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This thread discusses the African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968).The African-American Civil Rights Movement (1955–1968) refers to the movements in the United States aimed at outlawing racial discrimination against African Americans and restoring Suffrage in Southern states. The Congress of Racial Equality, or CORE, played a pivotal role during the 1960's civil rights movement. CORE since 1968Since 1968, CORE has been led by National Chairman Roy Innis, who initially led the organization to strongly support Black Nationalism.
The term Watts Riots of 1965 refers to a large-scale riot which lasted 6 days in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, in August 1965. I think some of these eyewitness accounts reveal more of the sentiment of the time that we are just now starting to hear about from some people.
Fear, coping with the trauma in the aftermath, trying to make sense of it all - as best as anyone can - a lot to cope with and the collective memory fades with the passage of time the magnitude of these events. This article covers the phase of the movement between 1954 and 1968, particularly in the South.
Subsequent political developments within the organization led it turn more towards the right. CarterAfter the passage of sweeping civil rights and voting rights legislation in 1964 and 1965, the civil rights movement stood poised to build on considerable momentum. By the time the riot subsided, 34 people had been killed, 1,032 injured, and 3,438 arrested. Originally published in 1968, Listen to the Lambs grew from a letter Otis wrote to an expatriate friend during the days following the riots. But the journey of the “Little Rock Nine,” as they came to be known, would lead the nation on an even longer and much more turbulent path, one that would challenge prevailing attitudes, break down barriers, and forever change the landscape of America.Descended from a line of proud black landowners and businessmen, Carlotta was raised to believe that education was the key to success.
Fourteen-year-old Carolyn Maull was just a few feet away when the bomb exploded, killing four of her friends in the girls' rest room she had just exited. The times and these events were tumultuous enough, but to have experienced this as a young child and reflect on it as an adult, should be revealing and enlightening. A personal account from one man's involvement with the Black Panther Party and the journey to his life today. Often called the last battle of the Civil War, troops were called in and violence broke out. It would stand as the most severe riot in Los Angeles history until the Los Angeles riots of 1992.Background The riots began on August 11, 1965, in Watts, a neighborhood in Los Angeles, when Lee Minikus, a California Highway Patrol motorcycle officer, pulled over African American Marquette Frye, who Minikus believed was intoxicated because of his observed erratic driving. Otis moves back and forth between Watts and his own childhood to reveal an alternative history of the riots.
She embraced learning and excelled in her studies at the black schools she attended throughout the 1950s. It was one of the seminal moments in the Civil Rights movement, a sad day in American history .
Jamal Joseph's personal odyssey--from the streets of Harlem to Riker's Island and Leavenworth to the halls of Columbia--is as gripping as it is inspiring.
Federal, state, and local governments, businesses, and communities often had to respond immediately to crisis situations which highlighted the inequities faced by African Americans.
Membership in CORE is still stated to be open to "anyone who believes that 'all people are created equal' and is willing to work towards the ultimate goal of true equality throughout the world."FoundingCORE was founded in Chicago in 1942 by James L. Johnson declared that victory in the next battle for civil rights would be measured in "equal results" rather than equal rights and opportunities.
Frye failed to pass sobriety tests, including walking in a straight line and touching his nose, and was arrested soon after. Equal parts memoir, social history, and racial manifesto, Listen to the Lambs is a moving witness of collective turmoil and a people for whom the long-promised American Dream was nowhere to be found. An article in Mother Jones magazine said of the modern organization that it "is better known among real civil rights groups for renting out its historic name to any corporation in need of a black front person. It seemed that for a brief moment the White House and champions of racial equality shared the same objectives and priorities.
Minikus refused to let Frye's brother, Ronald, drive the car home, and radioed for it to be impounded. Board of Education erasing the color divide in classrooms across the country, the teenager volunteered to be among the first black students--of whom she was the youngest--to integrate nearby Central High School, considered one of the nation’s best academic institutions.But for Carlotta and her eight comrades, simply getting through the door was the first of many trials. But this was the late 1960s in Bronx's black ghetto, and fifteen-year-old Eddie was introduced to the tenets of the Black Panther Party, which was just gaining a national foothold.


Finding common ground proved elusive, however, in a climate of growing social and political unrest marked by urban riots, the Vietnam War, and resurgent conservatism.
By sixteen, his devotion to the cause landed him in prison on the infamous Rikers Island--charged with conspiracy as one of the Panther 21 in one of the most emblematic criminal cases of the sixties. Bayard Rustin, while not a father of the organization, was, Farmer and Houser later said, "an uncle to CORE" and supported it greatly.
Examining grassroots movements and organizations and their complicated relationships with the federal government and state authorities between 1965 and 1968, David C. The mob became violent, throwing rocks and other objects while shouting at the police officers. Arkansas’s governor used the National Guard to bar the black students from entering the school.
