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The Symbiosis Center of Journalism & Communication (SCMC) opened in 1990 with only 40 students. A centre for academic excellence and achievement, LSR is today one of the finest institutions for Social Sciences, Humanities and Commerce, while also offering a B.Sc. Christ University was formerly Christ College (Autonomous) affiliated to Bangalore University. Indraprastha College for Women is the oldest women's college in Delhi and is affiliated to the University of Delhi. Established in 1999, the Amity School of Communication is under the Amity Universe umbrella which offers professional courses at under-graduate and post graduate level. One of the constituent colleges of the Kurukshetra University, the Institute of Mass Communication & Media Technology offers ten media courses with an intake of 265 students every year, adding to a total strength of 570 students and 30 faculty members. Institute of mass communication film and television studies, a non-profit society, is registered under societies Act, XXVI of 1961, Govt.
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Researcher George Gerbner and his colleagues at the Annenberg School of Communica­tion at the University of Pennsylvania developed the cultivation theory using what was probably the longest-running and most extensive program of research on the effects of television. Other surveys have asked what percentage of Americans who have jobs work in law enforcement. The responses to such questions suggest that heavy television viewers are getting a heightened sense of risk and insecurity from television. Gerbner has shown that the differences between heavy and light television viewers show up even across a number of other important, variables, including age, education, news read­ing, and gender (Gerbner & Gross, 1976a). Resonance occurs when the cultivation effect is boosted for a certain group of the popu­lation. The addition of mainstreaming and resonance to cultivation theory is a substantial mod­ification of the theory.
Rubin, Perse, and Taylor (1988) cast further doubt on cultivation as a general, across- the-board effect due to heavy, ritualistic television viewing. We are guiding in Assignments and Handwritten AIOU Assignments of Classes Matric to Master Degree.
Karnataka CET Kerala KEAM Law CET IPU CET TANCET EAMCET Maharashtra MAH CET NIMCET GCET DNB-CET CA-CPT GUJCET Punjab Univ. In the recent years we have witnessed an unprecedented growth in the world of communication. Until the advent of TV, media meant newspapers and magazines, and journalism was a public service calling.
Although some might confuse Mass Communication with journalism, but as the name suggests mass communication is all about disseminating information to the masses at local, national or international levels with or without a necessary intent. There may not be clear cut differences between the two but Journalism is more bent towards news reporting for newspapers, magazines or television, while mass communication is a much broader field encompassing radio, graphics, films, television, online media, documentary, events, advertising, corporate communications and so on.
Undergraduate courses: Mostly undergraduate courses only required the successful completion of Class XII from any board. Post Graduate courses: A postgraduate course would require the candidate to be below 30 years of age and the completion of a Bachelors degree in any discipline. As one can the industry is doing quite well for itself and is predicted to do well for some years now. Attractive and high paying jobs as journalist, actor, director, editor, screenwriter, RJ, producer, VJ are available to the talented and trained individuals. In 1998, traffic accidents caused 46 percent of all accidental deaths of infants and children aged 1 to 14 (National Center for Health Statistics, 2000).
The authors referred to the National Adult Literacy Study (National Center for Educational Statistics, 1993), which states the average adult in the U.S. Their study found that the average reading level of the 107 instructions they examined was the 10th grade, too difficult for 80 percent adult readers in the U.S. Use simple graphic elements such as bulleted lists and numbered steps to make information visually accessible. For more suggestions, we recommend referring to one of many excellent books on writing style, especially technical style.
We all know of technical publications that do not follow these guidelines and are read only by a small fraction of the potential readership.
This paper looks most carefully at two of the most important elements of communication, the reading skills of the audience and the readability of the text. In the 1920s, educators discovered a way to use vocabulary difficulty and sentence length to predict the difficulty level of a text.
By the 1980s, there were 200 formulas and over a thousand studies published on the readability formulas attesting to their strong theoretical and statistical validity.
In spite of the success of the readability formulas, they were always the center of controversy. Many of the critics were honestly concerned about the limitations of the formulas and some of them offered alternatives such as usability testing.
Although the concerns of the formula critics have been amply addressed elsewhere (Chall 1984, Benson 1984-1985, Fry 1989b, Dale and Chall 1995, Klare 2000), we will examine them again in some detail, with a special regard for the needs of technical communication. The purpose of this article is to very briefly review the landmark studies on readability and the controversy regarding the formulas.
