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It is said that the Zohar was hidden in the Ark of the Covenant along with pieces of the first tablets given to Moses. Building on the inherited inventions and ideas of earlier civilizations such as the Olmec, the Mayans developed astronomy, calendrical systems and hieroglyphic writing. Many people believe that the ancestors of the Mayans crossed the Bering Strait at least 20,000 years ago.
The Mayans are regarded as the inventors of many aspects of Meso-American cultures including the first calendar and hieroglyphic writing in the Western hemisphere. The second migration, which seems to have been historic, was led from the west by Kukulcan, a miraculous priest and teacher, who became the founder of the Mayan kingdom and civilization. Under Kukulcan the people were divided into four tribes, ruled by as many kingly families: the Cocom, Tutul-xiu, Itz‡ and Chele. To the first family belonged Kukulcan himself, who established his residence at Mayanspan, which thus became the capital of the whole nation.
To the Chele was appointed the hereditary high priesthood, and their city became the sacred city of the Mayans.
Later on Mayapan was rebuilt and was again the capital of the nation until about the middle of the fifteenth century, when, in consequence of a general revolt against the reigning dynasty, it was finally destroyed, and the monarchy was split up into a number of independent petty states, of which eighteen existed on the peninsula at the arrival of the Spaniards.
In consequence of this civil war a part of the Itz‡ emigrated south to Lake PetZn, in Guatemala, where they established a kingdom with their capital and sacred city of Flores Island in the lake. The Northern Yucatan (where present day Cancun is located) was sparsely populated for most of the Classic period with only a few cities such as Dzibilchalt?n (near MZrida) and Xpuhil, Bec‡n and Chicann‡ (near Chetumal).
Anthropologists used to contrast the "peaceful" Mayans with the bloodthirsty Aztecs of central Mexico.
Chichen Itza (near Valladolid), Uxmal (near Merida) and Mayansp‡n (west of Chichen Itza) were the three most important cities during the Post Classic period.
Chichen Itza was first populated between 500 and 900 AD by Mayans and for some reason abandoned around 900, the city was then resettled 100 years later and subsequently invaded by Toltecs from the North.
In 1506 Pinzon sighted the coast, and in 1511 twenty men under Valdivia were wrecked on the shores of the sacred island of Cozumel, several being captured and sacrificed to the idols. At the height of their revolutionary success, the Mayans inexplicably withdrew to their villages - reputedly to plant corn for the season. Father Alonso Gonzalez, who accompanied this expedition, found opportunity at one landing to explore a temple, and bring off some of the sacred images and gold ornaments. For Father Juan Diaz, who on this occasion celebrated Mass upon the summit of one of the heathen temples, the honour is also claimed of having afterwards been the first to celebrate mass in the City of Mexico.
Near Cozumel, also, was rescued the young monk Aguilar, one of the two survivors of Valdivia's party, who, though naked to the breech-cloth, still carried his Breviary in a pouch. After the conquest of Mexico in 1521, Francisco de Montejo, under commission as Governor of Yucatan, landed (1527) to effect the conquest of the country, but met with such desperate resistance that after eight years of incessant fighting every Spaniard had been driven out.
In the next year, in a bloody battle at Tihoo, he completely broke the power of Mayans resistance, and a few months later (Jan., 1542) founded on the site of the ruined city the new capital, MZrida. In the original commission to Montejo it had been expressly stipulated that missionaries should accompany all his expeditions. They met a kindly welcome from the Indians, who came with their children to be instructed, and thus the conquest of the country might have been effected through spiritual agencies but for the outrages committed by a band of Spanish outlaws, in consequence of which the priests were forced to withdraw. In 1537 five more missionaries arrived and met the same willing reception, remaining about two years in spite of the war still in progress.
Landing at Campeche, the governor explained their purpose to the chiefs, the convent of St.
As in other cases, local opposition defeated the purpose of this law; but the agitation went on, and in 1551 another royal edict liberated 150,000 male Indian slaves, with their families, throughout Mexico. He himself, with Father Malchior de Benavente, then set out, barefoot, for the city of Mani in the mountains farther south, where their success was so great that two thousand converts were soon engaged in building them a church and dwelling.
