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You are about to download this program (AnyForm Forms Software 5.0), and we would like to ask you to send us your feedback after you install and try it on your computer. It won't take more than a couple of minutes, but your opinion is very important to future users of the program and to the author of the program. Opinions about developers varied from janitors to “prima donnas” in comments to my previous post Do We Need Software Architects? Beside discussion about the role of the software architects, the underlying philosophical problem is whether software development is primarily top down (centralized and planned) or bottom up (emergent and adaptive) process. As Goethe said – between two opposite opinions you’ll find not the truth, but the problem.
Evolutionary, adaptive and emergent development of the software system leads to the most optimal solution. The only fundamental property, which sometimes is missing for true self-organization – autonomy or absence of external control. Therefore, in effective software projects any skilled and experienced developer with tacit and specialized knowledge should have control over architecture decisions in his area as oppose to giving this control to few architects (or what even worse managers).
Robustness – self-organized systems are relatively insensitive to perturbations or errors, and can restore themselves, unlike most human designed systems. Feedback – the dynamics of a self-organizing system is typically non-linear, because of circular or feedback relations between the components.
Effective feedback loops could be established only with open, adaptive and distributed approach contrary to closed, rigid and centralized traditional approach to software development. Emergence – property or feature not previously observed as a functional characteristic of the system. Therefore, it is almost impossible to come up with these properties and decisions on the preliminary software design stage. Bifurcations – which of the possible configurations the system will settle in depends on a chance.
Therefore, even if we know business needs, environment and system specifications at the beginning of the process, the outcome is still unpredictable.
Adaptation – a configuration of a system may be called “fit” if it is able to maintain or grow given the specific configuration of its environment. Considering above points, adaptation is very important for survival and success of the software project. Therefore, the software development process should be able to produce variety of actions to cope with each of the possible perturbations and select the best action for the given problem.
Establish attractors (state of equilibrium, a preferred and stable position for the system). Establish principles(or fitness criteria) for choosing the best action for the given circumstances.
The most straightforward method is to let the environment itself determine what is fit by trial and errors.
Use simple rules, empirical patterns and best practices – considering the current state of the software development it is the best approach.
Developers are not janitors and prima donnas, because they are the most important people to maintain healthy self organization in the development of the software system, avoid system degradation and lead to the project success.
If you are referring to the latter options then I would say that, as my understanding goes, self organizing systems fitness is based on iterative attempts. You seem to make the point that each developer should decide how to implement their own subsystem.
I’m pretty sure you can but I want to get into webmaking a bit and I’m curious if it can be done and how you would go about doing this? A typical programmer faces thousands lines of code, huge number of details and millions of situations and states during the software system execution. Sensory memorySensory memory corresponds approximately to the initial 200 – 500 milliseconds after an item is perceived. The Central Executive is the controlling system of working memory and is more complex than either of the three slave systems. Memory is not a muscle and you cannot understand and get much information into your brain with just mechanical effort. InterestYou should enter the right state of mind where interest, emotions and mood support your learning beside rational needs. Decide what strategy to use – learning concepts, tools, memory devices, visualization, or reciting. You should try to direct your learning to match your current knowledge and cognitive abilities with the depth and complexity of the new information. Documents – capture mental effort of other people to explain concepts, ideas and solutions, but documents are often outdated and disconnected from reality. Relate information to what you already know and define information using familiar concepts. Use unconscious memory processing.Our automatic, unconscious and ultra fast brain processes are much more powerful than limited conscious controlled thinking.
Depth of Processing – phenomenon of memory in which information that is analyzed deeply is better recalled than information that analyzed superficially. Create unit testing – one of the best methods to test reality, understand and experience the system (if the system is testable).
The learning and exploration of the software system could be the most rewarding intellectual experience or it could be your worst nightmare. Today 19 millions of professional programmers in the world and multi-billion industry are very serious about effectively building good software . Software development is the translation of a user need or marketing goal into a software product.
IEEE defines software engineering as application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to development, operation, and maintenance of software; that is, the application of engineering to software. Many prominent people in software development don’t agree that engineering is the only approach to create software. Software development is similar to engineering as it deals with complex problems, constraints and trade-offs. The social science of managing people to organize and maintain collective productivity toward accomplishing particular creative and productive goals, usually to generate profit. Software development became essential part of most businesses for generating profit and reducing cost. Business is chaotic and depends on unpredictable factors as economy, market trends and customer behavior. Successful software solutions for complex problems are difficult to achieve by standard scientific and engineering approaches alone. Now we can better understand what is software development, why it has problems and how it is different from established practices of growing potatoes and building bridges. Trying to solve complex problems that are driven by unpredictable businesses and even more unpredictable users.


