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The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans. The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region. In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards.
The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois, had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee.
The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American. According to Pbs.org "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks. As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000. An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation. The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history.
In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary. The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public. The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage. In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings.
The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South.
The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes. With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation.
The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v. Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963.
The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members. New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism. The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country. By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation. In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director.
In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president. In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish.
Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights.
Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W.
The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W. As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people.
This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals. In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L.
Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States.
When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized. 21.Jump up ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006), Einstein on Race and Racism, Rutgers University Press, 2006. 22.Jump up ^ Warren Washington (2007), Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents. 30.Jump up ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000.
33.Jump up ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video). 37.Jump up ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca.
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. In 1987, Bishop Zubik was appointed Administrative Secretary to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Anthony J.
In 1995, he was named Associate General Secretary and Chancellor of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, and on January 1, 1996, became Vicar General and General Secretary—a position in which he served until his appointment to the Diocese of Green Bay. Bishop Zubik was consecrated a bishop on April 6, 1997, at Saint Paul Cathedral and was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. Fig Tree - Interreligious dialogue can quell conflicts in Africa With part of his life in each tradition, Father Patrick Baraza, a Kenyan priest serving in the Diocese of Spokane, sees African traditional religions strengthening community, Christianity bringing hope and Islam being practical. He came to Spokane in 2005 to teach in Gonzaga University’s Religious Studies Department and help offer Masses at Our Lady of Lourdes Cathedral. Because he lived near Kitare 300 miles West of Nairobi, Father Patrick attended Catholic schools and became Catholic. Ordained in 1982, he served a parish, taught philosophy at his diocese in Kenya and served among the Pokot, nomadic people who hold traditional beliefs, before he came to the United States in 1993 to do master’s and doctoral studies in Islam at the University of California-Berkeley, the Graduate Theological Union and the Jesuit School of Theology in Berkeley, Calif. He also addresses effects of Christianity and Islam as imported religions in his recently published book, Rival Claims for the Soul of Africa, written in 1995, published and available on Sept.
Conflicts in Islam were transferred to Africa, and the Arabization of North Africa accompanied the spread of Islam. Christianity also brought its divisions to Africa, with territory granted to different European nations and their churches. That philosophy, he believes, can today prepare the ground for dialogue and for solidarity that can build peace. Starting points for dialogue include mutual respect and understanding, without accepting teachings of the other religion.
The Golden Rule is common among religions, calling individuals to live in harmony, to do to others what they want done to them. He also called for people to come together and learn the sources for disagreements, such as conflicts in the Nile Valley between the Dinga, Nuer and Nubians related to Islam, Christianity and traditional religions. Father Patrick said that, while extremists in religions and politics use violence, people of faith need to use nonviolence to resolve social problems. Jesse The Tailor Jim's Hidden Treasures Joe's Rusty Nail Restaurant Johnston Self Storage Joyce's Antique Emporium of Bellevue (Antiques & Uniques) Just Playin Norman J.
Hickton was nominated for United States Attorney for the Western District of Pennsylvania by President Barack Obama on May 20, 2010, and was confirmed by the U.S.
The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S.
Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department. They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890. In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself.
In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms".
Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism. In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring. It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I.
Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress. Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process. The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional. These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation. Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas.
Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964. The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis.
A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty.


On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know? Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004. Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage. Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012. The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved. The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391).
Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220. Zubik was born September 4, 1949, in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, to Stanley and the late Susan (Raskosky) Zubik. Maria Simbra of KDKA Pittsburgh Publicly tell the World, on the Internet and TV, whether AHN murders healthy patients for organs, via fabricated diagnosis, fraudulent life-support, torture thereby, and Morphine overdose. The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education.
Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules.
Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909. It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African-American. Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions). Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft. United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements. The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching. The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case.
Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests.
Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy.
He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low.
Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins. They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought. Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law.
On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent. Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch.
The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national.
A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP. Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12. Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. He attended Saint Stanislaus Elementary School and Saint Veronica High School, both in Ambridge, before entering Saint Paul Seminary in Pittsburgh.
