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If such a race was convenient to you, and you could gain entry, what multisport race brand or series would you most like to see in your area? The attached two links contain an article on determining a target TSS for the bike on an IM and the associated table.
I understand that bit, so 2 people ride 5.30, one does it on 100 watts and the other 200, one is riding at 67, the other 134 and both will have a TSS of 247, but its a pointless table, unless you know what your FTP is, and what your time for the bike is. Time will depend on course, weather conditions, your CdA, (how good is position on bike) AND not biking beyond your ability (FTP). The only way this works is if you know that if you bike 67 watts (your example) for 112 miles it will take you 5:30. All of the pros I've talked to, (3rd tier) say they normally come out closer to 250 than 280 to have a good run. I don't know about becoming the best Ultra - I sat next to Killian Jornet in Cham in August, and I think it would take some doing to give him a run for the money. Quote:So long story short the faster you are the higher IF you can hold because you spend less time on course accumulating TSS.
Do at least a 15 minute endurance paced warm up, then do 3 x 1 minute fast pedaling drills of at least 100 rpm with 1 minute recoveries in between each. An example is if you pedal at 200 watts for 1 hour, you have an Average Power (the numerical average power) and a Normalized Power of 200. NP is a better indicator than average power of how metabolically challenging the workout was. Based off of the duration and intensity of your session, Training Stress Score is a single, numerical value for the effective load of your training session. Of course, most workouts are not completed at 100 percent, so most workouts will accumulate less than 100 TSS per hour. Combining detailed data with knowledge of a few key terms allows you to analyze each ride with greater precision and understanding.
During the first race of the night, the Madison Points race, Morkov has 5 spikes of over 750 watts. Not surprisingly, most of Boswell's peak power values are during the climb up Glendora Ridge Road to the Top of Mt. Over the full stage, Boswell had a Normalized Power of 293 watts at an average heart rate of 131 bpm.
Power Duration models help us understand not only the overall relationship between time and power exhaustion but also how to prescribe training plans and workouts to create maximal results and adaptation. These athletes have a larger amount of fast-twitch muscle fibers and excellent ability to produce force on the pedals in a very short period of time (less than 30 seconds).
These athletes have large natural VO2Max power and can produce high watts from roughly 3 to 8 minutes. These athletes have a large percentage of slow-twitch muscle fibers and a high FTP, typically along with poor neuromuscular power. Now that you know the basic phenotypes, you can enhance your understanding of your strengths and weakness through in-depth review of your Power Duration model and comparing yourself against the standards.
The new WKO4 Power Duration model puts a new tool in your toolbox for determining Functional Threshold Power (FTP) and introduces new training metrics to help determine and measure the dose and response mechanism of training.
Pmax: the maximal power you can generate for a very short period of time (one complete revolution of the pedal stroke). Functional Reserve Capacity (FRC): the total amount of work you can do during continuous exercise above your FTP before fatigue occurs.
Functional Threshold Power (FTP): the highest power you can sustain in a quasi-steady-state for a prolonged period of time.
The model’s combined ability to estimate your modeled Functional Threshold Power and track key fitness metrics off a more flexible system of maximal efforts (instead of just traditional testing) will allow you to more efficiently target training levels while tracking micro changes in fitness and performance.
There are a number of variables to consider when designing an endurance training program in order to limit fatigue and optimize performance.
For example, let’s say Joe Rider was desperate to improve his sprint to beat his archrival, so he spent four of the winter months working on his sprint, lifting weights, and doing plyometrics.
The ability to individualize power zones while tracking overall load and adaptation is critical to maximizing your success as an endurance athlete. The Specificity Principle states that training must go from highly general training to highly specific training.
The WKO4 Power Duration model makes this easier to understand by showing how the achievement of a new peak power at one specific time in your power curve affects all power numbers throughout the curve. Focusing his training time on longer intervals, however, has earned Alvaro incredible gains. By gaining a better understanding of specific training and its effects on your power duration capability, you can maximize your training time by reducing time spent in areas that simply won’t improve. The Power Duration model in WKO4 is only one of many upgrades focused soundly on empowering coaches to get better results for their athletes. The Queen stage of the Tour and the first time ever in 100 years that riders climb Alpe d’Huez twice in one stage!
There are issues with the Power Agent .pwx file format that can cause some oddities in laps in TrainingPeaks, WKO3, and WKO4.
But the power meter is only part of the equation, you need to know what the numbers mean and how to interpret them.
