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Dashboards are every where, we will look at a lot of them in this post and they are all digital. I'm sure the analyst in you (like me!) is yearning for some segmentation, or at least for some comparisons of current performance to past performance for context. And I don't want you to think that the problem is that the above is a dashboard in a digital analytics tool and has just two graphs. People who are closest to the data, the complexity, who've actually done lots of great analysis, are only providing data. People who are receiving the summarized snapshot top-lined have zero capacity to understand the complexity, will never actually do analysis and hence are in no position to know what to do with the summarized snapshot they see. Be aware that the implication of that last part I'm recommending is that you are going to become a lot more influential, and indispensable, to your organization.
Allow me to visualize the problem above, and leverage that visualization to present the solution. In a perfect world if everyone in the organization had access to all the data, the analytical skills to analyze what the initial blush of data says, the time to deep dive to find the causal factors related to good or bad performance, and take action on the insights, nirvana would exist. It does not because of this challenge… there is a massive asymmetry between people how have access to data (you?), data analysis skills (you? As you might have guessed, you are at the very left of the above visual, with most access to data, the ability to analyze it (inshallah!) and the organizational relationships to marry with the analytical ability to find causal factors.
Your immediate cluster direct or indirect leaders have some ability to look over the data, little ability to do analysis, but a ton of ability to understand causal factors. The VPs of Marketing, Advertising, Product, Public Relations, Human Resources etc., have none of one or two, they have some of three (causal factors, after all they set direction and make decisions).
Why would the above dashboard, even if you spent money prettifying it, deliver magical business results? What will be the impact on the business if the CXO accepts your recommendation and the business takes action? Your dashboard should have some data, but what it really needs are three sections: Insights, Actions, Business Impact. Your dashboards don't need more wiz-bang graphics or for them to be displays of your javascript powers to sql your hadoop to make big query cloud compute. In-order to win, you and I and our peers are going to have to make a substantial change to our current approach. They don't have time to go get all the data, but they have the desire to analyze a bit, drill-down a bit, poke and prod.
They can get a summary view of the Paid Search performance, and also drill-down and find deeper insights by themselves. For our VPs (or high enough equivalent in your company, in companies where everyone is a VP this might be the Executive Vice President or some such important title), we will deliver a tactical dashboard.
Each stakeholder getting exactly what they want with some of what they need to be successful. This sexy thing has similar elements as the tactical dashboard, except the altitude is different (full business, end-to-end, performance view on KPIs agreed upon in advance using the DMMM) and you should bring the full force of your brilliance into play by over-indexing on the English words. The glorious part of the strategic dashboard is that when presented the IABI are so enchanting that the entire meeting becomes a discussion about the actions rather than an argument about the data. But it should be crystal-clear that as you go from left to right there is a big shift that takes place. All of my dashboards that you might find helpful have business confidential data so I can't share those as is. Here is an excerpt from a tactical dashboard… this one focused quite heavily on the VP of Marketing for the digital business with a big budget for Search. It will be difficult for the VP to know enough, even from your segmented trends and KPIs, what happened that caused the data to move in the way that it did. The VP will look at the data, understand some of it, not know why stuff is happening, read the analysis, ask some questions and quickly move the meeting to discussing who is going to be assigned which recommendation.
The only part that is missing, not uncommon in tactical dashboards, is the impact of each recommendation.
Here's a complete tactical dashboard for a VP of Onsite Engagement who might love to see more data and trends. Please click on the image to get a higher resolution version, it is well worth your review. Along with other things in the layout, also notice the red minus icons and the green plus icons. Here is an excerpted version of a strategic dashboard, but to a small business owner who is still at a stage where they are trying to survive and thrive. Our next example, by Kevin Jackson, is one that demonstrates the above approach, but applies it to a strategic dashboard.
I've hidden the IABI, but hopefully the above image (click for a higher resolution version) will serve as a handy reminder of what is expected of you in each section.
In each example we are, to repeat myself again, sorry, I am trying to push you out of your comfort zone of reporting data by summarizing it into pretty graphs and tables.
If you do that, and use as much English as numbers on your tactical and strategic dashboards, your business will shift slowly over time to being data driven, it will be richer, that's going to flow down to you! NEVER leave data interpretation to the executives (let them opine on your recommendations for actions with benefit of their wisdom and awareness of business strategy). When it comes to key performance indicators, segments and your recommendations make sure you cover the end-to-end acquisition, behavior and outcomes.