In 1988, he was appointed Administrative Secretary and Master of Ceremonies to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Donald W. Keystone Rehabilitation Systems KFC Klauscher Architects Knights of Columbus Council #1400 Jonathon Kohler, DDS P.C. Monda, DMD Mount Assisi Academy PreschoolMount Zion Baptist Church Mt Assisi Convent Mt Nazareth Center Muddy Cup Coffee House Lisa M. Hickton was involved in a wide range of community activities, and has long been an active supporter of and participant in organizations which benefit children and the arts. This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000. More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead.
Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States. He received an undergraduate degree at Duquesne University in 1971 and went on to study at Saint Mary Seminary and University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he earned a degree in theology in 1975. He was then assigned as Vice Principal of Quigley Catholic High School in Baden as well as Chaplain to the Sisters of Saint Joseph Motherhouse and Chaplain to the students at Mount Gallitzin Academy. Wuerl (now Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, DC), where he served until 1991, when he began his service as Director of Clergy Personnel. He is a past Executive Board Member of the Pittsburgh Public Theater, and served as its President.
Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture. While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization. Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G. Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts. White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks. This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black. 449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama. Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships. At the same time, he began graduate studies at Duquesne University where he earned a master’s degree in education administration in 1982.
The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education. The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v.
Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro". Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks. He served in the role of adjunct spiritual director at Saint Paul Seminary from 1984 through 1991 and associate spiritual director at Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, from 1989 through 1996.
The following Wednesday February 13, 2013 I returned to the hospital to see if the a€?Wound Doctora€? Dr. 86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come. What I witness next made me sick to my stomach.A  The bandages removed by the nurse were filthy. However, the program was soon enlarged to include disruption of the Socialist Workers Party (1961), the Ku Klux Klan (1964), the Nation of Islam, the Black Panther Party (1967), and the entire New Left socio-political movement, which included antiwar, community, and religious groups (1968). The program was secret until 1971, when an FBI field office in Media, Pennsylvania was burglarized by a group of left-wing radicals calling themselves the Citizens' Commission to Investigate the FBI. President I never dreamed in 2010 I would go from working with at-risk youth to fighting for at-risk seniors like my brother.A  We fought our way out of a single parent household in a NE housing project and pulled ourselves up by our boots with no straps.A  We did this without the baggage of drug addiction, police records and academic inferiority to be all that we could be! Several dossiers of files were taken and the information passed to news agencies, many of which initially refused to publish the information.
Within the year, Director Hoover declared that the centralized COINTELPRO was over, and that all future counterintelligence operations would be handled on a case-by-case basis.[10] Further documents were revealed in the course of separate lawsuits filed against the FBI by NBC correspondent Carl Stern, the Socialist Workers Party, and a number of other groups. President, has integrity, honesty and fair play become a lost art among politicians in America.
A major investigation was launched in 1976 by the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities of the United States Senate, commonly referred to as the "Church Committee" for its chairman, Senator Frank Church of Idaho. However, millions of pages of documents remain unreleased, and many released documents have been partly, or entirely, redacted. Indeed, nonviolent organizations and individuals were targeted because the Bureau believed they represented a "potential" for violence -- and nonviolent citizens who were against the war in Vietnam were targeted because they gave "aid and comfort" to violent demonstrators by lending respectability to their cause. The imprecision of the targeting is demonstrated by the inability of the Bureau to define the subjects of the programs. The CPUSA program targeted not only Communist Party members but also sponsors of the National Committee to Abolish the House Un-American Activities Committee and civil rights leaders allegedly under Communist influence or deemed to be not sufficiently "anti-Communist". The Socialist Workers Party program included non-SWP sponsors of anti-war demonstrations which were cosponsored by the SWP or the Young Socialist Alliance, its youth group. The Black Nationalist program targeted a range of organizations from the Panthers to SNCC to the peaceful Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and included every Black Student Union and many other black student groups.
New Left targets ranged from the SDS to the InterUniversity Committee for Debate on Foreign Policy, from Antioch College ("vanguard of the New Left") to the New Mexico Free University and other "alternate" schools, and from underground newspapers to students' protesting university censorship of a student publication by carrying signs with four-letter words on them. Examples of surveillance, legal and illegal, contained in the Church Committee report:[12] President Roosevelt asked the FBI to put in its files the names of citizens sending telegrams to the White House opposing his "national defense" policy and supporting Col.