Although Kitson did not create a readability formula, he showed how his principles worked in analyzing two newspapers, the Chicago Evening Post and the Chicago American and two magazines, the Century and the American. The resulting score should range between 0 and 100 and can be looked up in a chart such as the one presented in Table 7.1. The resulting score should fall between 0 and 100 and can be looked up in a chart such as the one in Table 7.2. The Flesch reading ease formula has proved to be the most widely used readability for­mula (Klare, 1963). In another step of simplification, Wayne Danielson and Sam Dunn Bryan (1963) devel­oped a computerized readability formula in which the computer does the counts and the computations and gives a readability score. Initially, in order to use the Danielson and Bryan computerized formula, you had to have the written material you wanted to analyze punched on cards, paper tape, or some other means of input that the computer could read. Also available are tables that eliminate the computation necessary to apply the Flesch reading ease and human interest formulas (Farr & Jenkins, 1949). An example will help to bring out exactly how the Flesch reading ease formula can be applied to a piece of writing. Now we are ready to apply the reading ease formula to the following sample—the begin­ning paragraphs of a news story written by a student. The Texas Water Rights Commission (TWRC) voted Tuesday to allow the South Texas Nuclear Project the use of Colorado River water despite a warning from Atty. The debate stemmed from a dispute between TWRC, which controls all the unallocated water in the state, and LCRA, which has power over all Colorado River water within a 10-county area, over who would profit from sale of the water.
This sample is more than 100 words long, so it is adequate to illustrate the workings of the formula, although you would probably measure the entire story if you were seriously attempting to determine its readability.
August 19, 2012 by Monica Verma 5 Comments The Choice between Journalism or Mass Communication and difference between Journalism and Mass Communication often confuses people. Mass Communication means communicating with the masses, masses which are not known to you personally and message is anything which is news, information, entertainment etc.
Journalism is one of the ways of communicating with the masses which involves serious reading, research and a formal way of writing.


If you are more into keeping yourself updated, read at least one or more than one newspaper every day and have a way with the world of politics, business, and crime or even entertainment news then Journalism suits you more.
Okay so mostly people think that in order to be in media, you have to know how to write and write well. These were some of the pointers which will help you make a more informed choice between Journalism or Mass Communication.
A person like me who is interested in science popularization and conveying new scientific discoveries to the general population, would find any use by taking up such a diploma course? In 1999, it was renamed as Symbiosis Institute of Mass Communication and eventually as Symbiosis Institute of Media & Communication. It offers graduate and post-graduate courses in Liberal Arts, Commerce, Literature, Computer Science and Mass Communication among other fields. It is known as much for its academic standing and leadership building as it is for social commitment. Established in 2006, it was an upgrade from the original Department of Journalism and Mass Communication of the Kurukshetra University, which was established in 1993 and offered one course in Masters of Arts in Mass Communication (MAMC).
The Governing Body of the Society for the Higher Education of Women in India runs the College. That is, Gerbner realized that the relationship between television viewing and different views of the world could be actually caused by other variables, and he attempted to control for those variables. Gerbner’s re­search has been criticized by Paul Hirsch for not doing an adequate job of controlling for other variables.
For instance, heavy viewers among both males and females are more likely than light viewers to agree that fear of crime is a serious problem. The theory no longer claims uniform, across-the-board effects of television on all heavy viewers. In their survey of viewers, they found effects of television viewing on perceptions of social reality, but the effects were program specific. The students of this trade can look forward to working in public relations, television, films, publishing, journalism, editing, direction, etc. Starting salary for a mass communication professional could be between Rs 12,000 and 25,000 depending your people and communication skills. Other studies, showed that 79 to 94 percent of car seats are used improperly (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 1996, Decina and Knoebel 1997, Lane et al. Mark Wegner and Deborah Girasek (2003) suspected that poor comprehension of the installation instructions might contribute to this problem. One reason may be that the writers are not familiar with the background and research of these guidelines. They embedded this method in readability formulas, which have proven their worth in over 80 years of application. Writers like Rudolf Flesch, George Klare, Edgar Dale, and Jeanne Chall brought the formulas and the research supporting them to the marketplace. Although the alternatives are useful and even necessary, they fail to do what the formulas do: provide an objective prediction of text difficulty. I will be happy if you learn something of the background of the formulas, what they are good for, and what they are not. He analyzed 5000 consecutive words and 8000 consecutive sentences in the four publications. The Gun­ning fog index, developed by Robert Gunning (1952), is based on two elements: average sentence length in words and number of words of three syllables or more per 100 words.