Not everyone knows that you can link your graphs directly into Power Point, so when the excelsheet that isn't even open, is updated, the power point is updated as well. It is quite pretty (important), and I really love the capacity to filter using day of week (so clever). To qualify as a Tactical or a Strategic dashboard, Vida.Io would have to assist in solving for providing IABI (insights, recommended actions, business insights). Tactical dashboards (based on your DMMM) equal insights and recommendations which in turn will lead to continuous improvement! But there is a collection related to forecasting that is one of the key facets of impact on business growth. For example, a social media manager may value an engagement metric where the CMO doesn't understand that metric or even care. For my dashboards on social, I simply focus on four simple metrics across all social networks in the world. It should be management's responsibility to stop glorifying the dashboards and start looking to analysts for insights. But I am afraid I put more onus on us (Marketers, Analysts) for focusing obsessively on delivering IABI.
A key challenge I often run into: Everyone wants to see every report and dashboard that gets created. Anyway, I think this is one of your best posts in years (with deniable foreshadowing included). At Market Motive for our final dissertation defense (you see a couple of examples in the post) we have the student have the strategic dashboard as page one and then five to six pages of individual detailed analysis (a la tactical dashboard) for each KPI. We use six because I encourage two each for Acquisition (what are we doing to get traffic to our site), Behavior (what is the experience once they land) and Outcome (what was the result of the visit). Reflective Practice is a modern term, and an evolving framework, for an ancient method of self-improvement. Essentially Reflective Practice is a method of assessing our own thoughts and actions, for the purpose of personal learning and development. For example, Reflective Practice is highly relevant and helpful towards Continuous Professional Development (CPD). Reflective Practice is essentially a very old and flexible concept, so it might be called other things.
This alternative terminology, which includes some familiar words, can help us to understand and explain its principles and scope. Increasingly these principles, terminology, and underpinning theory are defined and conveyed within the term 'Reflective Practice' and its supporting framework of terminology and application. As such, 'Reflective Practice' is a theory by which modern and traditional self-improvement ideas can be more clearly defined, refined, expanded, adapted, taught, adopted and applied, for the purposes of personal development, teaching and coaching, and wider organizational improvement. Reflective Practice is also helpful for personal fulfilment (US-English fulfillment) and happiness, in the sense that we can see and understand ourselves more objectively. Reflective Practice enables clearer thinking, and reduces our tendencies towards emotional bias. Incidentally, the term 'Reflective Practice' is generally shown here with capitalized initial letters.
The capitalization also differentiates the term Reflective Practice from other general uses of the word 'practice' in referring to a person's work or practical things, which are clarified as such throughout this article. The alternative spelling of 'practise' is not used here because traditionally this spelling refers to the verb form of the word, whereas Reflective Practice is a noun, (just as 'advice' is a noun and 'advise' is a verb). I am grateful to Linda Lawrence-Wilkes, an expert in Reflective Practice, for collaborating and contributing to the technical content of this free Reflective Practice reference guide, and related Reflective Practice self-assessment instruments.
As with any theoretical concept, definitions of Reflective Practice convey a basic technical description of the subject. Definitions alone do not fully explain how and why something operates, nor teach us how to use it. Definitions do however provide a useful basis for comprehension, and consistent terminology for discussion, especially for a subject open to quite different interpretations. Definitions also help establish firm meanings, for sharing ideas, adopting the methods, and understanding of how Reflective Practice can be used, alongside other developmental methodologies.
The following various definitions convey their own distinct meanings, and also assist the reader in developing a quick general appreciation of Reflective Practice as a whole.
Reflection - Engagement in a deliberate mental process of thinking about, or contemplating, things that have happened, what was experienced and learned, from our own and from others' points of view.
Reflexivity - Reflexivity is the process of 'stepping back' from a situation we are involved in, for a 'helicopter view' of ourselves. Critical Reflection - Critical Reflection is the adoption of a questioning stance to solve problems, challenge the 'status quo' and examine our own assumptions. Reflective Practice - Reflective Practice is the use of self-analysis to understand, evaluate and interpret events and experiences in which we are involved.
Please note that the table above is an extremely concise summary, and is therefore very much open to debate. We have already seen that terms such as reflection and critical thinking can mean different things to different people, and this variable characteristic features in the founding ideas of Reflective Practice. It's long been observed that different learning methods produce different types of learning. Rooted in Greek philosophy, critical thinking is based on a Socratic idea of a reasoned process of weighing up the evidence to decide whether something is believed to be true or false.
Much later, the concept of reflection was taken up in the 18th Century enlightenment movement, a reaction against the turbulent and superstitious (and more oppressive) middle ages.