President Truman received inside information on a former Roosevelt aide's efforts to influence his appointments, labor union negotiating plans, and the publishing plans of journalists. The Kennedy Administration had the FBI wiretap a Congressional staff member, three executive officials, a lobbyist, and a Washington law firm.


President Johnson asked the FBI to conduct "name checks" of his critics and members of the staff of his 1964 opponent, Senator Barry Goldwater. He also requested purely political intelligence on his critics in the Senate, and received extensive intelligence reports on political activity at the 1964 Democratic Convention from FBI electronic surveillance.
The COINTELPRO documents disclose numerous cases of the FBI's intentions to stop the mass protest against the Vietnam War.
A It got worst a second 18 year old student from the same school was shot and killed on Tuesday evening making him the 6th student and on Wednesday his friend and former Suitland student died of his wounds.A  His death marked the 7th student to be murdered inA the Prince Georges County School system this year. A A third victim in less than 24 hours was shot and killed in a attemped robbery at a nearby gas station in the same community.A Mr.
They planted false media stories and published bogus leaflets and other publications in the name of targeted groups.
Officers of the law gave perjured testimony and presented fabricated evidence as a pretext for false arrests and wrongful imprisonment.
They discriminatorily enforced tax laws and other government regulations and used conspicuous surveillance, "investigative" interviews, and grand jury subpoenas in an effort to intimidate activists and silence their supporters. The FBI specifically developed tactics intended to heighten tension and hostility between various factions the black militancy movement, for example between the Black Panthers, the United Slaves and the Blackstone Rangers. One Black Panther Party leader, Elmer "Geronimo" Pratt, was incarcerated for 27 years before a California Superior Court vacated his murder conviction, ultimately freeing him. He made three executive orders that eventually became a structure for future civil rights legislation.A The first Executive Order 9981 came in 1948, is generally understood to be the act that desegregated the armed services. Appearing before the court, an FBI agent testified that he believed Pratt had been framed because both the FBI and the Los Angeles Police Department knew he had been out of the area at the time the murder occurred.
After several years of planning, recommendations and revisions between Truman, the Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity and the various branches of the military, Army units became racially integrated.
Hoover fired back a memo implying the career ambitions of the agent were directly related to his supplying evidence to support Hoover's view that the BPP was "a violence-prone organization seeking to overthrow the Government by revolutionary means".[32] Hoover was willing to use false claims to attack his political enemies. This process was also helped by the pressure of manpower shortages during the Korean War as replacements to previously segregated units could now be of any race.A The second order, also in 1948, made it illegal to discriminate against persons applying for civil service positions based on race. The third executive order, in 1951, established Committee on Government Contract Compliance (CGCC). The Government has often undertaken the secret surveillance of citizens on the basis of their political beliefs, even when those beliefs posed no threat of violence or illegal acts on behalf of a hostile foreign power. This committee ensured that defense contractors to the armed forces could not discriminate against a person because of their race.A In retirement however, Truman was less progressive on the issue of race.
The Government, operating primarily through secret informants, but also using other intrusive techniques such as wiretaps, microphone "bugs", surreptitious mail opening, and break-ins, has swept in vast amounts of information about the personal lives, views, and associations of American citizens. He described the 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches as silly, stating that the marches would not "accomplish a darn thing."A President Franklin D. Investigations of groups deemed potentially dangerous -- and even of groups suspected of associating with potentially dangerous organizations -- have continued for decades, despite the fact that those groups did not engage in unlawful activity.
RooseveltThe New Deal was a series of economic programs implemented in the United States between 1933 and 1936. Groups and individuals have been harassed and disrupted because of their political views and their lifestyles. Investigations have been based upon vague standards whose breadth made excessive collection inevitable.
Unsavory and vicious tactics have been employed -- including anonymous attempts to break up marriages, disrupt meetings, ostracize persons from their professions, and provoke target groups into rivalries that might result in deaths. Intelligence agencies have served the political and personal objectives of presidents and other high officials.
The programs were responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3 Rs": Relief, Recovery, and Reform.
