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Teaching Reflective Skills and PDP to International Students: How effective is the use of PebblePad? The following paper will introduce some of the issues involved in developing Personal Development Planning (PDP) skills and will then examine the findings from an investigation introducing PDP to a group of international master’s degree students in the Business School at Oxford Brookes University. Jackson and Ward (2004) suggest that PDP is useful in the development of students’ meta-cognitive skills.
Two further aims of using PebblePad were to encourage students to record a wide range of transferable skills that they could use in their future career development and to help them identify their strengths and future developmental needs. It is often the case that graduates are unable to articulate clearly the transferable skills they have developed whilst studying for a degree. Rees, Forbes and Kubler (2006) list the skills that employers believe graduates should achieve on completing an undergraduate programme, including cognitive skills such as problem solving, transferable skills such as working in a team, personal capabilities and technical ability. Students from other cultures are often accustomed to different teaching methods than those prevalent in the UK. Biggs (2003) proposed a theory for teaching international students based on three levels of teaching.
At level 1, students have to assimilate or adjust to the practices undertaken at the overseas institution.
Level 2, which Biggs calls accommodation is when the lecturer adapts their normal style of teaching, for example by being more serious with international students so as not to cause any offence.
Level 3, teaching as educating, focuses on what students do, rather than on what students are or what the lecturer does. Lynch (2008) found that PDP and reflection are concepts with which many international students are not familiar. Sunderland and Powell (2007) describe e-portfolios as purposeful collections of digital items. PebblePad is a flexible e-portfolio system developed by Pebble Learning in collaboration with the University of Wolverhampton.
Theoretically, at least, there seems to be plenty of evidence to suggest that reflection is a good skill for students to develop.
In total, 173 students from a range of master’s programmes including eMarketing, Business Accounting, Marketing and International Trade and Logistics undertook the PDP module.
Hofstede’s ‘cultural dimensions’ (2001) were used to initiate a discussion between students about their cultural backgrounds and the impact this might have on their learning experience at Brookes. After each session, students were expected to write a short reflective review about the topic covered, evaluating what they had learnt and how the experience was personally relevant. Other examples of activities that students have the opportunity to reflect upon included Belbin’s (2004) Team Inventory, an employability day, workshops on networking, career management, and presentation skills, ad well as extra-curricular activities relevant to their development such as English language classes. Students were encouraged to reflect on feedback, practising both giving constructive feedback and receiving feedback. The students were also asked to evaluate a significant event or critical incident, which could in fact be something quite ordinary.
Other models follow a similar premise, having students reflect on an event, analyse the experience and then try to modify their behaviour. Many of the students in the workshops commented that this was the first time they had ever considered in such depth their personal feelings and their strengths and weaknesses as areas for development. The first assessments in the module was to create a formative action plan using PebblePad (valued at 20 per cent).
In general, the students that failed the assignment recognised their strengths and weaknesses, but in terms of reflection did little more than describe activities undertaken during the programme.
Many students requested additional instructions and explanation, asking to see a specimen action plan, ‘the subject is totally different from nearly all known courses.
The second assignment was the summative webfolio including a revised action plan submitted towards the end of the course (valued at 80 per cent). To pass the webfolio assignment, students needed to include a reflective account of their professional and personal development during their learning experience.
In this study the students undertaking the PDP workshops (173 in total) were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire and feedback form (see Appendix 1).
The students commented on the differences in the education systems in their home countries and the UK.
On the whole, a British educational qualification appeared to be highly valued by the international students. Skyrme (2005) argued that international students who can recognise the limitations of their previous education are usually able to develop the skills they need to adapt to the way a university delivers its learning. As noted in the methodology section, a number of the students had not previously come across PDP and needed to be convinced of its usefulness.
While many students initially found reflective writing difficult, comments from the feedback showed that undertaking reflective writing was a positive experience for some of the students.
Many Asian students undertaking the PDP workshop were able to reflect well and gained good marks for both assignments. Students whose English language skills were less developed reported that they found writing and editing online much easier than talking about topics in the workshops. It would appear necessary to ensure there is enough time in the module to allow students to learn to use a system such as PebblePad, particularly students who are less confident with using technology.
PDP and reflective writing aim to help students make sense of their learning experience in a way that could benefit both their personal and professional development. Initially the international students appeared to lack awareness of the transferable skills they could potentially develop whilst undertaking their postgraduate education. In order to make the link between the relevance of subjects being taught and PDP there needed to be a very clear relationship between the modules that the students were studying and PDP. In order to use a system such as PebblePad there needs to be good staff development and training to support the tutors and to ensure student engagement with the material.
Dr Christina Meredith is a Chartered Psychologist, a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy and works as a freelance Business Psychologist.
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Community Eye Health Journal » Effective teaching and learning for eye health workers. Our understanding of what must be done to prevent blindness and promote eye health has advanced considerably in recent years. The great Socrates said that a good teacher should be like a gadfly (or black fly, well known to eye care workers!) which is an irritating and disturbing insect.
This fact is very important for teachers to remember when they select or prepare written materials for their students. These days many teaching institutions have websites where teachers put their handouts for the students to find. The good thing about the Cloze test is that the people who are going to use the material, test that material for you.
In health care, the reason for training is clear – we expect those who are being trained to do their jobs well. We ask the health workers themselves to tell us which tasks they perform in their daily work.
Teachers tend to expect students to learn too much knowledge – more than they need to do the job. When you have finished analysing all the tasks, you will have a large number of learning objectives. In traditional training courses the teachers work out what the students need to learn, and systematically make sure that they learn it.
Curricula are always changing, as teachers try to remain up-to-date and to eliminate problems in their teaching.
We try to teach many subjects together – all those parts which deal with a specific problem. We make sure that students learn to manage all important problems by planning their learning carefully.
Knowledge of symptoms, signs, stages, the organism, medication, anatomy, spread, prevention, etc. From this example a basic rule becomes clear – for each of the domains of learning, we have to use specific and different methods to teach the objectives in that domain. The generations of teachers who have gone before us have developed a large number of methods.
There is really only one way to teach a manual skill, and that is to carefully demonstrate it first and then let each of the students perform the skill under supervision.
Communication skills can only be taught by making students practise them, after a demonstration, and giving feedback on their performance. The most common decision that eye health care workers have to make is a diagnosis and what treatment should be given. You start coming up with possible solutions to the problem as soon as you have collected the most readily available information (e.g. You only collect further information which will help you to confirm or reject those solutions or diagnoses (i.e.
Such problems can also be written ones, such as case studies or patient management problems.
The average attention span of people who sit listening to someone talking is around 10 minutes. The main reason is obvious – we want to see if they have learnt what we have taught them. Assessment is very important for our students because it shows them where they are falling short.
Finally, in every assessment the examiner has to take a sample of all that the students had to learn because there is never enough time to examine everything. You can make any form of assessment more reliable by giving a little thought to the matter. This section will deal with the criteria for selecting materials, advise on accessing teaching resources and suggest strategies for continuing education. Are they health workers, professionals, Ministry of Health officials, schoolteachers, or patients? Will there be suitable seating arrangements, a projector, flipcharts, computer, videotape player, good lighting, blackout blinds? AccuracyIf they are to achieve their aims, teaching materials must be up-to-date, applicable, and cover the required scope of the subject.
It is usual to do this three times to three different samples, one from the beginning of the text, one from the middle and one from near the end.
Ordering from a supplierWhen placing an order, don’t assume that the supplier will know exactly what material is needed! It is important the purchaser and supplier agree the amount and method of payment beforehand. Use pictures when the message can be conveyed in this way – but make sure this approach is field tested to check for misunderstandings. Inclusive language (including women and men) will help to avoid offence and feelings of inadequacy. You will also need to consider who will write the draft, who will edit it, where you can field test it and what it will cost to produce.