The formula is based on two elements that are similar to the two in the Flesch reading ease formula except that they are defined in units that the computer can recognize easily. To determine the read­ing ease score of a sample, you simply look up the average sentence length at the side of the table and the number of syllables per 100 words across the top of the table.
We will take a sample of writing and make the necessary counts and do the computations to come up with a reading ease score. However similar these two fields may sound, truth is they are really different from each other as far as course material, career prospects and life thereafter is concerned.
Further it has six cores: Journalism, Video Production, Audio Production, Advertising, Event Management and Public Relations. Electronic Media, Print Media or Cyber Media, Journalists everywhere are required to be well read and good with their writing abilities. On the other hand, if you are more into ideation and every time you see something creative, a movie or an ad film or anything else and you feel you could have done better than you will be better doing Mass Communication.
Reading novels, stories and watching fiction films or you enjoy reading political commentary, watching documentaries and are into nonfiction more. What you said about being good at writing is truly encouraging for those who aspire to take journalism. This diploma is of no use actually as u can straight away start writing freelance and submit your write-ups to whoever is interested.
Today it has evolved into a world-class media and communication education and training Institute, providing the industry with trained and competent professionals. Today, the college has more than 5,000 students and over 220 faculty members serving in 31 departments.
Besides courses in media and communication, the college also offers courses in animation, graphics and gaming.
The Religious Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and lay staff form the staff of the College.
The institute provides a wide range of courses which includes mass communication, journalism, public relations, advertising, audio-visual communication; film studies and other allied subjects related to media studies. For those of you who do not know what a guitar pedal is, it is used by guitarists to customize the sound of the guitar by making new noises and distortions. Heavy television viewers tend to overestimate this figure much more than light television viewers. Heavy television viewers give much higher figures, and they are more likely to do this than light television viewers. Heavy television viewers are more likely than light television viewers to give a larger percentage. Hirsch’s (1980) further analysis indicated that if one controls for a number of different variables all at the same time, the effect that is left that can be attributed to television becomes very small. These concepts take account of the fact that heavy television viewing has different outcomes for different social groups. It now claims that television interacts with other variables in ways such that television viewing will have strong effects on some subgroups of persons and not on others. That is, viewers of daytime serials tended to score lower in perception of altruism and trust in others, viewers of evening dramas (which often deal with control of others by powerful characters) tended to have lower feelings of political efficacy, and view­ers of action and adventure shows showed more feelings of concern about their own safety. The rise of new media has created a whole range of new possibilities, and profiles such as Disc Jockeys or Radio Jockeys are not so unusual.
Journalism is more predictable in its approach in which the emphasis is on information and facts, but Mass communication is more about letting the creative bug make the better of you.
The thing to remember while applying to the industry is that people with strong people skills and a head for communication will be preferred any give day over others. After 5 Years of work experience a professional can expect higher salary in the range of Rs 50,000 to Rs 1,00,000 per month. 1994) showed that the single strongest risk factor for injury in a traffic accident is the improper use of child-safety seats. They looked into the readability of the instructions and published their findings in the medical journal Pediatrics.


The authors did not address the design, completeness, or the organization of the instructions.
The formulas were widely used in journalism, research, health care, law, insurance, and industry. That knowledge will give you greater confidence and method in tailoring your text for a specific audience.
Kitson (1921) published The Mind of the Buyer, in which he showed how and why readers of different magazines and newspapers differed from one another.
Another change was that the count of affixes in the readability formula had been replaced by a measure of word length, the number of syllables per 100 words. These two numbers are added and multiplied by .4, and the resulting number is the ap­proximate grade level at which the material can be read. They are: average number of characters per space (essentially a measure of word length) and average number of characters per sentence (es­sentially a measure of sentence length). But in the case of wire copy such as that provided by the Associated Press, the hand keyboarding was not necessary.
Before we begin, we need to present exact definitions of some of the things we will be counting. Johr -till that such action could result in state instituted court proceedings against TWRC.
Few Universities for instance GGSIPU offers a degree in Journalism but as the name of the degree is BJ (MC), it focuses more on other subjects of Mass Communication besides Journalism. Each of the six cores includes communication with different level of expertise and different additional functions to perform. There are many other jobs like event management, editing etc which do not require you to write at all. If fiction is more your thing, please do not choose Journalism over Mass communication as Journalism is strictly factual and non-fiction. Though a Christian minority institution, the college welcomes students of all denominations.
