Winer and many other online writers used their websites on September 11, 2001 to post updates of the events that occurred on that day. According to a study conducted by Pingdom and released on April 11, 2012, WordPress is the blogging platform of choice for 48% of the top 100 blogs. WordPress is an open-source application used as a CMS (content management system) and blogging platform, designed to make updating websites easier. Being a web designer, self-hosted WordPress is the platform I recommend for my own clients.
One of the advantages of using a self-hosted version of WordPress is the ability to design WordPress themes that match the company brand and integrate the blog as part of a custom-designed company website. WordPress, unlike Blogger, allows multi-user capabilities and the ability for multiple authors to contribute to the blog with their own username and password. A unique advantage of WordPress opposed to other platforms, which makes it more useful as a blogging platform or company website, is access to thousands of both free and premium (for a licensing fee) third-party plug-ins. Though WordPress is one of the most admired blogging platforms by business bloggers, now that all the platforms are user-friendly and easily accessible and to mainstream society, there is evidence that revenue generation is not the primary reason people decide to start a blog. Blogs make it possible for business owners and skilled trades-people to use their blog for various types of promotion and interaction, including marketing to the global community. Like other forms of communication, the blog evolved from a need: the need for a medium that encompasses a more human element to the information readers absorb than journalism.
In sooth, the Code of Ethics only seems to apply to those who deem themselves “professional journalists.” Under First Amendments rights, does that mean everyone else has the power to write and publish whatever information (including lies or slander) on the Internet? In conclusion, I strongly believe blogging is a positive means of communicating with the global community. Blog authors, regardless of crudeness or inappropriateness, should be permitted to write and express themselves freely on the Internet, whether it is agreed upon by readers. Blogging can be beneficial for both the writers and the readers, and there is no gauge for measuring who benefits more. As the number of blogs increases, even the fact that anyone can start a blog does not minimize the creditability of the blog medium because the “creditability” is left up to the reader. Because of the power of social influence, groups can sometimes be used as agents or instru­ments of change.
The writings of Alcoholics Anonymous (1967), which describe the 12 steps and the 12 traditions of AA, bring out the importance of the group as part of the process. The moment Twelfth-Step work forms a group, a discovery is made—that most individu­als cannot recover unless there is a group. A kind of social influence within the primary group of the family appears to have been taking place lately in the revival of the ecology movement. The importance of group influence has been well understood by many people involved in mass communication. Another promising idea is to use mass communication channels to attempt to stimulate interpersonal discussion. Researchers working in the field of health communication have found an approach based on group influence to be an effective one . The results showed some effect of the media-only campaign in changing attitudes and behavior related to heart disease risk, but much greater effect with the people receiving the media campaign plus the intensive group instruction.
The Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Program also found that using mass mailings to send nutrition tip sheets and refrigerator magnets to hold them was effective in stimulating some discussion of nutrition issues (Solomon, 1989, p.
Flay (1987), in a summary of research on mass media programs designed to help people stop smoking, found that television self-help clinics that included social support in the form of group discussion were particularly effective.
Rogers and Storey identify interpersonal communication as one of the important factors that contribute to the success of a communication campaign.
Reardon and Rogers (1988) have suggested that the common division in academic circles between mass communication and interpersonal communication is a false dichotomy, and that the strongest possible communication theory wili be developed only when researchers integrate the two. Sometimes ways can be found to obtain some of the advantages of interpersonal com­munication through mass communication.
The Cerberus strike force is composed of long-range infantry, and much of the combat zone is open-air.


The location is not mentioned in either the Codex entry for the planet or in the mission briefing; it is located in the Kepler Verge, which is just up and to the right of Shadow Sea or almost straight right of the Ninmah Cluster.
Completing the mission gives you +5 Reputation, 10,000 credits, and a Communications Array War Asset. Usually this type of mass communication does not require any channel for conveying message to the audience. We communicate for conveying our messages to the large group of people through radio, TV, magazines and posters. The need of human beings is fulfilled through mass communication like newspaper, TV and other material about different aspects of this world.
But as we are all Muslims and believe in on God, one Prophet (PBUH) and one Quran, so this the the duty of both print and electronic journalism to promote Islamic culture besides our national culture in the country. It creates sense of responsibility in the citizens of country, promotes ethical values and presents solutions to the general problems of people.
So by expressing personal views, sharing knowledge and inter-exchange of ideas, people do agree on certain points which create mutual understanding among the people and this mutual understanding is necessary for development of the society. In this respect, print media and especially newspaper are the most effective source of forming public opinion, because through newspapers, editorials, columns, features, articles, pictorial displays, news summaries, the public opinion is formed about different national and international issues. Media keep a check on the different departments of government like municipality, Wasa, police and all other life relating departments and also show the abilities and functions of government officials.