On the appointed night the chiefs and their retainers approached the church with this design, but were awed from their purpose on finding the two priests, who had been warned by an Indian boy, calmly praying before the crucifix. Twenty-seven of the conspirators were afterwards seized and condemned to death, but were all saved by the interposition of Villalpando. In 1548-49 other missionaries arrived from Spain, Villalpando was made custodian of the province, and a convent was erected near the site of his chapel at Mani. The Mayans history of the seventeenth century is chiefly one of revolutions, viz., 1610-33, 1636-44, 1653, 1669, 1670, and about 1675.
The Indians burned and ravaged in every direction, nineteen flourishing towns being entirely wiped out, and the population in three districts being reduced from 97,000 to 35,000.


1871 - a Mexican force again occupied Chan-Santa-Cruz, but retired without producing any permanent result.
1901 - after long preparation, a strong Mexican force invaded the territory of the independent Mayans both by land and sea, stormed Chan-Santa-Cruz and, after determined resistance, drove the defenders into the swamps.
In the Indian communities, as it was with their Mayan ancestors, the basic staple diet is corn.
The Maya were resourceful in harnessing energy, creating amazingly sophisticated works of art and engineering and sustaining a civilization for approximately 1,500 years. As with ancient Egyptian Pharaohs, Mayan rulers filled vast cities with sky high pyramids, ornate and lavish palaces personifying the power of the great kings and their connections to the gods, and astronomical observatories which helped them created their calendars and plan their lives.
As with all civilizations, we discover that their Gods - like those some people worship today our Gods - did not help - as they do not exist - only our own consciousness to guide us in the wastelands of realities. Mayan archaeology is coming into it's Golden Age with the help of satellite imagery and photography. When and how it resurfaced, how it shaped the thinking of the important people who studied it, and how it has survived to flourish in the present day, is the amazing but true story you will find revealed inside this book.
The Mayans were noted as well for elaborate and highly decorated ceremonial architecture, including temple-pyramids, palaces and observatories, all built without metal tools.
Archeologists have not settled the relationship between the Olmecs and the Mayans, and it is a mystery whether the Mayans were their descendants, trading partners, or had another relationship. As usual with ancient nations, it is difficult in the beginning to separate myth from history, their earliest mentioned leader and deified hero, Itzamn‡, being considered to be simply a sun-god common to the Mayan civilization. Fairly good authority, based upon study of the Mayans chronicles and calendar, places this beginning near the close of the second century of the Christian Era. The Tutul-xiu held vassal rule at Uxmal, the Itz‡ at Chichen-Itz‡, and the ChelZ at Izamal. During the 9th century the population centers of the central lowlands declined significantly. Although human sacrifice was not as important to the Mayans as to the Aztec, blood sacrifice played a major role in their religion. They made significant discoveries in science, including the use of the zero in mathematics. There they developed their own character, although their accomplishments and artwork are not considered as impressive as the Classic Mayans. They lived in relative peace from around 1000 - 1100 AD when Mayansp‡n overthrew the confederation and ruled for over 200 years. There are numerous reliefs of both Mayan gods including Chac and the Toltec gods including Quetzalcoatl.
If the Spanish did not make it a policy to kill all of the Mayan priests and burn books when they arrived in Mexico, we would all have a few more answers.
On his fifth voyage (1503-04) he encountered, south-west of Cuba, a canoe-load of Indians with cotton clothing for barter, who said that they came from the ancient Mayan civilization. The war with the US ended in 1848 and reinforcements were sent to the Yucat‡n, where they drove the Mayans back to Chan Santa Cruz. In reality, the Southern and Eastern half of the peninsula remained a virtual no man's land to outsiders where the Mayans lived almost as they pleased. In 1518 a strong expedition under Juan de Grijalva, from Cuba, landed near Cozumel and took formal possession for Spain. Proceeding northwards, Grijaba made the entire circuit of the peninsula before returning, having had another desperate engagement with the Mayans near Campeche. In 1540, after two more years of the same desperate warfare, his son Francisco established the first Spanish settlement at Campeche. In 1546, however, there was a general revolt, and it was not until a year later that the conquest was assured. This, however, he had neglected to attend to, and in 1531 (or 1534), by special order, Father Jacobo de Testera and four others were sent to join the Spanish camp near Campeche. Francis was dedicated on its present site, and translations were begun into the native language. In consequence of their repeated protests a royal edict was issued, in 1549, prohibiting Indian slavery in the province, while promising compensation to the slave owners. Within a very short time Father Villalpando had at his mission station at MZrida over a thousand converts, including several chiefs.