Here are some of the important historical conceptual interpretations that have helped to shape modern definitions and development of Reflective Practice, and its related concepts. Immanuel Kant - German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) is considered one of the founders of Western philosophy. Bertrand Russell - Bertrand Russell (1872-1970, 3rd Earl Russell of Kingston Russell), an English philosopher, mathematician and supporter of Kant's scientific approach, considered that knowledge is 'a belief in agreement with facts'. Crucially here, reflection is seen as more than impulsive thinking or day-dreaming with no purpose.
Thus, reflecting on things that have happened in our lives can open up more options and enable sound reasons for action. Jean Piaget - Jean Piaget (1896-1980), a Swiss psychologist, proposed the theory that children mature in their thinking through different stages of development. David Kolb - David Kolb (b.1939), an American educationalist, produced seminal works on experiential learning theory (see Kolb Learning Styles). Kolb proposed that if we become better at using all the stages of the learning cycle, notably including reflecting on experience, we will become better life-long learners. Kolb's concept is among many that advocates 'trial and error' (extending to reflection, conceptualization and experimentation) through our own direct personal experience, and asserts this ('trial and error' approach) as an important mechanism for successful learning. Note: While this assertion stands alone as a learning model for many self-contained tasks and activities, of course we need more than personal experience to learn about the wider world. Donald Schon - Donald Schon (1930-1997) was an American philosopher, author, and Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Barbara Larrivee - Professor Barbara Larrivee is an American expert in teaching and Reflective Practice at the Department of Learning, University of California. Reflecting on action gives us time to look back at what happened in a more measured and objective way.
Carl Rogers - Carl Rogers (1902-87) was a prominent American psychotherapist and author.
Michel Foucault - Michel Foucault (1926-1984) was a French philosopher and social theorist. Karen Kitchener - Dr Karen Strohm Kitchener (born c.1950), is an American Counselling Psychologist and author, and Professor Emeritus at the University of Denver, having directed its counselling program for almost 25 years.
Jack Mezirow - Jack Mezirow (1923-14) was an American sociologist and Emeritus Professor of Adult and Continuing Education at Teachers College, Columbia University.
Significantly in Goleman's work, the use of self-reflection should be regulated by the situation, which acknowledges the potential of reflective techniques to open deep personal issues, which may not be appropriate. Stephen Brookfield - Dr Stephen Brookfield (b.1949) is an English educationalist, at the School of Education, University of St Thomas, Minneapolis. This is a sophisticated and multi-faceted perspective Reflective Practice, and illustrates the evolution of the concept from its simple 'reflection' origins. Critical reflection is viewed by many as the cognitive process linking theory and practical work, vital in critical thinking.
Systematically using reflection to consider what theory has to offer for our own learning and professional work can help us move from thought to action. Reflexivity and reflective learning together empower critically reflective learners for continuous improvement in performance, at individual and organizational levels. The nature of thought is obviously personal, being the product of our own brain, so our own thinking tends to be subjective to some degree. If reflective thinking is to be useful for our learning and development, and for improving our actions and decisions in an environment, then this reflective thinking must include some objectivity.
We should consider what experts have said about this, and how we might best allow for natural human tendencies towards subjective thinking within Reflective Practice. However, Schon and others have noted that even 'objective' evidence-based problem-solving methods can be flawed, if a habitual routine approach fails to question and challenge the status quo.


For example, a reasonable evidence-based reflection made in the 1970s would have concluded that a lack of computer skills was unlikely ever to be a serious obstacle to professional development (other than for computer scientists and programmers), whereas by 2000 it had become virtually impossible to maintain a normal domestic existence, let alone develop a career, without a good command of IT and online technology. Nudge theory, and the heuristics within it (especially the human tendency to place undue emphasis on 'evidence') are very useful in understanding why people can be misguided by apparent 'facts', and how this can have a huge effect on groups and society. Some types of subjective instinctive thinking is unhelpful, but other types can be tremendously effective in finding truth and solutions.
So we need to be more subtle in understanding what objectivity and subjectivity mean in relation to Reflective Practice.
We can increase our objectivity by increasing our awareness of our assumptions and expectations. This approach is very much aligned with notions of metacognition, (awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes).
We can also use objective evidence to support our reflections, and in this way reduce bias in interpreting events and experiences.
So particularly when reflecting on human values and social relationships we can increase the validity of our reflections by using evidence. Nevertheless subjective reflections can be valuable, provided we are aware of the dangers of bias.
Moreover, while isolated reflections are often unreliable and transient, a collection of subjective reflections can produce a meaningful picture. Lawrence-Wilkes and Ashmore - Linda Lawrence-Wilkes and Dr Lyn Ashmore, teachers of professional development in higher education in northern England, collaborated to publish their research on Reflective Practice for learning, 'The Reflective Practitioner in Professional Education' (2014). As we reflect on new ideas and knowledge, we can stand back to gain new insights as patterns emerge to create a more holistic picture.