Cable television channels and videotapes give the audience member access to specialized programs and material, far beyond what is available on the three commercial television networks and public television. Once a program has been videotaped from a commercial network broadcast, it becomes possible to skip the commercials by pushing the fast-forward button on the remote control of the VCR. One consequence is that we probably should have theories that give less emphasis to the effects of mass communication and more emphasis to the ways audience members are using mass communication. It is no longer possible to think of television as a uniform or monolithic system, transmitting essentially the same message to everyone.
Increasing globalisation, facilitated by the new technologies, has brought about changes which flow through to local communities. In 1947 Neumann and her husband found “Public Opinion Organization” in German and also she was a President of “World Association for Public Opinion Research” in 1978 to 1980. In other words, the people fear of separation or isolation those around them, they tend to keep their attitudes to themselves when they think they are in the minority.  This process is called “Spiral of Silence”. Majority of them accept this time changes and few employees are not satisfied with his decision. People loss their confidence and silent or mute to express their views because of the fear of isolation or they feel alone or unsupported.
In some cases the person may feel the majority’s ideas or opinion is much better than his own view. Over the past decade, using the World Wide Web for blogging has become a common way for individuals and businesses to communicate with and receive responses from their audiences. By definition, a blog is “a Web site that contains an online personal journal with reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks provided by the writer.” (Merriam-Webster Dictionary) Blogging, a verb used to describe the act of posting information on a website in a chronological format, is becoming both a form of advertising and a form of self-expression.
Hall’s online Web diary is one of the earliest accounts of writing for self-expression on the internet.
Software engineer, Dave Winer, started using email lists to circulate essays that he wrote, often to express dissatisfaction of something. While the world was changing, the purpose of the World Wide Web took on new meaning as well.
On September 11, 2001, New York businessman, James Marino, used his business website to announce details of the events he witnessed from his office looking out at the lower Manhattan skyline.
Since it is a database driven website using mySQL to store all data and content, the theme can be changed without the content of the website having to be radically modified or replaced. WordPress plugins add functionality not included in WordPress itself such as event calendars, image sliders, shopping carts, and thousands of other possibilities. In the State of the Blogosphere for 2011, it classifies blog statistics into five types of bloggers: 1) Hobbyists, 2-3) Professionals, Full- and Part-Time, 4) Corporate, and 5) Entrepreneurs. According to Tom Pick, Digital Marketing Consultant for Webbiquity, there are five benefits for blogging: 1) Establish expertise and credibility.
For authors in all of these categories, what they post on their blogs is not “meaningless babble”. What the authors of blogs write in their posts can be helpful to others in learning something new, seeing things from a different perspective, and having the ability to ask questions or leave comments on the subject. However, they may experience indirect financial gain by building brand loyalty or by taking advantage of affiliate marketing, such as pay-per-click ads placed on the site. Neuman that reading about a subject matter from someone who has a passion for it is much more interesting than reading politically correct jargon. Not all forms of the written word are journalism, and journalism is definitely not always a form of blogging.
The blogosphere brings the points of view of thousands (potentially millions) people to the masses, rather than allowing traditional media sources serve as the only sources of information and ideals for our society. However, I also believe that the authors who use blogging for stating strong opinions or resorting to lies or slander are rarely mistaken by readers as professional journalists. As the saying goes, “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder,” and I believe the same principle applies for self-expression on the World Wide Web.
Group structure and group dynamics are very much a part of the process at work in organizations such as Alcoholics Anonymous, Weight Watchers, and some groups that help people to stop smoking.
Realization dawns on each member that he is but a small part of a great whole; that no personal sacrifice is too great for preservation of the Fellowship. Youngsters have been learning about threats to the environment from school, television, and rock stars, and have been exerting pressure on their parents to act in more ecologically sound ways.
Cholesterol level was down 1 per­cent in the media-only town, down 5 percent in the media-plus-group-instruction town, and up 2 percent in the town receiving no campaign. The studies examined by Flay sug­gested that making written materials available to accompany a television program will dou­ble its effectiveness, and that adding group discussions can triple it. This is particularly true in the area of political preferences, where knowledge of five or six broad group categorizations about a person will often give a high degree of accuracy in predicting an election vote. This is true of many of the well-organized charity fund drives and many election campaigns. Television programs in which a candidate an­swers questions telephoned in by viewers would be an example. Grenades are recommended in flushing hostiles out of hard-to-snipe areas, while weapon loadout favors medium to long range guns.