One of the most common is a a test created by Hunter Allen and is a simple way you can test your FTP. For example, if your average power for the 20 minute test was 250 watts, then after subtracting 5 percent, your FTP would be 238 watts. Your power output varies due to factors like terrain, wind, following attacks, surges, etc.

If you pedal at 100 watts for 20’, 200 watts for 20 and 300 watts for 20 you will still have an AP of 200 watts but your NP will be approximately 239 watts.
It emphasizes power surges which require a lot of glycogen (carbohydrates) and therefore contribute to an increase in fatigue. For example, if your Normalized Power for a long training ride done early in the year is 210 watts and your FTP at the time is 280 watts, then the IF for that workout would be 0.75.
For example, if your FTP is 250 watts and you hold 200 watts for 1 hour you would have a TSS score of 80. When you know these terms and how to apply them, you’ll be able to quantify the true load of your training- for each ride and over time. After racing the London Six Days with his brother Jesper, Morkov teamed up with Ilijo Keisse to ride the Gent Six Days. The PDM is an estimate of the relationship between time to exhaustion and work rate during both anaerobic and aerobic exercise. Endurance performance is limited by a number of factors, mostly oxygen transport, energy consumption, and neuromuscular power and economy of movement.
The lactate anaerobic metabolism is the basic energy system ensuring motor activity (phosphagen system).
Motor activity of high intensity is primarily supplied with energy by the anaerobic lactate system (anaerobic glycolysis). From this period on, the aerobic system is dominant, but the portion of anaerobic lactate metabolism can still be large (anaerobic and aerobic glycolysis). Motor activity is ensured by the aerobic energy system from more than 90% (oxidative system). When working to improve your training and race or event performance, it is important to correctly identify your strengths and weaknesses and to use this knowledge to maximize and design both your training focus and your race strategy. It is composite of a rider’s observable physiological characteristics and power individualities such as peak power, time to exhaustion and functional threshold power, expressed by grouping like individuals of similar traits. They typically can produce 120+% of their FTP wattage for 5 minutes, which is above the upper limit for the Coggan Classic Levels for Level 5 (VO2Max). They might have a very good sprint (5-15 seconds) and can time trial well for an hour with a high FTP.
They can sustain their power output for a long time (more than 30 minutes) and exhibit excellent endurance for many hours. As you start building a training plan or workout, first focus on workouts that address your weakness.
As a caveat to rule 1, you need to limit the workouts that focus on your weakness, because they take a bigger toll on you. At the end of the day you’ll tend to win races by utilizing your strengths, so the focus is important. If you’re racing a heavy schedule or are a pro athlete, it can be difficult to squeeze testing into your training. Many of us deal with limitations that make implementing the protocols difficult, such as the finding the right road, searching for the perfect climb, interrupted by too many street lights, etc. Training intensity is a key variable that can be manipulated in such a way that it can lead to either an improvement or a deterioration in performance. His sprint Pmax went from 955 watts to 1027 watts, but his rival’s sprint was still 1200 watts.
A portion of the training population fits well in such a bell curve, but this still leaves two issues. The new individualized levels use the WKO4 Power Duration model to automatically blend both your modeled FTP and your entire power curve to create training levels that specifically target your unique physiology. Since the training levels utilize the model, which is capable of picking up micro changes in fitness, new individualized training levels update with the addition of each new workout, depending on the contribution of that workout. It also implies that to become better at a particular exercise or skill, you must perform that exercise or skill. For example, how will the achievement of a new peak power for a 20-minute interval affect your 60-minute performance?
This athlete has steadily improved over the last six months from roughly 1:40 seconds and beyond.
In the next chart below, we can see that he has improved his 14-minute power from 280 watts in November to 358 watts in May, which is an amazing increase: nearly 80 watts! This insight into each individual’s physiology has been very difficult to learn or understand until now. In the first hour of the stage, Henderson set his peak power values from 60 seconds to 60 minutes! His Normalized Power for the effort was 375 watts, very close to his average watts indicating a very smooth, steady effort. Lopez spent his energy on the first ascent, giving everything he could to keep Froome safe. 1 watt was the difference between Lopez’s 30-minute (327 watts) and 60 minute (326 watts) peak powers for the stage, both set on the Col de la Madeleine.