Like seeing stars in the night sky - it can be difficult to see them at first - we see just a black sky - but when our eyes become sensitive to the stars, we see more and more of them. So, like star-gazing, in adopting a critical attitude - we must allow the whole picture to develop.
Judgements are based on what is most reasonable, using contextualized evaluation to determine the validity of data. Here 'contextualized' means that we consider data - subjective and objective - according to its context, so that facts and feelings are not seen in unreliable isolation. Building on these ideas, Lawrence-Wilkes and Ashmore propose an integrated model of critical reflection which acknowledges a social context. This requires a reflective approach that accepts and respects diverse perspectives, supported by evidence, and produces shared and inclusive knowledge.
And at a personal level, someone who reflects on may progress to take action for change in wider society. And at a personal level, someone who reflects on their personal and professional life may build on strengths and address development gaps to progress and take action for change in wider society.
The Reflective Rational Enquiry diagram below supports critical reasoned reflection through an integrated reflective-rational approach. Knowledge and experience are interpreted and analysed through the filter of perception and context, using reflective activities to obtain new insights for independent thinking and action. When we put Reflective Practice into effect we are actually seeking to make a change, by using subjective and objective data from experience, to plan and decide actions.
This section seeks to convey some methods for using Reflective Practice - either for yourself, or to help others use the concept. It's helpful to revisit what reflection within Reflective Practice actually means, since reflection crucially assists us to make successful change. Jenny Moon - Jenny Moon is a Teaching Fellow and Associate Professor at Bournemouth University.
Most of us reflect superficially all the time, about what we are doing during events or experiences in our daily lives.
This expression 'thinking on our feet' often refers to a lack of preparation or reacting to a suprising situation, although its deeper meaning is that we are reflecting about a situation 'in the moment', in a broad external sense, and also an internal personal sense. While reflecting 'in the moment' is valuable, and can produce effective immediate solutions, we might not develop these reflections beyond the event itself, and not retain these valuable pieces of reflective learning when we move on to other tasks. If however we think more proactively, more deliberate reflection can generate conclusions and actions for making future improvements, preventing repeated mistakes, and other positive change.
Put very simply, thinking about a task as we are doing it can lead to making changes to improve the outcome of the task. For example, if I put a bundle of white clothes in the washing machine and see that the water has turned a blue, I am thinking I might have left a blue sock in the bundle, or a blue pen that was in my shirt pocket. We can probably all recall times in our lives when we have failed to reflect on a negative experience, consequently failed to consider options for change - and so a repeat of the mistake becomes inevitable.
It is a nuisance if all our white clothes eventually become blue, but if we fail to reflect and take corrective action in more serious areas, results can be catastrophic - for example in a busy hospital, or manufacturing aircraft components.
We can start using Reflective Practice by simply (and mindfully, intentionally) thinking about things that have happened in our lives, whether in a personal or professional situation. We can reflect in lots of different ways on a range of different events or experiences that are important to us. For example, on our journey home from work or study, (especially on public transport when we don't need to concentrate on traffic) we can devote a little time to consider things that happened during the day. We can reflect while walking the dog, doing the washing-up or ironing, cutting the lawn, cleaning, and even when watching TV - you'll be surprised at how much time is spent sitting in front of a TV not actually engaged with what's on screen, just day-dreaming, in a trance.
We might think about one particular event or situation, or a series of events or experiences: what went well, what might not have gone quite so well, and what we could have done better or different to make our day more successful. We usually reflect to a degree about an event when it happens or very quickly afterwards, however by reviewing it later usually we can see it differently, and discover different feelings about it. Transactional Analysis, and its underpinning theory - offer very relevant details as to why and how our emotions can become heightened, so that our mood and attitudes distort from a more normal evenly balanced viewpoint. It's long been recognized that the quality of reviews in such situations can vary greatly, depending on how quickly the review follows the event.
During 'hot' reviews, Reflective Practice among trainees is typically greatly influenced by their emotions and reactions to the event's pressures (as in the expression 'in the heat of the moment'). Note that 'hot' reviews can themselves be very valuable - provided people understand that they are 'hot', and that people focus on how emotions can affect the way we behave.
Moreover, if you are teaching people about Reflective Practice, then it can be very helpful to demonstrate the difference between 'hot' and 'cold' reviews, rather than merely avoiding 'hot' reviews altogether. Accordingly take extra care in facilitating group reflections wherever emotions are likely to distort people's views of their own behaviour and its consequences. In any situation, remember that emotions can significantly influence our perceptions about an experience, and timing (or reflection in relation to an event) can significantly influence our emotions.