Information technology (IT) is the newest development contributing to health communication. As individuals we all can contribute in some measure to learning and spreading information. Curricula get out of date easily and people just go on year after year teaching the same things.
The content of individual lessons – do they contain what the curriculum planners intended them to? In the short-term you will need to find out if the participants have mastered the tasks and learning components in the course. Here we examine written curricula, timetables, lesson plans, visual aids, handouts, exam papers and so on. Diaries – we ask teachers or students to keep diaries of their experiences on the course.
It is common practice to present students with a questionnaire at the end of a part of a curriculum or at the end of a term.
These are useful when we want information from people about aspects of our courses and teaching, but in more depth and detail. Such instruments have been tested and refined, and should provide us with useful information. ThoughtOffice Public Speaking Software helps you craft a clear path from your internal genius, to your waiting audience.
Kousuke* was writing quickly in his notebook, but hesitated when he reached the fourth item. Most of the items were familiar to them, after all they'd been speaking about dogs, bats, cups and foxes for several weeks. It might be considered surprising that none of these first graders had ever seen these items in print before, or that letters were never mentioned.
There are four surface skill areas in language study- Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing (thinking and comprehension are underlying skill areas). When they are taught carefully in a coordinated manner, each of these skills help develop the other three. The first step of writing, as shown in the final photo in the previous article, is simply learning to write individual letters, as a symbol for a phoneme.
Once Taro has learned a dozen basic single letter graphemes, he should be able to write several of the words that he has been using already in spoken class activities.
If the teacher models a basic sentence structure (the first letter is upper case, there are spaces between each word, there must be a period at the end) and introduces the written words 'is' and 'a', Hanako can now write full sentences ('It is a mop.'), and by the time she's learned 24 basic single-letter alphabetic symbols, can now write over a hundred basic nouns. Words that are within her growing spoken vocabulary, but are written in patterns that are well beyond her beginning stage alphabetic code instruction, can still be part of beginning writing tasks, although in a reduced form.
There are four stages of logic and complexity in the English alphabetic code, and as the class curriculum gradually advances through those levels, more and more of the vocabulary that is being spoken in class activities (which are also constantly expanding in scope and complexity) comes within the margins of the student's alphabetic code understanding. It is hard to overstate the value of writing by pronunciation as a teaching and verification method. Writing by personal pronunciation onto blank lined paper also forces Taro to listen carefully (even to himself), something many students don't bother to do.
In an intermediate stage of code instruction, the pattern 'ing' (actually a phonogram, a spelling pattern of multiple graphemes representing multiple phonemes) is commonly introduced, which enables students to now write verbs in present continuous sense (jumping, standing, fishing).
When taught carefully and in a coordinated curriculum, individual writing by pronunciation and alphabetic code understanding helps the student develop an accurate understanding and perception (and production) of the spoken language. It would be dishonest to suggest that this procedure of writing by personal pronunciation and code recall is a smooth process for every student, or even for any student.
Because the sound structure of spoken Japanese is so dramatically different from spoken English, every Japanese speaker will struggle to perceive, produce and blend the phonemes of the spoken English language, but avoiding that challenge only leads to confusion and inability to communicate, solidifying poor habits and delaying language ability. Because the spelling patterns of romaji taught in public school in fourth grade in Japanese study are so dramatically different from basic English graphemes, every Japanese student will struggle to overcome the distractions of romaji patterns when trying to recall the spelling patterns of written English. Most students (and many teachers as well) would prefer to avoid these difficulties, and certainly, writing by copying is easier, faster and less demanding. When students learn to copy text as complete words, there is no clear connection between what they are writing and what they are saying. The results can be alarming: it is not unusual at all for students to match the numbers 1, 2, 3 and 4 to their text forms, and yet then recite them confidently as 'wum', 'tsuu' 'suree' and 'foe'.
When students are taught to copy whole words as stroke patterns, the vital connection between spoken language and its written form is often ignored and unappreciated. When beginning English students write independently by personal pronunciation and alphabetic code recall, all four surface skills of language (Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing) are integrated in one focused personal activity.
This will all be happening in a visible and precise format which is both personal and time efficient, which students can use to self-correct some errors in learning, and which their teachers can also use to correct previously unidentified misunderstandings about English, before those misunderstandings become deeply ingrained bad habits which are much more difficult to correct. Peter Warner (USA, 1953) has been teaching young students in Nagoya, Japan for twenty years, and has been applying the principles of Linguistic Phonics (see Diane McGuinness) to EFL for fifteen years.
If the teacher models a basic sentence structure (the first letter is upper case, there are spaces between each word, there must be a period at the end) and introduces the written words 'is' and 'a', Hanako can now write full sentencesA  ('It is a mop.'), and by the time she's learned 24 basic single-letter alphabetic symbols, can now write over a hundred basic nouns.
Victoria Darragh is an award winning Executive Assistant with over 10 years' experience working in the public, not-for-profit and corporate sectors. A Fellow member of the Association of Personal Assistants as well as a member of the Institute of Professional Administrators, EUMA and the Global PA Network, Victoria regularly presents at conferences and companies across the UK and Ireland, Europe and internationally. Victoria recently won an award at the Mayfair PA Awards for 'Outstanding Contribution to the PA Profession' and has a wealth of experience in creating internal and external PA networks and  working with top companies in the UK helping them to achieve this. Victoria is extremely passionate about the role of the PA and actively encourages it as a truly fantastic career choice. Lucy Brazier is CEO of Marcham Publishing, specialist publishers of Executive Secretary and The VA Magazine - global training magazines dedicated to the professional development needs of senior and aspiring administrative professionals. As editor of the magazines, Lucy works with some of the best trainers of Executive Assistants in the world to deliver the most up to date and current training in the market. Lucy runs a LinkedIn group for assistants which currently has over 11,500 international members who share information, network and learn. A sought after trainer in her own right, Lucy regularly speaks at and chairs conferences & webinars all over the world. She collaborates with trainers including Susie Barron-Stubley, Sue France, Julie Perrine, Melba Duncan, Dewoun Hayes, Eth Lloyd, Dr. Outside of work Nicky enjoys all aspects of the Barcelona sunshine but when it gets slightly too hot you can find her at the cinema or in the shops. She has worked as a Legal PA for the past 15 years in a variety of Entertainment companies including Sony Music (PA to Director of Business Affairs), MTV Networks Europe (PA to SVP Business Affairs) and the BBC (PA to Head of Independent Drama). Alison took a year-long career sabbatical in 2006 to live and work in Oslo, Norway as an English teacher and in her spare time is writing her first novel. Katie’s role working for Jacqueline is quite extensive and has grown in recent years to include people management, business project management and also the leadership of the (small but mighty!) Ann Summers internal PA network. Laura began her career in marketing, and was lucky enough to work on a number of Britain's best loved brands, including Wall's Ice Cream, Flora margarine and everyone's favourite spicy snack- Peperami! Her active involvement on a range of company-wide initiatives earned her the promotion of EA to the CEO.
Having worked in various administrative roles for 11 years and being raised in a family run guest house, Sherien brings a wealth of knowledge and adaptable skills to the PA role.
Sherien is an award winning PA whose achievements include being awarded PA Newcomer of the Year.
Allan has built a network of very talented and successful partnerships across Europe, along with running his own consulting & coaching business in the last 10 years, with Innermetrix being at the forefront of this Journey. A dynamic Training & Development Consulting specialist with extensive Management experience working with leading bluechip Companies. Ability to communicate effectively at all levels of an organisation has been pivotal to success. Gilly gained practical management experience in finance, sales, marketing and training in a variety of roles at Midland Bank, Mars Confectionery and Kettle Foods. A lively, approachable and impactful presentation style makes Gilly a popular and sought after speaker. Mel Sherwood is a pitch and presentation specialist who prepares ambitious entrepreneurs and business professionals to take centre stage, embrace the spotlight and present with more confidence, credibility and conviction. Few people understand the importance of looking after high-profile figures than Joan Serafini.