Translating these needs into software based on uncertain world of mental concepts and empirical principles. The goal of this blog is to understand and harness these forces to improve software creation – one of the most useful, intellectual and creative human activities. Question for readers: Is software development more engineering, business, art, psychology or something else? Downloadable comprehensive AnyForm User`s Manual informs on all important features of the software in word and vision. If you leave your email right now we will send you tomorrow an invitation to evaluate the program. If software development is top down, the architects are essential and crucial people on the project, who concentrate knowledge, establish technical leadership and guide development teams. I incline to consider software development as a bottom up process, which occasionally (often in time of changing direction or crisis) needs centralized effort and top down approach.
However, any software project usually has specific business goal, constraints and cannot evolve forever as natural systems do. Traditional corporation will always exercise some form of the control over software projects. Positive feedback leads to an explosive growth, which ends when all components have been absorbed into the new configuration, leaving the system in a stable, negative feedbackstate. Self organization turns a collection of interacting elements into an individual, coherent whole. The key for building great software systems is to learn how to tame and use emergence effectively instead of fighting against it. It is waste of effort trying to predict and plan it – it is better to prepare for changes and adaptation.
It is better to establish vision, goals for expected system, good motivation and compensation for the team instead of telling what to do to and how to achieve this state. This can be dangerous for the company since it may lead to the failure of the software project.
This allows to try out a potential action “virtually”, in the model, and use the model to decide on its fitness. Architects should help developers to establish better attractors, fitness criteria and internal models (or patterns) for selection of the optimal solutions, but they are not the best people to make decisions about these solutions. First, my background in this area is previous study and development of complex systems, primarily in the area of agent based systems, with a little exposure to genetic algorithms.
I am particularly uncomfortable with the FAQ’s claim that an engine is an emergent system. I am unclear whether you were saying the software, the development process or the developers themselves were the components of a complex system? In agent based software this is simple rules for agents and the results when introduced to an environment in large numbers.
I do not subscribe to the theory that architecture removes decision making from the developer’s duties, but to the one that an architecture is an overarching set of constraints that directs the development of the software.
Emergence in the software project system means appearance of the previously unobserved behavior, roles, ideas and even goals based on interaction of active elements (people) with passive (project needs, methods, technology, domain, the developed application) and external world. Also, what you have to learn to go about making an animated flash page (like pictures flying around)? 10 Reasons Why NotSystem Forces and Software EvolutionSoftware Development is The Flow of Ideas. A programmer should understand the system, know how to modify it and support knowledge about the system with explanations, justifications and answers.
New information enters your brain along pathways between neurons in the appropriate area of the brain.
If you’ve concentrated well enough to encode new information in your brain, the hippocampus sends a signal to store the information as long-term memory. When you need to recall information, your brain has to activate the same pattern of nerve cells it used to store it. The ability to look at an item, and remember what it looked like with just a second of observation, or memorization, is an example of sensory memory. This system controls attention and it is necessary for cognitively demanding tasks such as problem solving and comprehension.
By contrast to sensory and short-term memories, long-term memory can store much larger quantities of information for potentially unlimited duration (sometimes a whole life). You can spend days digging in the code and still barely understand and remember ideas and concepts behind the system. You’ll understand much better if you are highly interested or even love what you are going to learn. It contains the true knowledge , but with too many details (often distracting), which require serious effort to grasp. Linked memory will create a stronger network in our semantic memory, stay longer and allow easier navigation.
Organizing means putting facts in meaningful categories and align with the way how you want to use them.
Working memory could operate with only 4-7 items and chunking helps to increase this capacity. You have a choice…And it is true, sometimes the problem for learning is in the a software system, which is very difficult to understand.
I really never analyzed my internal processes this closely to see if I was being truly effective while I’m studying a new piece of code or book. These tips will be very helpful in my new job where I need to quickly familiarize myself with a huge enterprise software project and to be able to lead the development team effectively.
Creation of a program should be a routine job now as growing potatoes or building a bridge.
The difference is that engineering relies on proven laws of physical world, well defined principles and processes, while software development relies on uncertain mental concepts, shaky people needs and empirical principles and processes (guided by experience). Business drives software projects, destabilizes them with frequent changes of directions and still expects predictable results. At its simplest, it comes down to getting a computer to do what you want it to do (or what your user wants it to do). Whether you are a user, manager, or developer, it doesn’t make sense to trust an inexperienced software developer. The way how individuals and teams of software professionals think, feel and interact has significant affect on creation of the software. We don’t have luxury of firm physical laws, sound scientific principles and established engineering methods.
Humans have varying psychology, talents and creativity; they expose complex social behavior.
If software development is bottom up, the developers become primary force for evolving the system, make key technical decisions and care about the architecture; architects (if they still needed) play coordination and mediation roles.