Your initial opposition will be basic Assault Troopers and Centurions, plus a single Combat Engineer. To the right of the ammo pile, there's what looks like a jet engine on top of a crate marked "Cerberus Technology;" salvage it for 3,000 credits. Clear out the enemies and be sure to grab any loot you've missed--once you deactivate the third station, the mission will immediately end. Mass media is a source of communication with masses and communication through mass media is mass communication.
In this way sender always uses channel for communication because communication with large group of people is not possible without any channel. Because Islamic culture develops brotherhood and unity among the Muslims without any discrimination of colour, creed and castle. If journalism does not play its role effectively, then it can be proved harmful for the state and society by publishing news based on propaganda and falsehood. Videotext and Teletext offer the user a wide selection of news stories or other information. In a sense, this heightened selectivity due to the new technology could create a kind of balance that has been lacking in mass communication, with the audience and the message producers being more equal in power. This shift might give increased importance to the uses and gratifications approach to the study of mass communication.
This realization has consequences for a number of theories of mass communication that assume to some extent a uniform television message, or a uniform media message (Webster, 1989). On one hand, they open up opportunities for centralisation of authority, control and communication typical of the modern industrial state, and on the other hand, they supply alternative channels of cultural resistance and ideological mobilization for opposition forces. Paradoxically, however, these local communities are forced to make international connections in order to solve local problems.
Through this Spiral of Silence theory Neumann indirectly explains the Jews status during World War II under Nazi’s control. And now that we have begun, it is impossible to imagine us stopping.” (Rosenberg , back cover summary) When compared to the effort and time it takes to write and publish a story, blogging is far less expensive and time consuming. It started from a few computer gurus, programmers, and writers who had something to say and used the Internet as the tool to share their opinions. When he received responses from email recipients, he circulated those responses out to the rest of the email list.
On that tragic day, due to heavy volumes, phone networks could not keep up with the amount of calls being made. His account was one of the very first (possibly the first) of public confirmations of what happened to the World Trade Center that morning.
The platforms are both user friendly and offer a wealth of documentation on how to set-up, design, maintain, and monitor their blogs.


Other than some custom CSS styles that may need to be created or modified, the content on all the static web pages and blog posts stay intact. Consequently, the author-specific metadata (author’s name and link to author profile) can be made visible for the viewers within the post. Figure 2 summarizes these categories and purposes according to Technorati’s 2011 poll (Technorati Media) (See Fig. What a blogger writes about does not ensure acceptance or appreciation from every reader; but they are willing to share with the world, regardless. When reading the newspaper, we are not as likely to read with the eyes of a skeptic as the articles have gone through rounds of editing to make them seem as believable and scholarly as possible, making us more likely to accept them as truth.
When reading a blog, I feel like I am listening to a first-hand account of something as opposed to a second- or third-party account. However, blogging can be mistaken for journalism, and it can be difficult for the general public to tell the difference.
Readers, of course, will draw their own conclusions from what they read and have the freedom to agree with or oppose the message. Thr principles of group norms and group pres­sure can often be seen at work in these kinds of efforts.
He learns that the clamor of desires and ambitions within him must be si­lenced whenever these could damage the group.
He also began his broad­casts with music and told audience members to take that time to call a friend and ask the person to listen to the program. The purposes of the program were to apply communication theory to the development of a health communica­tion campaign and to use evaluation research to measure change due to the campaign.
Flay estimates that television self-help clinics are able to help 5-15 percent of participating smokers to quit permanently. Biggott cartoons and also documented in the area of politics by the election studies of Lazarsfeld and his associates.
Programs aimed at reducing the risk of heart disease or helping people stop smoking suggest that a combination of mass media and interpersonal communication is also an effective approach in the health area. Bring shotguns if you want a more personal approach on clearing out the interior areas or any enemy who may close in on you. Head forward, but just before the ramp, turn right and drop down the ladder leading to its underside of the satellite dish. Make your choice (which doesn't matter), receive the info on the third NavPoint, and prepare for the final wave. In mass communication, society communicates with itself as an individual or a group of people convey a message to the large group of people and they use transmitter of information such as magazines, newspaper, radio, television, books and posters or combination of these.
So we can say that print journalism and especially newspaper are much effective and powerful source of communication and play very important role in forming and building opinion of masses. CompuServe, a computer information service that can be accessed through home computers, has 550,000 subscribers (Couzens, 1989). The decentralization of communication due to the new technology can be seen taking place in the U.S. Here, Adolf Hitler dominated the whole society and the minority Jews became silent due to the fear of isolation or separation. Should readers be made aware that the information contained is the opinion of the author and meant strictly for enjoyment, or should readers be allowed to draw their own conclusions? He believed that what a person was like on the inside was far more interesting reading than politically correct articles.