So where appropriate, delaying our reflection usually enables us to see things more clearly, minimising distortions caused by emotions. The excellent Fisher theory of personal transition is also a very useful aid to understanding how time alters our feelings about events, especially our reactions to a pressure for change. While written records are helpful and memorable, especially for personal individual reflection, reflections do not always have to be in writing. This is particularly so where a group (or more than one person) is involved in Reflective Practice, so that reflections can be shared through discussion.
Reflect at the right time - Reflect at appropriate times in relation to any experiences which are stressful or intense (intense experiences need a cooling-off period before 'cold' reflection is possible). Balance subjective and objective reflection - Be aware of the difference between your subjective reflection and your objective reflection - both are useful and relevant, but you must understand what is subjective and what is objective, and you must strive to balance each in arriving at the most helpful and clear overall understanding. Seek external clarifications - Refer to external references, advice, information, clarifications, facts, figures, etc., especially where you believe that your thinking is not factual enough, or you are not fully informed about situations. Activities such as walking, swimming, yoga, and exercising can also produce dramatic shifts in thought patterns. Various experts have produced Reflective Practice models to help people use Reflective Practice more deliberately, proactively, and effectively.
First, this very simple and memorable model offers a very flexible process for using Reflective Practice, and especially for getting started and experimenting with the concept.
The Gibbs' reflective cycle, inspired partly by Kolb's learning cycle, enables us to focus especially on our own and others' feelings, views and perceptions.
From 3rd grader attendance to new artworks on view to expenses to (hurray!) digital performance.
You need access to data, the ability to analyze (slice, dice, drill-up, drill-down, drill-around) interesting data points that your performance throws up, ability to understand what caused the performance (often by understanding who did, what and where in other parts of the organization), and the power to make decisions. Your CXOs are at the far right, very little of the three things you have (because they have other responsibilities, and also because they are paying you!). If only they got something that was not a data puke and had enough starting points (sounds like a dashboard, but wait!). These will sound like: Metric x is down because of our inability to take advantage of trend y and hence I recommend we do z. Actually, we don't really create dashboards for them strictly speaking so we are simply going to have to stop calling them that. Our customized data pukes, CDPs, can come directly from our digital analytics tools (this will be important because our actual dashboards won't). For example, this post Google Analytics Custom Reports: Paid Search Campaigns Analysis, has three great CDPs for your Paid Search team.
You are not delivering anything beyond data (none of your insights, and hence no actions or business impact either). I mean, identifying specific insights which lead into the recommended actions with a clearly computed business impact. But in this section I want to share a collection of public dashboards, or examples of work submitted by students of Market Motive Web Analytics Coached Course. It might help someone feel good there is data, but it is such a generic slather of things, it helps no one.
In the Analysis section (in this post we've called it Insights), the Analyst clearly provides hidden causal factors. For example if we implement SEO strategies for Ohio Health Care and Ohio Health Insurance keywords, what outcomes can we expect? There is a lot of detail, perhaps too much, but it would not be difficult for the business owner to be attracted to your findings, in English, and your recommendations, in English. Among other things, notice how the altitude changes, the KPIs are strategic and the use of business goals.
Covers the complete end-to-end picture of the business (non-ecommerce in this case) by showing KPIs for acquisition, behavior and outcomes.
They also will have a sense of urgency, based on the $362,000 economic value increase computed by you, to take action.
Great dashboards leverage targets, benchmarks and competitive intelligence to deliver context. But as you also pointed out text is actually the most insightful, the charts and graphs are just helping you to have solid arguments. You can pull data from API's, SQL databases, FTP, Excel files etc, so the possibility of integration more datasources are numerous. Which means that the graphs and charts are in Excel (from the analysis I do to identify the causal factors – see orange image above), and I simply add text boxes for the IABI. Without IABI, this does not serve the purpose of junior or senior leaders (even as it will help the Data Analyst). I have already ditched the CDP's (previously sent to senior management) in favour of a strategic dashboard. The key is understanding immediate past performance, accommodating for seasonal factors, identifying what new actions the business is planning to take, and finally improvement from your new insights. It goes to show that actionable insights still come from data analysts that have put thought into making sense of all the data being collected, and that this process cannot be fully automated without running the risk of building a CDP.
Most clients love talking about themselves and their business and will appreciate your questions. But in many companies analysts don't get enough business context and access to the strategies to make recommendations and derive better insights from data.
It is after all our job, and in most cases the management team does not know to ask for what they don't know about.
Is it a punt to BI, to the DomoBimeBirsts of the world, manu-mation, Drivexcel, all, none, it depends?