N7-388-11-02 Communication trap game Introduction to game During today's fast pace world we communicate in different ways.
N7-388-11-02 How to play Your goal as a team today is to move as many members through the corridor of obstacles as possible in five minutes. N7-388-11-02 Forms of Communication Wood Badge beads Baden Powells gravestone Trail Symbol: I have gone home Are these effective?
N7-388-11-02 Forms of Communication Gilwell song The circle with the dot in it…on Baden-Powells gravestone (the trail symbol for I have gone home BSA uniform, patches, Wood Badge beads Wood Badge icon The Gilwell Gazette, Wood Badge newspaper, including the schedule of the day Q: What do these forms of communication have in common? N7-388-11-02 Effective Traits of Verbal Communication The messages were of importance The messages presented visions that could affect the lives of the listeners. N7-388-11-02 A Scout has just run up to our group and delivered this message: 10 ATTENTION!
N7-388-11-02 A Scout has just run up to our group and delivered this message: Flip this page now….
N7-388-11-02 Mandatory Components of Communication A sender A message A receiver What if any one of these is missing? N7-388-11-02 Mandatory Components of Communication Interesting fact: Communication comes from the Latin word communis meaning understanding.
N7-388-11-02 Effective Listening as a Communication Tool Good communication begins with good listening, both on the part of the receiver and on the part of the sender. N7-388-11-02 Effective Listening Sender: Ask, Explain, Acknowledge, Check, Use and observe body language Receiver: Listen, Question, Understand Who is responsible for effective communication ? N7-388-11-02 Barriers to Effective Communication 16 What are barriers to effective communication?
N7-388-11-02 Barriers to Effective Communication We have all received phone calls from telemarketers. N7-388-11-02 17A Lack of common ground: The telemarketer knows nothing about us and is aware of no shared interest except that we have a telephone and we probably have a credit card. Wendy is Branch Manager at Brook Street in Inverness and is celebrating her 12 year anniversary with the high street recruiters on the day of this event! Wendy's career at Brook Street got off to a great start, after being promoted from a Temporaries Consultant to a Branch Manager in the space of a year. Angela Garry is a qualified teacher and psychotherapist with 24 years’ experience in administrative roles in England and Ireland.
Andy is the Strategic Business Manager for Sue Bruce, Chief Executive of the City of Edinburgh Council. Andy also worked in the private sector as Senior Policy Adviser within Saltire Public Law and Policy, advising clients on how best to engage with government and to influence and enhance legislation and guidance.
Since setting up Cameron Consulting in January 2004 I have been on a wonderful journey.Building on the coaching skills I learned while working with one of the Big4 international accounting firms the range of clients has developed to include senior executives, business owners, new graduates, first time managers and headteachers. Based in Edinburgh, Scotland I am an Associate of the Edinburgh Institute at Edinburgh Napier University and also a Member of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development ( CIPD).
To demonstrate that I do what I teach I love to find out more about others and you should have no trouble finding a way to get in touch with me that suits you whether it be by phone or email or Twitter, Facebook or LinkedIn. John Curtis, one of Scotland’s leading journalists and a user of social media as a force for business growth. Margaret Williamson is Director of Boardroom Development Limited, the business she established in 1993. Margaret helps people at the top of organisations make the connection between their own beliefs, attitudes and behaviours and the outcomes they achieve for staff and customers.
Amy is the founder Headtorch, an organisation that aims to enable people to feel good and be more productive at work.
With a background in theatre and education, business, mediation, neuro-linguistic programming and coaching, Amy’s purpose is always to provide highly accessible, thought-provoking and engaging sessions.
She has worked with a wide range of organisations including: PepsiCo UK, Crossrail, the NHS, CIPD, Healthy Working Lives and the Scottish Institute of Business Leaders.
Amy hopes you enjoy her interactive presentation - she’ll be very interested in your thoughts and ideas throughout. Lucy recently joined Principal Hayley Hotels to assist with the merger of the new Scottish Cluster Hotels across Edinburgh and Glasgow, consisting of Grand Central Hotel Glasgow, Blythswood Hotel Glasgow, George Hotel Edinburgh, Roxburghe Hotel Edinburgh & Bonham Hotel Edinburgh. I have 18 years marketing and communications experience in the not-for-profit sector, with 13 at a senior level. For example, reflection may facilitate how students monitor their understanding of a topic, how they evaluate their progress and how they maintain motivation to complete a task. How can graduates demonstrate to prospective employers that they have ‘people skills’, such as the ability to work effectively as a member of a team? These skills should be further developed and enhanced when undertaking a postgraduate degree.
For example, Asian students are often reported as being quiet and introverted (Harshbarger, Ross, Tafoya, & Via, 1986). For example, African students may have experienced didactic, teacher-centred learning (Kanu and Marr, 2007) and may encounter difficulty in adapting to student-focussed, discussion-based seminars. Level 1 is teaching as assimilating, level 2 is teaching as accommodating, and level 3 is teaching as educating.
Biggs argues that lecturers can often assign stereotyped behaviours to international students depending on their country of origin.
Beigel (2006), for example, investigated staff and student perceptions of PDP in the language department at the University of Chester and found that the majority of students reported doing the minimum amount of work to meet the requirement for their portfolio and did not use it again once the assignment had been completed. She also observed that many students were initially hesitant about sharing personal reflections. Depending on the purpose of the e-portfolio, the items can provide evidence of students’ work, ideas and reflections as well as feedback from peers, tutors, colleagues and friends. The system allows students to create different online documents known as ‘assets’ to record their learning achievements, aspirations and social and cultural experiences. She suggests that for many learners reflection is successful in learning environments that offer guidance or incentives; for example, through a reflective portfolio. Reflective practice is not a new idea – John Dewey (1933) introduced the idea into education.
The students were predominately international (37 out of 39 in my module), representing many different nations including Kenya, China, Thailand, Greece, Brazil, Russia and Germany.
In our first meeting several international students said that they did not understand what PDP was, or what the benefit would be. The first seven weeks of semester one focused on PDP skills, with the opportunity for students to reflect on the content and the relevance of each workshop.


Personal skills included their personal effectiveness, flexibility, self-discipline and communication skills. Mory (2004) states that feedback can aid learning by providing new insights and understanding.
Kolb (1984) and Gibbs (1988) were used to demonstrate how an incident can be depicted as a cycle as shown in Figure 2. Students were asked to consider their current situation and their ideal situation and then to use a SMART format to detail the steps they needed to take to progress from the current to the ideal situation through reflection. The resulting action plan was vague, showing no relationship between the plan and reflection. A webfolio is an electronic version of a portfolio containing evidence of the students’ work presented on different ‘pages’ that can be edited and linked to other websites or assets. This included a demonstration of the ability to be self-critical, plans for future career development, and an account of involvement in extra-curricular opportunities.
One student from Eastern Europe said she was used to accepting given information and thus found it difficult to become a critical thinker, ‘I just memorise all of the materials and just write it in the examination.’ Nevertheless, she recognised the importance of building an argument and strived to comprehend and produce the required work. Chamot (2001) and Gao (2003) suggested that students demonstrating meta-cognitive skills are characterised by their ability to assess a task in a new context and adjust to its demands – their strategy is dynamic and not passive. Of the respondents, 79 per cent said that PebblePad has helped them to reflect on their learning experiences. Students’ ability to undertake reflective writing seemed to hinge on their English language skills. One of the issues raised by students was that they did not have the time to reflect on the content of their modules.