While the agencies often committed excesses in response to pressure from high officials in the Executive branch and Congress, they also occasionally initiated improper activities and then concealed them from officials whom they had a duty to inform. Governmental officials -- including those whose principal duty is to enforce the law --have violated or ignored the law over long periods of time and have advocated and defended their right to break the law.
A During Franklin's terms as President, despite his need to placate southern sentiment, she was vocal in her support of the African-American civil rights movement.A Mrs. The Constitutional system of checks and balances has not adequately controlled intelligence activities. Roosevelt was outspoken in her support of Marian Anderson in 1939 when the black singer was denied the use of Washington's Constitution Hall and was instrumental in the subsequent concert held on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. Until recently the Executive branch has neither delineated the scope of permissible activities nor established procedures for supervising intelligence agencies.
Congress has failed to exercise sufficient oversight, seldom questioning the use to which its appropriations were being put. KennedyThe turbulent end of state-sanctioned racial discrimination was one of the most pressing domestic issues of the 1960s. Several authors have suggested the American Indian Movement (AIM) has been a target of such operations. Robert Kennedy, speaking for the president, urged the Freedom Riders to "get off the buses and leave the matter to a peaceful settlement in the courts.A A In September 1962, James Meredith enrolled at the University of Mississippi, but was prevented from entering.
Marshall while President Kennedy reluctantly federalized and sent 3,000 troops after the situation on campus turned violent.A Campus Riots left two dead and dozens injured, but Meredith did finally enroll in his first class.
A A His brother Robert and Ted Sorenson pressed Kennedy to take more initiative on the legislative front.
A On June 11, 1963, President Kennedy intervened when Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked the doorway to the University of Alabama to stop two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood, from attending. Wallace moved aside only after being confronted by Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach and the Alabama National Guard, which had just been federalized by order of the President, and which had hours earlier been under Wallace's command.A That evening Kennedy gave his famous civil rights address on national television and radio, launching his initiative for civil rights legislation - to provide equal access to public schools and other facilities, and greater protection of voting rights.
Retrieved 2008-06-23. ^ a b "Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans". As the president had predicted, the day after his TV speech, and in reaction to it, House Majority leader Carl Albert called to advise him that his two year signature effort in Congress to combat poverty in Appalachia (Area Redevelopment Administration) had been defeated, primarily by the votes of Southern Democrats and Republicans.A Kennedy signed the executive order creating the Presidential Commission on the status of Women on December 14, 1961. The Commission statistics revealed that women were also experiencing discrimination; their final report documenting legal and cultural barriers was issued in October 1963. A Earlier, on June 10, 1963, Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act of 1963, a federal law amending the Fair Labor Standards Act, aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex.A Over a hundred thousand, predominantly African Americans gathered in Washington for the civil rights March on Washington for jobs and freedom on August 28, 1963. Kennedy feared the March would have a negative effect on the prospects for the civil rights bills in Congress, and declined an invitation to speak. The March was considered a "triumph of managed protest", and not one arrest relating to the demonstration occurred.A Afterwards, the March leaders accepted an invitation to the White House to meet with Kennedy and photos were taken.
A Kennedy felt the March was a victory for him as well and bolstered the chances for his civil rights bill.A Nevertheless, the struggle was far from over. Three weeks later, a bomb exploded on a Sunday at the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham; at the end of the day six children had died in the explosion and aftermath.
A A As a result of this resurgent violence, the civil rights legislation underwent some drastic amendments that critically endangered any prospects for passage of the bill, to the outrage of the President.
JohnsonIn conjunction with the civil rights movement, Johnson overcame southern resistance and convinced Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which outlawed most forms of racial segregation. A A He called the congressional leaders to the White House in late October 1963 to line up the necessary votes in the House for passage.
A After Kennedy's death, it was Johnson who picked up the torch and pushed the bill through the Senate. Special Agent Gregg York: "We expected about twenty Panthers to be in the apartment when the police raided the place.