Nearly 15,000 feet of climbing after 3 weeks of racing is a great example of why the Tour is often considered the toughest race in the world. I would guess that it must have actually been a little underestimated for the 342 TSS race, but not by less than 10 watts. There are a few certain key terms that you need to understand in order to take full advantage of this amazing tool. Perform this field test on a flat course relatively free of stop signs or traffic, and if possible one that has a steady, uphill grade of less than 5 percent. Then perform a 20 minute time trial all by yourself— no training partners, and not in a race.

However, if you did that same exact ride later in the year after your threshold power had risen to 300 watts, then your IF would be 0.70. Since your FTP value is the wattage you can hold for 1 hour, holding that value for 1 hour equates to 100 TSS points. You can earn more than 100 TSS within a single workout, as long as it is longer than an hour, but never more than 100 TSS per hour. The pair had a great start to the event, taking the lead at the end of the first night of racing. A jack of all trades in endurance sports, he has raced everything from IRONMAN and marathons to road, mountain, and track cycling.
The main benefit of the PDM is having a robust mathematical description of your power-duration relationship. Understanding how these systems both enable and limit your ability to sustain power over time is imperative to training success. The introduction of the WKO4 Power Duration model supplies you with numerous ways to review and identify your strengths and weaknesses, and the simplest method is phenotyping. They are excellent in stage races, long rides, time trialing, climbing, and any event that requires a long, hard, sustained effort. For example, if you’re a sprinter and sweet spot or tempo workouts are your worst nightmare, you need to do more of this work, particular early in the season. Find the right balance of adding workouts that focus on your weaknesses without creating a high level of fatigue, which limits adaptation. The new WKO4 Power Duration can play an important role in this tracking by allowing you to better and more quickly monitor adaptation (or lack thereof) to training stimulus. Training prescription has historically been based on a familiar protocol: test and determine training levels, utilize these levels till the next test, then repeat step one.
Fortunately his coach also had him improving his FTP during those four months as well and moved his FTP from 280 watts to 325 watts.
By focusing on intervals from 10 minutes to 45 minutes long, he has maximized his training time, made significant increases in his power output, and enjoyed more success since his races demand high outputs of power, especially in the 10- to 20-minute range. But now you can load your data into WKO4 and watch the changes in your PD curve throughout your training season to quickly reveal areas of your physiology that are more adaptable than others.
He specializes in coaching cyclists with power meters and is on the forefront of coaching with cycling’s newest tool.
His Variability Index for these two time periods and the entire climb was 1.02 showing an extremely steady pace, protecting and guiding team leader Froome over the first two big climbs.
The uphill grade helps you to maintain a constant output, as opposed to rolling terrain where it’s difficult to keep your power up on the downhills. Your effort should be done as if it was a race for the entire 20 minutes- all out, but sustainable for the 20 minutes.
The algorithm for NP is somewhat complicated, but importantly it incorporates two key pieces of information. Therefore, IF provides a valid and convenient way of comparing the relative intensity of a training session or race either within or between riders, taking into account changes or differences in FTP.
If you find that you are accumulating more than 100 TSS points per hour you have either bad data readings or your FTP needs to be raised.
This provides quantitative insight into your unique abilities and paves the way for other useful analyses. But the model allows for more flexibility in the testing protocols, as it can take a few maximal efforts and estimate out all potential performance.
While this system has worked well, it is based on the assumption that athletes generally respond the same to each of the training levels.
By cross-referencing this with the demands of your events, your training becomes more individualized and meaningful.
Before that model was around, you would assume a power you should ride (based on FTP and IF) and then use some other model (several out there or poll people to see what power they used to ride a specific time, which isn't very precise) to see how fast you would ride the course based on that AVG power and then calculate TSS.
Internally with our team we have a more nuanced discussion of this table and the stuff that lives around it. First is the fact that physiological responses to rapid changes in exercise intensity are not instantaneous.
TSS values are critical to using the Performance Management Chart to track long term data trends.
This assumption is in turn based on the idea that all athletes generally maintain the same training level relationship with Functional Threshold Power (FTP).
If you want to become a better time trialist, riding up and down mountains on your time trial bike is not going to help your 40km time. One could argue that trying to train them is a waste of his time and that he’s better off training longer durations.
However, riding hard for an hour is not the key to breaking an hour in a 40km time trial, either! Second, many critical physiological responses, like glycogen utilization, lactate production, stress hormone levels, are curvilinearly, rather than linearly, related to exercise intensity. Some riders might respond better to training at FTP and not at all to training at anaerobic capacity, or vice versa.

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