The aim of using PebblePad is to enhance the skills and employability of postgraduate students; this includes the development of their CV and the opportunity to record and reflect on their experiences and achievements in an innovative, creative manner. It could be concluded that the relationship between their subjects of study, reflection and skill development needs to be taught explicitly. This would seem to be of primary importance to gauge whether PDP, PebblePad and reflective writing is in fact beneficial in the long term for international postgraduate students. The module was taught in a way that values diversity with respect to gender, ethnicity and culture. Christina is currently an Associate Lecturer in the Business School and has been teaching PDP using PebblePad since September 2008. Many people involved in community eye health are also teachers – and some have never had any training on how to teach effectively. Sometimes the same word will mean different things to different people, and sometimes different words will carry the same meaning. We learn informally from what we experience day by day – things which happen to us make us change the way we think and act. This is especially important for health workers, since it is in our practical work that we have an effect on the health of the people we serve.
We all know that health workers should continue to learn throughout their careers because new information about health is constantly becoming available. The students and their potential employers may take part in this decision, but all are guided by the same principle: it is the job that people have to do, that determines what they should learn. Assessment helps teachers and students to see how well the students are progressing, so that they can attend to any weaknesses. The teacher asks difficult and important questions, and expects students to work out the answers themselves. It also offers some ideas about improving this communication, leading to better teaching practice. Communication is a skill – and we improve our skills by getting feedback on the way we perform them.
Photocopies of journal articles or pages out of a textbook are often complex and hard to read – be careful of using them. You then remove every fifth word, leaving a blank space (you can do this with correction fluid on a paper copy or by substituting a gap for the word on an electronic copy).
This may be because they are done more frequently, or because there will be serious consequences if they are badly done. According to Abbatt and McMahon, people need to be taught both skills and enabling factors (i.e. For example, we group everything around trachoma together: the causative organism, epidemiology, prevention, treatment etc.
If your own institution cannot offer enough places for practical sessions, students may have to travel to other sites.
The students work out that they need to learn about the anatomy of the conjunctiva, cornea and eyelid, the clinical course of trachoma, the causative organism, its treatment (medical and surgical), its prevention (improved water supply and sanitation, community participation, etc., its epidemiology, other causes of corneal scarring, etc). But by carefully selecting the right problems, and enough of them, they make sure that students will cover everything they need to learn.
Over the last 20 years there have been strong movements in many countries, to improve the quality of training of health workers. Most teachers use a limited number of methods – ones that they are used to and feel comfortable with.
We often use role plays to teach these skills – for example, one student gives a health education talk, while the others pretend to be a group of villagers. Here we give students the information they need and ask them to diagnose the case and solve the treatment problem.
It means we have to plan our assessment very carefully in such a way, that our students will learn what we want them to learn.
This is why teachers should always discuss exams with students afterwards, to show them what the right answers were, and where they made mistakes.
If the students do well in the assessment it also means the teachers are doing their job well. To protect society, we should only send out students who are safe – who know their work well enough not to harm anybody. An OSPE (see page 37) is more valid than old-fashioned practical sessions, which use different patients for different students. Practical exams are more reliable if you use a checklist to mark the performance of the student. If different students are given different patients to examine, this could be unfair: some patients and conditions are easier to examine than others. The Community Eye Health Journal, with its theme-orientated approach, has attempted to inform readers of current relevant educational materials in each issue. Are the materials needed for eye care education for those working at primary, secondary or tertiary level? Photographs, slides, overhead transparencies, videotapes, DVDs and CD ROMs are useful visual aids to complement didactic teaching or written text.
In an attempt to be helpful and meet the needs of users, suppliers will sometimes offer surplus, out of date materials, free of charge.
Health practice is ever-changing and this is reflected in the rate at which medical textbooks appear in new editions.
Availability in the local language makes any learning resource more attractive and valuable and increases its demand. At the same time it needs to be culturally appropriate and reflect local practice, conditions, available health services and the values and concerns of users. It is wise first to ask a supplier to provide a publications list on which you can indicate the title and quantity required. Also consider if it will involve desk top publishing, a designer, illustrator, translator and printer. Through it, health workers everywhere can easily be linked, and IT makes available to them a wide range of resources. Lists of delegates at conferences are a useful way of facilitating follow-up and for providing relevant resource information. Training institutions in many countries are trying to improve the quality of the training they provide. Broadly speaking, it means looking carefully at something that we are worried about, and then making a judgement about it.
Does it contain all the knowledge and skills that the students are going to need to perform their job?
Do students learn skills by seeing a demonstration, and then practising the skill personally? Are lectures well prepared and skilfully delivered, and do they interest and involve the students?
Is it suitable for the ‘domain’ of the subject matter (for example, do we assess skills by observing students perform them)? Are there good marking schedules and checklists to guide the examiners so that they give fair marks?
Does the assessment make students learn those things which we consider to be the priorities? We can do this in an unstructured way (by writing down what happens and analysing it afterwards), or a structured way (by having a checklist of things we would like to see happening and checking if they do). Again, questionnaires can be unstructured (asking the respondents to write general comments on how they feel about the topic) or structured (giving questions with pre-prepared answers, from which they have to choose the one they prefer). The students are asked what they liked or disliked about the content, the teaching, the assessment, the practical arrangements. It is often possible to find ready-made data collection instruments, which deal with a variety of common problems in teaching.
ThoughtOffice Communicator is your key to becoming a better, stronger, and more confident communicator. Staring at the row of images I had propped up along the chalk tray, he yelled across the room, 'What's number four?' Glancing at that image of a leg, I answered playfully, 'Hmmmm, a nose?' Kousuke wasn't fooled a bit: 'No! It might be surprising that all they were doing was saying the words, and then writing them down.
Because the foundation of language is spoken communication, each of these four skills are based on the spoken language. The implication of that is quite strong: as soon as Taro begins developing a sense of the sounds of spoken English, he will benefit tremendously if he also is introduced (gradually) to a basic set of symbols (graphemes) for each of those sounds.
The teacher dictates a single sound (like 'mmm'), and demonstrates a correct stroke pattern for the grapheme, which the students would then write a series of in their large lined notebooks.
In fact, he will be eager to, because there is a great personal satisfaction in being able to apply his growing understanding of this letter code to words he actually knows and speaks. Encoding even simple three-letter CVC pattern words correctly requires both accurate pronunciation and also accurate grapheme recall. For example, students who are familiar with even just basic colors can be asked to write the first and last 'sounds' of black, pink, brown and green, and in the process will find their perception of even basic vocabulary is improved.
If the reading and writing tasks are coordinated with the code instruction and speaking activities, the process of writing by pronunciation becomes a lesson multiplier: accurate writing encourages careful language perception, and verifies correct pronunciation. When Taro is writing by his personal pronunciation and code recall, what he puts on the paper reveals what he actually hears and speaks.
If Taro avoids the effort of clear enunciation, his errors might never be noticed in a group activity, but the instant he is required to write that vocabulary, his true ability is plainly revealed.
It is not unusual to see students who have been speaking for years about sitting and running to write 'sittin' or 'runnin', even though they may have been enunciating the phonogram 'ing' flawlessly for months.
Indeed it may be the most effective method: working through words like 'branch', 'trumpet', 'studying' and 'very many' is often a process of personal discovery for the student, and a practical validation of the alphabetic code instruction. Any task that depends on both the student's personal pronunciation (which itself requires an accurate production of English pronunciation to be provided by the teacher) and the student's accurate recall of the code correspondence for that pronunciation, is going to produce a fair share of errors. There is a world of difference between a 'retto retto bahkku' and a little red bag: if the student pronounces them as the same, accurate understanding and perception of the language cannot advance. If the purpose and object of English language study is to gain competence in the language, these struggles are a necessary effort, and indeed writing by pronunciation compels the student to face that challenge directly. This may explain why almost every published EFL text provides tracing or copying exercises, instead of having students write independently into blank lined spaces.
When Taro writes 'sock' and says 'sox', or writes 'apple' and yet reads it as 'ahppuroo', it indicates he lacks a clear understanding of the alphabetic letters he is writing; they mean nothing to him as a phonic code.