WordPress also allows interactivity with readers, allowing viewers to leave comments for the author to another comment. Although not true journalism, it is not unlike a novel or self-help book—it is simply a way of revealing a passion or a subject matter what they know that may be interesting for others. However, most often, if there is an element of passion and self-expression, it is not journalism. Does this mean that all bloggers will defy the Code or take advantage of their First Amendment rights?
Alcoholics Anonymous, for in­stance, has a group norm that permits and encourages people to talk about their problems with alcohol. The campaign was intended to change people’s habits relating to the three leading risk factors in heart disease—diet, smoking, and lack of exercise.
Tip: When you activate the second NavPoint, triggering the cutscene, any downed squad members will be revived for free. Government Printing Office, which plans over the next 10 years to shift to much heavier dissemination of information by individual agencies and through electronic mail, on-line data bases, floppy disks, magnetic tapes, and CD-ROMs (U.S.
Essentially, it appears that the fragmented or segmented audience that is characteristic of the new media probably leads to a lessening of the impact of the mass media suggested by cultivation theory, the spiral of silence, and the agenda-setting function.
On this basis, one can argue that the new communication technologies serve the interests of both the privileged and the underprivileged classes in society.
At issue here is the challenge posed to individual freedom to communicate as against the desire of various governments to control the moral content or `political correctness’ of what is communicated. Hall predicted that “journalism of the future” would become unscripted and personal: “The best content comes from people who love what they are doing,” Hall stated.
The public turned to online journals to follow or share breaking news, search for loved ones, or express their emotions in a new way—raw and unscripted. Not only were his emotions captured in a public forum, but I’m sure America could relate to the horror and despair he felt. Being data driven, WordPress content is search engine friendly, meaning that web crawlers recognize words and phrases within the content as search terms and keywords. This feature can be activated on a post-by-post basis, allowing comments when desired or not allowing comments to posts in which the author does not want or require feedback from the audience. We know when we read it that it is someone’s unaltered viewpoint, and, by perusing through multiple blogs on the same subject, we can formulate opinions of our own. Even if I do not agree with the opinions of the author, I feel enlightened into seeing another point of view. This is a reversal of the norm in the culture at large, which discourages talk­ing about an individual’s alcohol problem and almost makes such discussion a taboo. This quota is sometimes displayed in the middle of town on a big thermometer so that everyone can see it. The researchers picked three Califor­nia towns that were as alike as possible to test their approaches. It has been suggested that the same kind of television self-help clinic might be useful in getting people to modify other health-related behaviors such as alcohol and drug abuse, or sexual practices increasing the risk of AIDS and other sexually trans­mitted diseases (McAlister. Also, if you manage to draw enemies away from the NavPoints (or if you are an Infiltrator), there is no requirement to kill any of the enemies in the NavPoint portion of the mission. Do the increasing number of blogs and the fact that anyone can start a blog minimize the creditability of the medium? AA members also share other norms, such as the willingness to be available to talk to another member any time of night or day. This quota is in fact somewhat arbitrary, being set by the fund drive organizers, but it begins to take on the appearance of a community norm.
The first was given an eight-month media campaign involving local TV and radio spots, a newspaper tabloid, billboards, and direct mail.
You'll see two red barrels on top of a crate; this is a "Cerberus Technology" worth 4,000 credits. These special interest groups allow people who are interested in the same topic—science fiction, poetry writing, an arcane computer programming language such as FORTH—to communicate with one another.
In 2005, on his first date with, Merci, his future wife, he posted his most intimate feelings about their first date. Since blogs are a form of self-expression meant to provoke emotion, thought, inspiration, or debate, I don’t feel there are “ethics” for how one should feel. The second town was given the same media campaign but selected groups of high-risk people were also given intensive group instruction in reducing risks.
This is a big change from the way communication through media has largely taken place in the past. His audience responded with negative comments, doubting whether he really knew what intimacy was. This then generates group pressure for the individual actually to quit on that day and then stick by the decision. This is a tactic of group pressure, in that the individual is made to feel that he or she will be letting others down if a donation is not made.
In a SIG on CompuServe, messages are not being chosen for the audience by someone else and imposed on them, but are being shared by people who are more or less equal but have a common interest in a topic. The Code of Ethics by which journalists voluntarily adhere cannot apply to bloggers since the greatest advantage of blogging is self-expression.
Right in front of you is a tower vertically labeled COMM 04 (with a blue "2" at eye level); check the other side of it for another "Cerberus Technology" worth 3,000 credits.
Some of these fund drives also use door-to-door collections, in which the person doing the collect­ing is a neighbor or a person living on the same block—an effective use of social influence.




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mass communication theories ppt



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