I limit the total to about four KPIs, because I typically cannot expect mgmt attention beyond that! All six pages can be presented to the management team, but page one usually is with subsequent pages for the various owners of each KPI. It is a set of ideas that can be used alongside many other concepts for training, learning, personal development, and self-improvement.
This is for clarity and style - the term can be shown equally correctly as 'reflective practice', or 'Reflective practice'.
Over 2,500 years ago the ancient Greeks practised 'reflection' as a form of contemplation in search of truth, and this ancient meaning of reflection features in several modern definitions. The earliest historical records demonstrate the great interest which humanity has had in itself. Metacognition can take many forms; it includes knowledge about when and how to use particular strategies for learning or for problem solving. There is a broad correlation between metacognition (being aware of one's own thinking) and conscious competence (being aware of one's own capability) - because, for example, we can't go beyond our limits until we know what our limits are. Reflection here means looking beneath the surface to find the truth about something, to draw conclusions for building new knowledge. Here we examine ourselves to gauge our values, assumptions, behaviour and relationships, and thereby monitor our learning and develop our intra-personal and inter-personal skills (equating to self-management, and external relationships). This extends to consideration of wider socio-political perspectives and other relevant diverse contexts, theory and professional activity. This extends to being able to form a theoretical view or analysis, as would allow clear explanation to others, if required.
You will see below the increasing sophistication of the ideas, from basic reflection, to critical thinking, to critically Reflective Practice.
Kant wrote the 'Critique of Reason' in 1781, which supported ideas for a scientific logical and rational thinking approach, enabling reasoned thinking, being superior to dogma and other received opinion from authority.
He asserted that to believe in something with no evidence is inadequate, and instead we should check if there are accurate and agreed supporting facts, and who agreed them (1926). He is seen as the founder of experiential education, linking reflection and action, so as to enable new experience and knowledge. He asserted that experience, concept, reflection and action are the foundation by which adult thought is developed (1969).
In his 1984 book, 'Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development', Kolb extended the ideas of Kurt Lewin, Jean Piaget and others, about adult learning, to produce an experiential learning concept - often represented by Kolb's Learning Process Diagram. In other words, if we learn better and have better outcomes, we will be more successful in life.


He produced a series of books on learning, Reflective Practice, and significantly, the development of reflective practitioners. This builds on Dewey's (1933) concept of a purposeful reasoned process, delaying impulsive action to allow reflective judgement for action (US-English judgment).
Significantly his view was mainly of society, and saw personal reflection as an aspect of societal health. Dr Kitchener is internationally renowned for her work on adolescent development and reflective judgment, and ethics in psychology.
For example, in the context of work-based management training, EQ-driven self-awareness should be explored safely within agreed professional boundaries, so as to avoid being too personal or introspective. In his book on 'Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher' (1995) he takes a wider view of critical reflection. Theory, and especially research and evidence-based facts - help us to understand the world beyond our own experience. After all, theory based on solid research evidence is largely recycled 'best practice' from the relevant field of study. These powerful implications for learning suggest that the reflective practitioner can transcend basic training and knowledge transfer, to instead facilitate real growth in people and in groups, and the fulfilment of human potential (US-English fulfillment). This has been suggested from the start of its modern appreciation, among others, notably in the work of Immanuel Kant and Bertrand Russell.
Where our thinking is very subjective, for example when we feel very emotional about something, this subjectivity can become unhelpful, especially if we are stressed or angry, or upset, which can substantially distort interpretations. This is an extreme example of how reliance on 'evidence' or 'facts' can produce an unreliable reflection, and also highlights how subjective reflections based on feelings can change according to mood, circumstances, time, etc. Or put another way, we will reliably increase our objectivity in Reflective Practice by recognising our assumptions and expectations, and being able to differentiate this data from objective facts and evidence. Our initial struggle to see a single star naturally resolves, as we absorb more detail, so that we can eventually discern increasingly complex patterns, and eventually vast constellations. We must be open to an evolving picture - to adopt a questioning stance, and to look beyond the surface to find truth.
She has written much on reflective learning and the use of learning journals to support professional development. Some call this 'thinking on our feet' (a metaphor based on thinking while acting, which contrasts with more deliberate concentrated thought). And then extending my reflective thinking, besides checking pockets properly, I may reflect on other methods to get an even whiter wash.
This emotional sensation, usually very subjective, naturally happens due to the production of stress and action hormones in our nervous systems. The discussion can then lead to collective agreement about future actions, changes and improvements. The Emergent Knowledge concept, in which a person's location can have a dramatic effect on thinking, and aid the stimulation of different attitudes or unlock feelings. For example, taking exercise is proven to reduce stress levels, especially in countryside or green spaces, and this is certainly beneficial for reflection.