If you want to experiment with your guitar or else imitate your favorite guitar hero, there is always a guitar pedal that is suitable for you. Of course, the leading characters in television entertainment programs are almost always Americans.
Gerbner says mainstreaming occurs when heavy viewing leads to a convergence of outlooks across groups. Gerbner is also admitting that Hirsch was right on one important point—when one controls for other variables simultaneously, the remaining effect attribut­able to television is rather small. They also found that age, gender, socioeconomic status, viewing intention (planning to watch television), and perceived realism (of television content) were better predictors of faith in others than television exposure. A degree in mass communication opens up opportunities in Journalism, Public relations and advertising, as a career. Another study (Kahane 1986) showed that, when correctly used, child safety seats reduce the risk of fatal injury by 71 percent and hospitalization by 67 percent. Although he was not aware of Sherman’s work, he found that sentence length and word length measured in syllables are important measures of readability. TJie results were two formulas, the reading ease formula and the human interest formula, both still in use today. When Gunning began his consult­ing work with newspapers, he was using the original Flesch formula that counted affixes ((X nning, 1945), and the formula that he later developed resembles the reading ease for­mula.
The resulting score is very much like a reading ease score and in fact can be looked up on the Flesch reading ease chart. Wire copy is normally available in the form of punched paper tapes that can be used to operate a typesetting machine in a newspaper building.
A similar table for the human it terest score has percentage of personal sentences at the side and percentage of personal words across the top.
Flesch defines a word as a letter, number, symbol, or group of letters, numbers, or symbols surrounded by white space.
The only tricky parts in count­ing the syllables might be the word TWRC, which includes six syllables when it is pro­nounced, and the words Atty. Of course, if the entire story had been analyzed, the reading ease score might have been higher. Thus if you write well, you can consider Journalism for sure as in Journalism writing is a necessary skill. For instance, heavy viewers in both low-income and high-income categories share the view that fear of crime is a very serious personal problem. Nevertheless, in light of the cumulative effects over time of the substantial exposure to television that most people (in the United States, at least) are receiving, the effects might not be negligible.
These results provide some evidence that viewers actively and differentially evaluate television content, or, to put it another way, that the television audience is an active one. With the increase in the number of television sets, news channels, radio stations, advertising and so much more each growing day, the field seems to be transcending into an unmatched growth and along with it the option of its pursuers to have a dynamic career.
Armed with the SMOG readability formula, they found the instructions were written at the wrong grade level. Rudolph Flesch would incorporate both these variables in his Reading Ease formula 30 years later.
Danielson discovered that it was necessary to modify the tape punching machine only slightly for the paper tapes to be read directly into a computer. News writers often attempt to pack a great deal of information into the beginning of a news story, and this can make the beginning less readable than the rest of the story. You can be sure the manufacturers of the car safety seats are scrambling to re-write their instructions. This allowed him to study the readability of the Associated Press output for a week without keyboarding the material. Flesch defines a sentence as a unit of thought that is grammatically independent and is usually marked by a period, question mark, exclamation point, semi­colon, colon, or dash. This practice can be questioned, however; if the begin­ning of the story is not readable, people might not get to the later sections. For heavy viewers, tele­vision virtually monopolizes and subsumes other sources of information, ideas, and con­sciousness, Gerbner says. The light viewers who are low in income tend to agree with the heavy viewers in both categories that fear of crime is a problem, While the light viewers who are high in income tend not to agree that fear of crime is a problem.
Today most wire service copy is transmitted as electrical impulses to be stored in computer memory banks, making it easy to apply computerized readability formulas, to it. Since you need to find the number of syllables per 100 words, one shortcut that is sometimes useful is to start by writing down 100 and then count only the words of two syllables or more, writing down a 1 for a two- syllable word, a 2 for a three-syllable word, and so forth. Gerbner presents research Supporting cultivation theory that is based on comparisons of heavy and light television viewers.
Gerbner analyzed answers to questions posed in surveys and found that heavy and light television viewers typically give different answers. Furthermore, the heavy television viewers often give answers that are closer to the way the world is portrayed on television. Writing down the number of syllables for each word permits you to go back and check your work.



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