All went well until they began to plead with the chiefs to release their vassals from certain hard conditions, when the chiefs resolved to burn them at the altar.


After remaining all night in prayer, the fathers were fortunately rescued by a Spanish detachment which, almost miraculously, chanced to pass that way. The Yucatan field having been assigned to the Franciscans, all the missionary work among the Mayans was done by priests of that order. The war of extermination continued, with savage atrocities, through 1864, when it gradually wore itself out, leaving the Indians still unsubdued and well supplied with arms and munitions of war from Belize. In the rain forest between Honduras and the Yucatan, there are literally thousands of Maya sites that remain untouched. The origin of this name does not only derive from the fact that the book was locked up in a treasury for forbidden books in the imperial library at the beginning of the Ming period (1368-1644), but also because the book was written in Mongolian language but written in Chinese characters.
They were also skilled farmers, clearing large sections of tropical rain forest and, where groundwater was scarce, building sizable underground reservoirs for the storage of rainwater. Evidence of settled habitation in Mexico is found in the Archaic period 5000-1500 BC - corn cultivation, basic pottery and stone tools. He is represented as having led the first migration from the Far East, beyond the ocean, along a pathway miraculously opened through the waters.
Centralized governments, headed by a king, ruled territories with clearly defined boundaries. This decline was very rapid and is attributed to famine, drought, breakdowns in trade, and political fragmentation.
Individuals offered up their blood, but not necessarily their lives, to the gods through painful methods using sharp instruments such as sting-ray spines or performed ritualistic self mutilation.
Most of the ruins you can see South of Cancun are from this time period and are definitely worth a visit. In 1441 the Mayans who had previously ruled Uxmal destroyed the city of Mayansp‡n and founded a new city at Mani. Several of these - apparently nine, all Franciscans - under the direction of Father Luis de Villalpando, were assigned to Yucatan. The first baptized convert was the chief of Campeche, who learned Spanish and thereafter acted as interpreter for the priests. In Palanque alone there are approximately 1,550 buildings that lie unexcavated with endless archaeological treasures yet to be found. The Chinese characters were only taken in their phonetical value, not with the actual meaning. The Mayans were equally skilled as weavers and potters, and cleared routes through jungles and swamps to foster extensive trade networks with distant peoples.
Fragmentation from large states into smaller city-states focused resources on rivalries between cities including not just wars, but competitions of architecture and art between rival cities. Glyphs either represent syllables or whole concepts and were written on long strips of paper or carved and painted on stone. Wars were fought between rival Mayansn groups over the territory until the region was conquered by the Spanish. For modern historians or people who not understanding old Mongolian, a word-by-word translation in Chinese characters is written alongside of the Mongolian main text, and a prose translation is added as an appendix. As the cities in the lowlands declined, urban centers sprung up in the Northern Yucat‡n, including Uxmal (near MZrida). The major cities of the Classic period were Tikal (Guatemala), Palenque and Yaxchil‡n (Chiapas, Mexico), Cop‡n and Quirigua (Honduras). The Mayansn calendar begins around 3114 BC, before Mayans culture existed, and could measure time well into the future. For most of this period, the majority of the Mayans population lived in the central lowlands of Mexico and Belize.
Some captives were subjected to the double sacrifice where the victims heart was torn out for the sun and head cut off to pour blood out for the earth. They wrote detailed histories and used their calendar to predict the future and astrological events. Fray Diego de Landa, second bishop of the Yucat‡n ordered a mass destruction of Mayansn books in 1562 and only three survived.



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the secret history 1992



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