This can explain why students can write 'It's big' and then read their own writing a moment later as 'They're bick', or read 'two subs under a ship' as 'two suns under a ship' five times over. This lost opportunity often results in misperceptions and errors in all four skill areas, encouraging guessing instead of providing clarity. In fact, the effort involved, and the materials required, to have students writing independently is not overwhelming. It is important that the vocabulary which students are asked to write independently on blank lined paper is selected from words they have used in meaningful spoken activities (i.e. This kind of beginning writing instruction needs to be included as a regular part of beginning English language lessons. This can explain why students can write 'It's big' and then read their own writing a moment later as 'They're bick', or read 'two subs under a ship' as 'two suns under a ship' five times over.A  These students have not learned to perceive the phonic value of alphabetic letters, instead they have been taught to perceive (trace, copy,A  memorize) whole words as single symbolic units.
With access to the most forward thinking, passionate and knowledgeable trainers in the world as well as personally meeting and speaking to literally thousands of PAs over the last two years, Lucy’s knowledge of the market and what Assistants all over the world are facing on a day to day basis are second to none.
She also launched adminchat in January last year – a weekly free training session presented on Twitter and hosted by a different world class trainer every week.
This year alone she will have delivered training in the US, Canada, South Africa, Moscow, Milan and of course the UK. Monica Seeley, Marsha Egan and Bonnie Low Kramen as well as organisations including Pitman, OfficeTeam & Hays. Lucy has previously worked as a Publishing Director for Wilmington PLC, and has managed a team based in Singapore, New York, Germany & London responsible for 13 magazines, 12 international conferences, awards, trade show attendance and marketing for EMAP.
Nicky blogs about her experiences and knowledge which has grown over the last decade working her way up from a Junior Administrator through to an Executive Assistant and Marketing Manager at a global events company. Aspects of her PA roles have included drafting record deals for world-famous bands and working on the annual MTV Europe Music Awards. Within three months she had been promoted to PA to the Chairman, CEO and CFO, and in addition to her PA duties was appointed to a number of projects and forums.
As the most senior assistant in her company, Laura now manages her own assistant and works to expand and promote the roles of other PAs within ELEXON. Since winning she has really enjoyed presenting to PAs at numerous conferences and events in both the UK and internationally.
Sherien currently works as a PA to four directors, the Chief Executive and provides secretariat support to the Board of Trustees of a charity organisation. This has brought with it a vast amount of opportunities which she has taken full advantage of, networking and encouraging Scotland based PA’s to go for awards, connect with each other and share ideas. Certified Professional Behaviour Analyst, Professional Values analyst Attribute Index Analyst. With a strong business background and interpersonal skills, Gilly is an enthusiastic and knowledgeable trainer and developer of people. With speeches full of helpful tips and practical suggestions that audiences love for their immediate benefits, Gilly’s approach is enjoyable, frank and very memorable.
She is a multi-award winning speaker, trainer and coach and the founder of Grow Your Potential, which specialises in supporting individuals and organisations to design and deliver winning pitches and presentations. The first was providing technical support for physiology and neurosciences departments in further and higher education, across Edinburgh. For the first time in their history, Assistants are starting to get the recognition that they deserve as strategic business partners and not just as a support mechanism.
During this game communication trap each patrol member will experience various roles in the process. One patrol member will be selected as the primary communicator, while the others will be blindfolded and guided through the task.
Aristotle broke down communication into three parts: A sender A message A receiver That was over two thousand years ago, and it is still true today.
In Effective Listening we discussed the importance of paying attention to what others are saying, their body language, etc. Lack of sincerity: The telemarketer is probably interested only in making a sale, not in out long-term satisfaction with a product or service. Over the past 12 years, Wendy and her team have experienced some great successes - from winning an internal Branch of the Year award three years running to achieving regular quality at work awards for their performance. He is an ex marketing manager for the Post Office and a small business owner who has seen his own business harness social media to reach more than four million customers a week. She is an experienced strategy and organisation development consultant specialising in working with business and community leaders. She combines a clear understanding and skill in strategic thinking with an ability to design and facilitate innovative learning opportunities that sensitively raise the self-awareness and capability of her clients. Headtorch creates and delivers dramatic stories in live learning & development sessions and in dramatic e-learning, namely Headtorch WORKS. With over 20 years of experience in the hospitality industry Lucy is looking forward to meeting the ACES delegates. For the last 12 years I have been managing the Jeans for Genes Day Appeal where I have been instrumental in raising over £35 million. The student, therefore, becomes an active participant in critically evaluating their own learning. Yorke (2005) defines employability as ‘a set of skills, knowledge and personal attributes that make an individual more likely to secure and to be successful in their chosen occupation(s) to the benefits of themselves, the workforce, the community and the economy’ (p. Postgraduate students should, for example, achieve a more systematic understanding their academic discipline, a critical awareness of current problems in the discipline, together with increased self-awareness and the ability to identify their own training needs. Liu and Littlewood (1997) reported that Chinese students listed listening to the teacher as their most frequent activity in senior school.
An interesting conference paper presented by Koshmanova in 2006 examined educational practices in the Ukraine.
As discussed previously, this could include the view that students from some cultures and countries are passive, rote learners who do not think critically or participate and who find Western teaching methods difficult. Over half of the students who failed modules had not submitted a portfolio, while another 14 per cent submitted portfolios but failed to gain a pass mark.
The teaching of PDP and reflective skills could be influenced by stereotyping of international students’ learning styles and ability to reflect.
While health professionals have also been engaged in reflective practice for many years, other disciplines have been slower to adopt it. We placed an emphasis on the link between their personal objectives and their professional development during the programme.
A further four workshops were held towards the end of the second semester for students to reflect on their learning experience and development.
Bourner (2003) adds that giving feedback to students on their use of reflective skills is very important for their development.
Students were also asked to identify their personal strengths and weaknesses using a SWOT analysis. A webfolio might include an introductory page, a page about the student’s cultural background, one page for the action plan and so on. Of the students who responded, 75 per cent agreed that the content of the module was relevant and useful for postgraduate study, while 81 per cent agreed that workshops in the PebblePad module ‘were related to the learning and assessment activities of my MSc’.
This would also be supported by constructivist learning theory (Vygotsky, 1978), in which learners actively construct personal meaning rather than passively accept others’ interpretations.
Most students managed the technology, but some would have liked more help with the technical aspects. It is possible that, as Beigel (2006) reported, many students may only be doing the minimum to meet the requirements to pass the assessments. This is particularly relevant for international students because the teaching style in a UK higher education institution is, for many, very different to that in their home country. In the workshops, however, students could be coached to develop an understanding of the relationship between the activities and other subject areas. Tutors need to be confident about giving appropriate feedback, not only to mark the online coursework, but also to help students improve and develop their reflective writing skills.
As global competition for postgraduate students may increase with the implementation of the Bologna Process, the university could attract students by offering a technology-based PDP programme to enhance student employability. The role of personal development planning (PDP) in undergraduate learning: Perceptions of its value and links with attainment in the Languages Department of the University of Chester.
The value of reflective journaling in undergraduate nursing education: A literature review. A fresh perspective on progress files: A way of representing complex learning and achievement in higher education. The reflective learner: Chinese international students’ use of strategies to enhance university study – working paper no.
For these reasons, the Community Eye Health Journal published a series of articles on teaching and learning.
Training is an essential activity in the spread of new knowledge and skills to eye health workers. We may not even be aware that we are learning, which may cause problems – for example, health workers may learn bad attitudes from the example of others.
A skill that is often overlooked is the ability to make decisions well, and this has to be learnt systematically. Some learn because they want to do a better job – they get satisfaction from the feeling that they are competent.
They have to learn all the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to perform a specific job. It does mean that the teacher’s first concern should be that the students should learn as well as possible. Good teachers try to ensure that the general living conditions of their students are adequate. Either way, these teachers will do a better job if they communicate well with their students.
Most of us have access to paper, posters, a chalkboard, or an overhead projector (some also have access to data projectors). We can get such feedback by asking an experienced colleague to sit in on our teaching and to give us feedback.