Think of how easily it would raise the right questions, which, when answered, would lead to more informed decisions.
Dashboards are no longer thoughtfully processed analysis of data relevant to business goals with an included summary of recommended actions. No real appreciation of the delicious opportunity in front of every single company on the planet right now to have a huger impact with data.
These are your Directors, your owners of the Paid Search strategy, and other functional leaders. Or: We missed our target for customer satisfaction because our desktop website performs horribly on mobile platforms hence we should create a mobile friendly website. A small part of the problem is that Analysts often don't have the skills to compute impact of the recommended actions.
For our Directors, Marketing Owners, Campaign Budget Holders, and others in our immediate vicinity, people who have clearly defined siloed responsibilities to make tactical decisions, we are going to create customized data pukes.
It will come from being a knowledgeable person about what to do with the data, what actions to take. There are lots of unique situations in the world, you'll adapt my recommendations as they best fit your environment.
Each student, to earn the certification, has to submit two dissertations – comprehensive analysis of two websites (one ecommerce and one non-ecommerce). Additionally there are no words with IABI (impact, action, business impact), hence it is uniquely useless. Then she takes it to the next level and provides recommendations that are specific and rank ordered (from the most important to the least important). It leverages the assisted conversions report from Google Analytics, and includes a module of the distribution of macro and micro-outcomes.
You are not really showing I've looked at what will likely happen if you do y by looking at the past, understanding current business plans and taking into account market conditions. I'm trying to push you to, like the best analysts out there, get very good at computing business impact (put your money where your mouth is). Will your company be open to adopting our three layer structure of CDPs, tactical and strategic dashboards? But remember, if you are trying not to data puke, if you are trying to include the so why did this performance happen and what should we do as a company, that simply cannot be automated to scaled. On the very far left of the orange box in our visual, we have users who could benefit from an effect CDP.
There are references also to the power of reflective learning in the writings attributed to ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius, around 460BC. Human self-reflection invariably leads to inquiry into the human condition and the essence of humankind as a whole. The process of Reflective Practice seeks to enable insights and aid learning for new personal understanding, knowledge, and action, to enhance our self-development and our professional performance.
In 1910, he wrote a book for teachers titled 'How We Think', in which he described critical thinking as reflective thought, moving reflection beyond contemplation. This suggests that reflection is needed for learning, and connects reflection with action, to underpin critically reflective thinking for new understanding and knowledge.
Köhler expanded the notion of simple 'trial and error' to suggest a mental process which visualises a problem and considers a solution before taking action, triggering 'aha' or 'light-bulb' moments. His seminal work 'The Reflective Practitioner' (1983) focused on professional Reflective Practice and the role of the reflective practitioner. Professor Larrivee agrees that insightful experience can trigger changes in outlook, necessary for critical Reflective Practice.
In his work 'The Use of Pleasure: The History of Sexuality' (Vol 2, 1992 pp8-9, published posthumously), which built on his original 1976 'History of Sexuality' book, he discussed the value of using reflection to consider how to go beyond the limits of our existing knowledge, in order to work towards intellectual growth and freedom.
Foucault's ideas prompt us to see very easily that Reflective Practice is ultimately a tool by which society and civilization can improve, far beyond notions of individual self-improvement and professional development.
He wrote the best-selling 1996 book 'Emotional Intelligence' and is jointly acknowledged as originating and defining the EQ concept. Emotional Intelligence is a good example of a highly complementary theory to use alongside Reflective Practice. Reflecting on theory - combined with personal experience - offers a potent basis for inspiring new ideas to put into effect, to achieve continuous improvement and development.
Organizational theory is mainly drawn from studies in the workplace, and specifically for example, the management theorist Meredith Belbin's research into management teams has created a body of knowledge and understanding about team dynamics and effectiveness. He suggested that reflection does not sit easily within a modern Western culture based on scientific reasoning (1998). This might be simply standing rather than sitting, or moving to a different part of the room, or relocating greater distances. Conveys information to supervisors, peers and customersin a timely, clear and concise manner.
They can see it, the graph is right there!!) Rather, what caused graph one to be up or down – the reasons for the performance identified by your analysis and causal factors. Or: While revenue is up by 48% profits have plunged by 80% because of our aggressive shift from to Cost Per Click as the God metric, this has brought increased sales of our loss leading products. These people know how to take it from a customized data puke, CDP, to getting insights that drive action which will have a business impact. Ideally also indexed against a previously agreed upon target for the key performance indicator (KPI).