A Legend has it that, as he put down his pen, Johnson told an aide, "We have lost the South for a generation", anticipating a coming backlash from Southern whites against Johnson's Democratic Party.A In 1965, he achieved passage of a second civil rights bill, the Voting Rights Act, which outlawed discrimination in voting, thus allowing millions of southern blacks to vote for the first time. In accordance with the act, several states, "seven of the eleven southern states of the former confederacy" - Alabama, South Carolina, North Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, VirginiaA a€” were subjected to the procedure of pre-clearance in 1965, while Texas, home to the majority of the African American population at the time, followed in 1975.A After the murder of civil rights worker Viola Liuzzo, Johnson went on television to announce the arrest of four Ku Klux Klansmen implicated in her death.
He angrily denounced the Klan as a "hooded society of bigots," and warned them to "return to a decent society before it's too late." Johnson was the first President to arrest and prosecute members of the Klan since Ulysses S.
NixonThe Nixon years witnessed the first large-scale integration of public schools in the South. Nixon sought a middle way between the segregationist Wallace and liberal Democrats, whose support of integration was alienating some Southern whites.A  Hopeful of doing well in the South in 1972, he sought to dispose of desegregation as a political issue before then. Soon after his inauguration, he appointed Vice President Agnew to lead a task force, which worked with local leadersa€”both white and blacka€”to determine how to integrate local schools.A Vice-President Spiro Agnew had little interest in the work, and most of it was done by Labor Secretary George Shultz. Federal aid was available, and a meeting with President Nixon was a possible reward for compliant committees.
A By September 1970, fewer than ten percent of black children were attending segregated schools.
A But by 1971, however, tensions over desegregation surfaced in Northern cities, with angry protests over the busing of children to schools outside their neighborhood to achieve racial balance. Available at the FBI reading room.^ FBI document, 16 September 1970, Director FBI to SAC's in Baltimore, Detroit, Los Angeles, New Haven, San Francisco, and Washington Field Office. During the week white parents were seen in and out of the facility and on the weekend they would pick-up their children and take them home. My time was spend one block over on 13th and V Street working out of Harrison Playground and Harrison Elementary.
I was of no help, I knew little or nothing about Hillcrest and how it served the community. I was more concerned about the knuckleheads I would encounter hanging out in the U Street corridor.
We discussed what remedies we could use to combat these acts of truancy.A My thoughts, why not try to use athletics as a motivational tool?
The athletic team concept helped me to improve my school attendance and discipline, why not use the same vehicle for these knuckleheads (I know a knucklehead when I see one, because I was one).
A I would notice after school the young men who should have been attending Harrison during school hours would migrate to the playground.
University of California Press, 2001: "Although the FBI officially discontinued COINTELPRO immediately after the Pennsylvania disclosures "for security reasons," when pressed by the Senate committee, the bureau acknowledged two new instances of "Cointelpro-type" operations. The committee was left to discover a third, apparently illegal operation on its own."^ Athan G. Cousins and Roving Leader Director, Stanley Anderson, I held tryouts for the Harrison touch football team on Harrison Playground in the evenings after school. You name the sport, football, basketball, baseball, track and field, most could run like the wind.
I wished that I could have been that talented at their young age.Getting them to tryout for the team was easy, but getting them to improve their attendance and their grades was not going to be an easy chore. The rules of participation were; regular school attendance, maintain a C average, respectful behavior (no profanity) and be on time for school and practice. Several I had to dismiss from the team or I benched them in favor of a not so talented teammate, but as we started to win without them, they changed their rebel ways.A I convinced other elementary schools in walking distance of Harrison to participate, Garrison and Grimke principals liked the concept and came aboard. The idea went over so well other elementary schools wanted to participate and the program went city-wide. With my coaching genius, Harrison Elementary won the first City Wide Elementary Touch Football League Championship. It took several practices before Andrew Johnson my high school teammate and police officer could convince his colleagues to take off their guns during practice.A The league was the brainchild of the late Mayor for Life, Marion Barry. The league was designed to help improve police community relations and it did for a minute.A In 1968 all hell broke loose after the gun related death of our Prince of Peace in Memphis, Tn, Dr. I remember NFL Hall of Fame and Green Bay Packer player Willie Wood and I standing on the corner of 9th and U Streets after having lunch at the in-crowd hangout of the Che Maurice restaurant. It was a beautiful bright sun shiny April 4th day when someone rode by in a car and yelled "Harold Bell they just shot and killed Dr.



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