Another approach is to look for the system as a whole, studying dynamic of the elements interaction and system properties – the science of self-organization. And this is important to resolve – self-organized systems (evolving bottom up) achieve better solutions than rigid controlled systems. Another reason for this intrinsic robustness is that self-organization thrives on randomness, fluctuations or “noise”, which could bring unexpected and better solutions. Elements produce their own emergent properties and form the next level of structure in the system, which in turn form the building blocks for the next higher level of organization, with different emergent properties, and so on.
Since small fluctuations are amplified by positive feedback, this means that even small and impossible to observe fluctuation can lead to the to completely different project outcome. Different configurations can be compared as to their degree of fitness, or probability to survive under the given conditions imposed by the environment. Theoretically, this is the most effective approach and many architect are trying to follow it, but it is very difficult in reality as this approach should take in consideration huge number of variables and create credible simulation.
Certainly it is valid statement, if we agree that evolution, adaptivity and self-organization are important (bottom up approach).
I quickly read the Self-Organizing Systems FAQ you linked, but I found some discrepancies with my previous understanding of complex systems, particularly regarding emergence. An engine is not a collection of self controlling components, and it is not self organizing. The software itself seemed the least likely, as the engine analogy holds true here as well. An architect would for example; choose an OS, programming language, hardware, database and perhaps software framework or design patterns. This system can exhibit self organization and produce optimal results and avoid unlimited trials. How can a software developer gain, maintain and operate this knowledge and make sense of these volumes of information and complex logic changing every day?The ways how our memory works could give us few hints.
The key to encoding information into your memory is attention; unless you focus on information intently, it is immediately forgotten.
This happens more easily if it’s related to something you already know, or if it stimulates an emotional response. The more frequently you need the information, the easier it is to retrieve it along healthy nerve cell connections. The Central Executive also has a limited processing capacity, which is related to the capacity of working memory (4-7 items). If it is too challenging, slow down and return to the more basic level.The flow will allow you to become most productive, motivated and satisfied with your learning (and work and life). We use similar skills as in writing a cooking recipe or telling a friend how to find a shopping mall – we just need to come up with the set of instructions.
Directly applying engineering approach to software development could introduce more problems than solve.
Only 35% of software projects started in 2006 could be considered as successful and this is an enormous improvement with 1994 figures – 16%.
Finally, most of the software projects doesn’t make sense without business and economic demands.
These factors are playing important role for individual and team productivity and quality of work. I took a look at Wikipedia, and found it to be more in line with my understanding of these concepts. While each unit of code can potentially be used in multiple places, the overall structure of the software is designed. If these concepts are carried over to software development then perhaps I would agree that a nearly unlimited arrangement of software development teams over a period of time would produce many versions of an application, some of which would be better than an architected counterpart. If each developer on the team was not so constrained, it would be extremely difficult to produce a cohesive application. Short-term memory allows us to recall something from several seconds to as long as a minute without rehearsal. It is more effective to have short, passionate and focused bursts of learning and letting unconscious mind to sort things out until the next learning session.And in the same time you should be heuristic and ready for discovering the whole new world of knowledge. It is especially important fore software development, because it is mostly empirical activity. And still, there is a long way ahead to make software development economically successful and effective. You try to capture elusive requirements and find a way of expressing them so that a mere machine can do them justice.
Moreover in the past years the software engineering research community has focused is attention in developing good algorithms and good tools but they left out most of the social aspect of the development. Problems with individual company or even market segment doesn’t effect economy much as there are always players who will use this opportunity and take over the vacant niche. Systems may be called adaptive if they can adjust to such changes while keeping their organization as much as possible intact.
It is meant to have one set of functionality, and if through emergence it displays other behavior that should be considered a bug. However, while this model may exist to some degree in systems such as Linux features, it is not in practice or even arguably cost efficient within a single organization.
In many long standing teams such things are foregone conclusions, but that does not mean the decision was not made. Code provides too much details that sometimes difficult to translate into meaningful concepts and unifying ideas.
You don’t need to have a computer science degree or even finish courses to become a good programmer.
There is no way to automate requirements elicitation; rather, people must talk to each other so that the software team can learn what the users really need the application to do.
You try to document your work so that others can understand it, and you try to engineer your work so that others can build on it. But short term memory capacity can be increased through a process called chunking – packing information units into small chunks.
Only reconciliation of top down and bottom up knowledge could provide you with the true knowledge in reasonable time. What’s more, you try to do all this against the relentless ticking of the project clock. Although different brain regions are specialized for different tasks, no neuron or group of neurons has overall control. This is shown by the fact that minor brain lesions because of accidents, surgery or tumors normally do not disturb overall functioning, whatever the region that is destroyed.



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