In many of our countries, student eye health care workers have to learn from documents in a language (often English or French) which is not their first language. This is one reason why many teachers prepare handouts for their students, which they write themselves.
You then give the sample to a few persons from the target group (the group which is going to use the material). How do I decide what to include in a course, and what do I leave out?’ Fortunately, there is a clear path that we can follow (Abbatt and McMahon, 1993). Firstly, we have to be quite clear about who is going to be trained to do the job we need, what class or rank of worker, from which area, with which background.
Students get feedback, which means that the teacher shows them where they have made mistakes.
For the hypothetico-deductive method, we have to observe them as they work and ask them to explain, step-by-step, how their mind is working, as they collect information and begin to think of possible answers. Teachers should, rather, use precious classroom time to explain difficult concepts or to solve problems together. Teachers often spend more time on preparing lessons and teaching them, than they do on assessing the results.
For the same reason students must be given their marks, and their exam scripts, as soon as possible.
One of the reasons for our final examination of students is to make sure that they are safe.
In the table below, you will find examples of how we should assess the learning of our students, for each domain. A written exam (where everyone gets the same questions) is generally more reliable than an oral one (where different candidates get asked different questions by different examiners). Written exams are more reliable if the markers are guided by a very clear document which shows how marks are allocated for each question. It could be manual skills, like examining the anterior chamber of the eye, or it could be a communication skill, like taking a patient’s history. Readers regularly request learning and teaching resources, but are these always appropriate and used effectively? Audiotapes are particularly appropriate for reinforcing verbal information given to ophthalmic patients. Be careful of this kind of material – it is not always appropriate to your actual requirements. We can easily share information with like-minded colleagues, even at a distance, through the ever-increasing use of electronic newsletters. This is not new – good teachers have always looked critically at the way they teach, in order to do it better. Does the teacher present the material in a sequence which helps students to understand it more easily?
Are practical sessions well organised, with checklists, and do all students practise and get feedback about their performance?
In the long term you will need to find out if they are actually putting into practice the new ideas they have learnt and carrying out the activities in the job description previously developed. This can be done in an unstructured way (by reading them and gaining an overall impression), or more structured (by making a checklist, beforehand, of things we are looking for in the document).
Of course, we sit right at the back of the classroom, quietly, not interfering with the process that we are observing. Then we record exactly what they say (by hand or with a tape recorder) and analyse the information afterwards. It includes ways to organize classrooms and records, strategies for successful teaching, and hints on how to make the job of teaching easier.
Deaf writer Mark Drolsbaugh who grew up hard of hearing has brought together a group of 37 talented writers who share their remarkable stories and poems.


This powerful software suite will assist you in honing your skills in crafting and delivering impressive speeches and presentations.
A couple they hadn't seen before, like the cot and the rip, so I had to tell them what those were. Actually, the really surprising thing is that this wasn't surprising at all- this has been their closing activity of each class for the last four months.
This is why the ability to discriminate and produce the sounds (phonemes) of the spoken language (phonemic awareness) is an essential first stage for every language student.
Conversely, his perception and understanding of the spoken pronunciation will be delayed or even misled if he is deprived of a logical and gradual instruction of that alphabetic code.
While this might appear to be penmanship, it's important to note that the letter names are not mentioned, because letter 'names' are both unnecessary and highly interfering with learning the direct sound-to-symbol correspondence of the code. Writing familiar spoken words like 'cup', 'bag', 'hen' and 'pot' correctly just from seeing images of those items and then speaking the words to himself, not only verifies to Taro that this code works, but he also discovers that he can use it himself.
Although this is more demanding, when Hanako does it successfully she gains a sense of personal confidence, because the encoding process exercises and validates her ability in all four skill areas. Common words like elephant, pencil and fourteen do not need to be avoided (or their graphemes exposed prematurely) with this approach.
This gives the teacher a direct window on Taro's language perception, which can reveal his misperception and mispronunciation in a clear and helpful way.
Watching a student write 'It's sinnin', and then helping them discover through correcting their own pronunciation how to write the verb correctly 'It's singing' exposes their misperception and mispronunciation that has gone on unnoticed, and clearly reveals to themselves the correct pronunciation and structure of the spoken verb. Seven minutes of such writing as a concluding class activity brings all four skill areas together and allows each student to personally retain all the previous instruction in tangible form, in a way that speaking or reading activities on their own cannot.
However, it would be a grave mistake to think that the mistakes that each student goes through in this effort are better left avoided. The necessity of clear enunciation required by independent writing on blank lined paper is actually valuable for learning.
Copying, because it is usually accurate (although frequently it isn't), can give the appearance of understanding and competence.
This is a logical consequence of being taught whole words as a pattern of strokes to copy, just like many Japanese kanji. Staring at her text, Hanako reads aloud 'fost', and from hearing that spoken, you're not sure if she meant fast or first. Equipped with an understanding and lesson plan of the four stages of the alphabetic code, all that is really needed is your clear voice to model pronunciation, and blank lined paper.
Conversely,A  his perception and understanding of the spoken pronunciation will be delayed or even misled if he is deprived of a logical and gradual instruction of that alphabetic code. Writing familiar spoken words like 'cup', 'bag', 'hen' and 'pot' correctlyA  just from seeing images of those items and then speaking the words to himself, not only verifies to Taro that this code works, but he also discovers that he can use it himself. Watching a student write 'It's sinnin', and then helping them discover through correcting their own pronunciation how to write the verb correctly 'It's singing'A  exposes their misperception and mispronunciation that has gone on unnoticed, and clearly reveals to themselves the correct pronunciation and structure of the spoken verb. Other companies worked for include The Times, The Independent, Centaur Communications and Glass's Guide. Nicky has experience working in a variety of industries including accountancy, banking, insurance and in the public sector.
Laura is also a passionate member of several different PA organisations and is very proud to be a Board Director of the Association of Personal Assistants. Laura is always keen to connect with assistants that also share her love of the PA profession and she feels that the highlight of winning PA of the Year has been the opportunities it has provided to meet and learn from so many different PAs from around the world. Previous to this Sherien worked in such roles as Secretary to a group of Consultants, Marketing Assistant for an Architect firm, Facilities Coordinator for a construction company and Purchase Ledger for NHS Legal department just to name a few. In addition, Gilly has developed and grown Priority Management in Glasgow with year on year growth; her high standards and expectations throughout the business from administration to delivering training have resulted in a significant market presence.
By introducing people to new working processes and by leveraging existing IT, productivity and performance improvements are immediate, tangible and measurable. Her concept of an event management company seemed to fit in well as another arm of the organisation.The success has come from spotting the possibilities of business events and trips, to and from Scotland. This involved designing and developing practical teaching materials at a time where technology was developing. The task will be to move as many members through the corridor of mouse traps as possible in five minutes. Members of the team can only talk to the communicator by using the special cell phone in the course. They conveyed the sense that they knew what they were talking about The speakers believed in what they were presenting The speakers got to the point. The most effective communication provides what the listeners need in a manner that engages their minds.
Lack of authority: The telemarketer is probably hired simply to make the calls and read a script.
Wendy firmly believes that regularly rewarding her team for a job well done helped them to achieve this success, and can bring a whole host of additional benefits too - as she will be discussing at this event.
Andy was Business Manager to the Leader of The City of Edinburgh Council between 2003 and 2012, serving Council Leaders from different political parties and in both majority and coalition Administrations.
My workshops are aimed at getting people to speak up and have their voices heard and I have been engaged by organisations to help them hear those voices.
John is also motoring correspondent for the Daily Record, an expert on low carbon vehicles and is a broadcaster and business advisor.
She began her consulting career in 1987 with PA Consulting Group where she was a Senior Strategy Consultant in their International Financial Service Group and a key account manager for the public sector in Scotland. The e-portfolio system PebblePad was piloted in a series of workshops designed to explore whether its use would enhance the postgraduate students’ reflective skills for use in their PDP.