The shift, massive, is in data being sent around and people feeling a vague sense of happiness to data being actually used to improve the business (for profit or non). We teach the students how to create great dashboards, of course (!), and I'll share some of their work. They do allude to what the possible impact might be, though it would be better if it was specifically computed. The yummy part I wanted you to look at (beyond all the underlining!) are the sections on analysis, recommendations and impact on the business.
I'm trying to push you in to a role where you will be seen as a key business strategist and not just a business analyst.
What have I overlooked in terms of reality on the ground, a facet of convincing people, working with companies in my recommendations in the post above? This higher-level cognition was given the label metacognition by American developmental psychologist John Flavell (1979). In his model, learning to reflect in action (RIA) and look back on action (ROA) together form a reflective process for decision-making and professional growth.
For example; seeing another person's point of view (colleagues, manager, customer) and reflecting through the lens of theory (books, internet, TV, training and development). The business world has used this wider knowledge to understand how to minimize errors in recruitment and team working, and to improve team effectiveness for improved productivity and growth.
From this perspective, reflective activities may be seen as too subjective and not sufficiently rooted in evidence, which is considered to be a more valid effective way to find truth.
Mindful of these possible effects, it's very important to conduct a 'cold' review sufficiently later than the event when emotions have cooled (which may be in addition to, or instead of, the 'hot' review immediately after the event).
Look it has things I recommend: trended segments (OMG, OMG!) and sparklines (with YOY and MOM comparisons!).
For both categories, especially the valuable second kind of dashboards, we need words – lots of words and way fewer numbers. But, what better way to create a sense of urgency than tell the CXO what the expected outcome will be if they do based on your insights and recommended actions? The term metacognition literally means cognition about cognition, or more informally, thinking about thinking. Experiencing surprise or uncertainty during reflection in action could be described as 'light bulb' moments, as in Köhler's earlier insight studies.
He regarded critical reflection as vital for promoting learning and self-assessment, enabling us to identify and evaluate our skills and development needs. Here Reflective Practice is potentially a highly complementary concept alongside Nudge Theory, and The Psychological Contract. EQ significantly alludes to and contrasts with IQ (Intelligence Quotient), because EQ theory tends to regard IQ as a highly limiting way to measure human intelligence, and especially to judge broader human capability.
Dewey supported the idea of theory drawn from practical experience and applied back to practical action - a loop of reflection and action, for learning and development. This 'cold' review process enables Reflective Practice that is clearer, more balanced, and objective. Go three levels, or five, inside the organization to the Senior Leadership, would they get anything out of this? I recommend a shift to Profit Per Click and Avinash Kaushik's custom attribution model.
You’re not listing your actual strengths, you’re listing what you think your strengths are. The terms are used commonly in academic or technical writing, when describing or reporting on reflective methods and activities.
He presented this 'insight' as reflective thought, which equates to the 'reflective observation' stage in Kolb's learning cycle. This in turn leads to more proactive personal and professional development planning and continuing professional development (CPD). Among more recent influences, Goleman referenced and developed some very old ideas in developing EQ principles, notably those of Greek philosopher Socrates, dating from 400BC.
An exception might be if you leverage some apps, like Google Analytics Apps and do the work required to meet our definitions above. You’re not listing your actual weaknesses, you’re listing what you think your weaknesses are, and so on…That’s why I want to present an alternative approach at writing a business plan. Self reflection helps us to develop problem solving skills and find solutions in planning action for behaviour change.
The Socratic 'know thyself' became a modern theory of self-awareness and emotional growth through the development of intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and social relationships. In reflecting on experiences, we can understand how we learn, start to observe our own progress in learning, limits of understanding, and develop more effective critical thinking skills by questioning and analysing our own and others' behaviour. If you’re listing a new product of yours, make sure to mention its main features and characteristics.Depending on the nature of your business, you may just have a single item to offer, which is fine. Surely not anything a small business owner can afford.Besides, not every business has an audience that is so specific. If it turns out that your main audience is actually someone entirely different then nothing bad will happen, but you need to be ready and accept such a situation.Element #3: Why would they buy?What makes your product better or just as good as your competitors’? Or what’s some other reason someone would want to work with you?Just be honest and not overly promotional. Or just standard marketing methods (which are completely fine, by the way)?Actually, the exact methods are not important here. No matter what you’re going to end up doing, you need to have a plan for the initial couple of weeks.
Treat it as your getting started approach.Pick a handful of methods that have the most potential in your opinion and start executing them.
Chief editor and author at LERAblog, writing useful articles and HOW TOs on various topics. Particularly interested in topics such as Internet, advertising, SEO, web development and business.Do you like this post?



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