The link between academic knowledge and personal competencies is further illustrated by the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) benchmarks for master’s in Business (2007), which includes the following statements as outcomes: ‘development of the ability to apply knowledge and understanding of business and management to complex issues, both systematically and creatively, to improve business and management practice’ (p. These claims are also supported by a study undertaken by Sato (1982), in which she compared the participation of Asian students in classroom interaction with that of non-Asian students.
The Ukraine inherited the Soviet model of education, which focused on theoretical knowledge and placed less importance on the practical application of knowledge. Level 1 could be described as a deficit model of teaching because the focus is on the student’s lack of knowledge and skills (pp. Students are able to upload photos, videos and even particular sounds together with ‘thoughts’, which are the ideas or reflections generated by the student about their asset. The assets are private but can be shared with selected students or tutors in order to receive feedback. Despite an early enthusiasm for reflection, some health professionals have recently debated the difficulty of developing reflective practice and integrating theory with practice for both undergraduate and postgraduate students. Each workshop usually involved students working in small groups, with different individuals making up each group every time.
In order to pass the module, students were expected to demonstrate that they could recognise their strengths and areas for development and reflect on their learning experience, including any feedback they received. The webfolio gives the student the opportunity to tell the story of their personal journey during their time at Oxford Brookes. But with time the tutors concerned trained my eye not only to look back in history and ahead in the distant future but also the present in equal measure’.
A few students reported that they felt ‘stupid’ asking questions in class and often did not understand aspects of an assignment due to language difficulties.
Reflective writing, as suggested by Moon (2004), appeared to be an unfamiliar and sometimes difficult concept, particularly for students who had never before had to consider areas such as their personal strengths and weaknesses.
Symposium presented at The Annual Meeting of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, San Francisco. A number of readers have asked for additional copies of the articles and this booklet, providing updated and additional material, is the result. It can take place in a variety of ways, through initial training of field workers or as part of the continuing education of existing field staff.
Of course, learning may also be formal – we attend a course which is planned in a structured way, in a school or college. Note that we learn knowledge, skills and attitudes in different ways – for example, we may learn a new idea from a discussion, but we learn skills by practising them and getting feedback.
People are also very strongly motivated by the hope that they will be rewarded – for instance, by gaining a qualification, leading to a promotion and better pay.
Teaching sessions or classes have to be planned carefully, taking into account the learning styles, the language, the background of the students.
We must plan assessment carefully so that it supports the learning we want to see – we know that students learn what they believe they need to pass the exams, and leave out the rest. We would like our students to grow intellectually, to widen their horizons, to start reasoning independently. We can use these to prepare aids for our lessons: summaries of important facts, pictures and diagrams, even models. We can also ask someone to record us on a videotape as we teach, which we then inspect critically afterwards.
It may be a summary of important points to be learnt; or a guide to students on work they have to do, or references they have to look up. There are no lectures, instead, the students are presented with a problem – usually a clinical one.
We comment and give feedback on each step of the process, showing them where their reasoning is going wrong and why. A group of teachers may present a seminar where they discuss different aspects of the same topic.
In any case there should be interaction between teachers and learners during lectures – the method should stimulate and involve learners, rather than boring them. Another way is to point out examples of good and bad attitudes, and to discuss these with the students – why should a good eye care worker have this attitude, and not that one?
Any time you spend on improving your assessment will be richly repaid – your students will be better learners as a result. Perhaps the students are being overloaded, or the assessment itself is too difficult or tricky, or the students’ studying and exam techniques are faulty. Posters are very popular for teaching purposes but care must be taken to display them in appropriate places – stairways can prove unsafe and nervous patients will not appreciate clinical or pathology pictures in a waiting area!
Similarly, many commercially produced teaching materials (posters, booklets and videos etc.) are now available from pharmaceutical and equipment companies. Where English is not the user’s first language, but is the language used in the workplace or educational institution, the materials must be produced in plain English. One way to do this is to make supervisory field visits to trainees, their employers and the community. The advantages of doing it yourself, about your own work, is that you understand it thoroughly – the background, the players, the details. Talk to everyone you meet (and keep notes on what they say, look at notice boards and classroom walls (making notes of relevant information), go into the course filing cabinet and read relevant documents. Together they shed light on the hard of hearing experience and what it means to be on the fence - hovering somewhere between the deaf and hearing worlds.Stereotypes are smashed as each writer shares a unique perspective that may radically differ from the others. The most elegant transition.Sanford 83007 Dry Erase Marker, Chisel Tip, Brown, DozenDry-erase marker makes broad, bold markings. There had been an occasional misspelling, which they had each corrected themselves after I'd coached them to produce a clearer pronunciation, as I'd just done with Kousuke and the 'leg'.
They are not copying words from the board (or a textbook), nor are they following spelling dictation; they are simply putting their own spoken words onto paper.
As discussed in the previous article on reading, the English alphabetic code (letters) is simply a phonic code (although sometimes imprecise) for the sounds of spoken English. If Hanako can speak clearly with confidence and can control a pencil, she can (and should) also be writing. This personal sense of success and ownership is the start of a lifetime of English literacy, and is extremely rewarding to offer and observe as a teacher. Of course, he can also now be asked to read them in print form, now that they are fully within his code instruction, or 'decodable'. Writing 'cyp' for cat, 'bik' for big, 'jag' for jug, 'sox' for sock, and 'tem' for ten are all clear indications of personal pronunciation errors that have gone unnoticed in spoken class activities, which can now be corrected with precision. In most cases, however, this appearance is misleading, and it would be dishonest to pretend otherwise.
When the text includes katakana furigana in small print above the English being copied, the written English is almost overlooked and certainly not appreciated as a phonic encoding of a spoken language.
With a set of images illustrating common nouns and verbs, students can begin putting their spoken language onto paper. It is also important that the words they are asked to write are within their alphabetic code instruction (i.e that they already know how toA decode the letters in those written words into sounds).
She has worked for a number of high profile organisations and Executives in both London and Barcelona.
Sherien realised that she wanted to be a PA early on in her career but knew she had a long way to go before being considered for such a role and natural progression in hand with determination and hard work would get her there. History of successful delivery of a wide range of training solutions within blue chip organisations.
Gilly now has a first class team working with her to deliver the Priority Management programmes. She has to organise possibly the most glamorous event ever to hit Scotland.She was the Scottish co-ordinator of the Braveheart film premiere in Stirling, liaising with BAFTA, 20th Century Fox and essential services, such as local police, to ensure the evening for the event went smoothly. She has worked on computer aided learning for both Medical and Veterinary graduates and developed interactive practical programmes using video technology. They celebrate and recognise the role and its importance while encouraging Assistants to take control of their personal development, and drive their own career agendas. Supplies : 5 mouse traps, 5-10 bean bags, 1 toy cell phone, 5-8 blindfolds, 2 15-foot ropes per patrol. In a way, Aristotles theory even applied this morning in the Zulu Toss Game: Think of the balls as messages.
We suspect that he or she is probably unqualified to answer questions of substance about the product. Her main area of interest is in the link between strategic outcomes and leadership behaviours. In the Ukraine, it was normal for authoritarian university professors to impart information for students to memorise without any discussion or reflection. Mann, Gordon and MacLeod (2007) argue that there is a lack of evidence to support and inform curricular interventions. It was occasionally necessary to encourage students to work with those who did not come from their home country. The reflective component required that students evaluate and reflect upon workshop activities and other modules in the programme. Using the virtual environment to ask questions gave them the opportunity to think about and compose their questions. Engaging students with PDP seemed to be more successful when they could relate the activity being undertaken to their core academic subjects.
As was the case with the original series, it aims to stimulate readers to become more effective teachers. Training can also involve attendance at short sessions, longer training through intensive workshops, on-the-job supervised practice or distance learning through newsletters, manuals, recorded cassettes and websites.
They have to learn knowledge and skills, true enough, but then they have to be able to apply them in a variety of different circumstances. If teachers really attend to the body language of their students they will know when they are bored or confused. The overhead and data projectors are particularly useful, because they allow us to face our students while using them. In either case, the feedback will be better if we use a checklist to judge our performance. Teachers may use handouts for students to refer to during a lesson, and students will definitely use them in their self-study time.
When they have finished you work out what percentage of replacements is correct, in each case.
Working in small groups and under the guidance of a tutor, the students themselves work out what they need to know, and what skills they need, to manage this problem. You can also instruct students to reflect in writing about the attitudes that they see in other health workers and to make a commitment to themselves about what they would like their attitude to be.
There is always too much to learn, so it makes sense to concentrate on what you need to know to pass the exam.
If you think back, you will see that you have often done it (for example, when you review an examination paper after the exam) – but this section should help you to do it more systematically. The disadvantages are that you may be inexperienced in evaluation, and that you are used to looking at your work in a certain way and it is difficult to see it objectively. Youll find an ASL advocate in one chapter while in the next theres a cochlear implant advocate. Just as writing by pronunciation and internal alphabetic code understanding reinforces a clear perception of spoken language, writing by copying does not: in fact, it can actually reduce phonic awareness and delay language understanding. Staring at the written text 'Two dogs in a box', Taro vocalizes 'the dog's in the box', a clear indication that he's projecting his concepts onto the print, instead of drawing the author's message out by accurate decoding. The sense of discovery and understanding is instant, and the sense of satisfaction in personal success builds excitement and confidence. Nicky plays an active part in the Assistant community and has written many articles for high level industry publications, presented at events, webinars and trade shows.
As well as several science qualifications she has the Training for Trainers Certificate and joined the Institute of Trainers in 1993.
Whether they are communicating with one person or one thousand, they listen to their audiences by paying attention to the spoken and unspoken signals that indicate whether the message is getting through. Lack of clarity: The telemarketer may exaggerate, blur the truth, fail to mention weaknesses of a product. These passive modes of learning are teacher-centred and, consequently, it is argued by Zhenhui (2001) that students receive knowledge rather than interpret it.
Koshmanova reported that the system is slowly changing; although many teachers adhere to the old system, innovative methods such as role play and reflection are being introduced.
Students who were very proficient at speaking English sometimes became impatient with those whose English skills were less developed. Kemp (Eds.), Enhancing the international learning experience in business and management hospitality leisure sport tourism (pp.
It touches on a number of important topics related to teaching and learning in (we hope) a systematic and practical way. After all, children learn a great deal before they even get to school – they learn to speak, to walk. They constantly have to solve problems, to make decisions – and they have to learn to do this well. From the body language of their teachers, students pick up whether the teachers are confident and enthusiastic and encouraging. Handouts are an important way of communicating with students and they must communicate effectively.
Then you calculate the average percentage of correct replacements, of all who took the test.
We therefore have to start by listing the tasks that our health worker should be able to perform competently.
They then go to the library, the wards and clinics, to learn the necessary knowledge and skills.
Teachers may arrange educational visits where students learn from what they see and experience. Teachers and supervisors observe students and can give them feedback on how their attitudes are developing.
We may want our students to be able to make diagnoses – but if our tests only test facts, the students will quickly learn just to memorise facts.
The content will often, understandably, reflect the sophisticated materials they produce – and may even carry advertisements, which may result in inappropriate messages in certain situations. Depending on the objectives of the training it might be appropriate to look for any impact in the community using indicators such as increased utilisation of eye care services, support for prevention activities and changes in community behaviour. Thumball is a soft 6" stuffed ball printed with 12 symbols and icons that has LOADS of interesting applications for meetings, training, and employee relations.Explore the most effective ways to communicate by discussion of what works and what doesn't. Dont let the diversity fool you; while no one is exactly the same deep down we all share one common goal. In short, these students lack a healthy sense of the language that they are supposedly being taught.
Personal writing tasks bring together kinetic, aural, visual and spatial aspects of learning, and provide a physical record of accomplishment that many students thrive on.
Since then she has gained a Certificate in Social Science, with a special interest in Scottish Politics, Equalities and Scottish Law.
Distribute the mouse traps and beanbags randomly across the length of the corridor at varying distances from the sides of the corridor so that there are obstacles that need navigation around.
If the primary communicator can guide you to the cell phone in the middle you can remove your blindfold and discuss strategy with the communicator for 30 seconds. Poor presentation skills: Telemarketers may badger people, argue with them, or be bored, distracted, barely there.
This analysis of Asian students has become part of a stereotypical characterisation; however, Watkins and Biggs (1996) found that Chinese students could adapt their learning and adjust their learning style between memorising for understanding and surface learning for exams.
It was necessary to encourage all students to contribute to in-class discussions and not just those who had strong English language skills. However, this can only be a beginning as education is a very broad field and readers are referred to the material in the reference section for further information.
Teachers may give students projects to do, for which the students find the information they need themselves. Another strategy is to let supervisors give students marks for the attitude they display in their work. If, on the other hand, they know that the test consists of clinical problems to diagnose and manage, they will study each clinical problem in such a way that they understand it well enough to diagnose and manage it. He was eager to catch up with his classmates who were also busy writing, some of them already on the eighth item. In 2002 she became a Quality Scotland accredited EFQM assessor and a Fellow of the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufacturers & Commerce (RSA). Do you think the first team member or the last team member had an easier time working through the maze? Lack of receptiveness: A telemarketer is not receptive to any needs we may have other than the desire for the product or service. It was found that, when compared with Australian students, Chinese students had higher cognitive goals and, contrary to the stereotype, did participate in tutorial discussions.
If there is no practical in the exam the students will stay out of the wards and clinics to spend all their time with their books.
In the next seven minutes, each student had finished writing twenty neat sentences, naming twenty vocabulary items displayed on the board, by themselves, with no spelling or punctuation mistakes. Once you have made it through the corridor you may remove your blindfold and assist in helping the rest of your team mates navigate the maze of mouse traps. But if they know there is going to be an OSPE, (see page 37), they will spend time with patients to make sure they have mastered all the skills. This move was planned, having found she spent a great deal of time volunteering, training and developing youth organisations. Environment: Telemarketers disrupt our personal or family time, often calling during the dinner hour.
She worked for the National Bible Society for Scotland, developing teaching programmes for schools across Scotland – including remote rural communiites. Most of the time we as speakers, teachers, Scout leaders, and supervisors have a preconceived notion of how a presentation will go. This intrusion into our home environment generally makes people less receptive to their message than if they were to receive that same message in the mail, for example Even with all these drawbacks, telemarketing is successful frequently enough for many companies to invest millions of dollars in it.
This work involved high-tech computer simulations and often travelling back in time 2000 years, 3 times a day! The speech is written out, the presentation is all prepared, and were going to push through it no matter what. Just think how powerful communication can be when people take the time to overcome these barriers. If there is printed material or PowerPoint slides to accompany the presentation, we can feel even more locked into a one-way street approach to communicating.
This company has expanded in 2007 and focuses on Training trainers and organisational development.
For the last 7 years, Sheila has worked for the Scottish Council for Voluntary Organisations (SCVO), and now works part time for them assisting the sector access rural funding.
But by having the question in mind, the speaker is going to be more aware of how an audience is responding, and thus more likely to open up a presentation and adjust it to better fit the needs of the receivers. Teachers are provided with examples of appropriate responses along with tips and a valuable Five-Step Follow-Up section to reinforce whats been learned.. What do you want If this is an unusual question for speakers to ask adults, think how rare it is for us to ask it of young people. So often we are sure we know what is best for them and we forge ahead without taking notice of the audiencethe Scouts in our units, the young people in our lives.
If we dont know what other people want, there is little chance we can provide the information they need.



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