When exonerated, Eddie--now called Jamal--became the youngest spokesperson and leader of the Panthers' New York chapter. The group had evolved out of the pacifist Fellowship of Reconciliation, and sought to apply the principles of nonviolence as a tactic against segregation. That is not something that is a human right," said Niger Innis, national spokesman for CORE, and son of Roy Innis.
Carter takes readers through the inner workings of local civil rights coalitions as they tried to maintain strength within their organizations while facing both overt and subtle opposition from state and federal officials. A struggle ensued shortly resulting in the arrest of Marquette and Ronald Frye, as well as their mother.Burning buildings during the riots Though the riots began in August, there had previously been a buildup of racial tension in the area. The group's inspiration was Krishnalal Shridharani's book War Without Violence, which outlined Gandhi's step-by-step procedures for organizing people and mounting a nonviolent campaign. He also highlights internal debates and divisions within the White House and the executive branch, demonstrating that the federal government's relationship to the movement and its major goals was never as clear-cut as the president's progressive rhetoric suggested.Carter reveals the complex and often tense relationships between the Johnson administration and activist groups advocating further social change, and he extends the traditional timeline of the civil rights movement beyond the passage of the Voting Rights Act.
The riots that began on August 11 resulted from an amalgamation of such events in Watts, and the arrest of three Frye family members broke the tension as violence spilled onto the streets of Watts for four days.Watts suffered from various forms and degrees of damage from the residents' looting and vandalism that seriously threatened the security of the city. Eisenhower was forced to send in the 101st Airborne to establish order and escort the Nine into the building. Sentenced to more than twelve years in Leavenworth, he earned three degrees there and found a new calling. Shridharani, a popular writer and journalist as well as a vibrant and theatrical speaker, had been a protege of Gandhi and had been jailed in the Salt March. Some participants chose to intensify the level of violence by starting physical fights with police, blocking the firemen of the Los Angeles Fire Department from their safety duties, or even beating white motorists. That was just the start of a heartbreaking three-year journey for Carlotta, who would see her home bombed, a crime for which her own father was a suspect and for which a friend of Carlotta’s was ultimately jailed--albeit wrongly, in Carlotta’s eyes. He is now chair of Columbia University's School of the Arts film division--the very school he exhorted students to burn down during one of his most famous speeches as a Panther.
Others joined the riot by breaking into stores, stealing whatever they could, and some setting the stores themselves on fire.LAPD Police Chief William Parker also fueled the radicalized tension that already threatened to combust, by publicly labeling the people he saw involved in the riots as "monkeys in the zoo". In raw, powerful prose, Jamal Joseph helps us understand what it meant to be a soldier inside the militant Black Panther movement. Overall, an estimated $40 million in damage was caused as almost 1,000 buildings were damaged or destroyed.
While the World Watched is a poignant and gripping eyewitness account of life in the Jim Crow South - from the bombings, riots and assassinations to the historic marches and triumphs that characterized the Civil Rights movement.
He recounts a harrowing, sometimes deadly imprisonment as he charts his path to manhood in a book filled with equal parts rage, despair, and hope. In the South, CORE's nonviolent direct action campaigns opposed "Jim Crow" segregation and job discrimination, and fought for voting rights.
Most of the physical damage was confined to white-owned businesses that were said to have caused resentment in the neighborhood due to perceived unfairness. A uniquely moving exploration of how racial relations have evolved over the past 5 decades, While the World Watched is an incredible testament to how far we've come and how far we have yet to go. Outside the South, CORE focused on discrimination in employment and housing, and also in de facto school segregation.Some CORE main leadership had strong disagreements with the Deacons for Defense and Justice over the Deacons' public threat to racist Southerners that they would use armed self-defense to protect CORE workers from racist organizations, such as the Ku Klux Klan, in Louisiana during the 1960s. By the mid-1960s, Farmer was growing disenchanted with the emerging black nationalist sentiments within CORE — sentiments that, among other things, would quickly lead to the Black Panther Party — and he resigned in 1966, to be replaced by Floyd McKissick.Civil rights campaigns Congress of Racial Equality march in Washington DC on 22 September 1963 in memory of the children killed in the Birmingham bombings.
The banner, which says "No more Birminghams", shows a picture of the aftermath of the bombing.


By 1963, most of the major urban centers of the Northeast, Midwest, and West Coast had one or more CORE chapters, including a growing number of chapters on college campuses.
In the South, CORE had active chapters and projects in Louisiana, Mississippi, Florida, South Carolina, and Kentucky.Freedom RidesOn April 10, 1947, CORE sent a group of eight white (including James Peck, their publicity officer) and eight black men on what was to be a two-week Journey of Reconciliation through Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Kentucky in an effort to end segregation in interstate travel. In Anniston, Alabama, one of the buses was fire-bombed and passengers were beaten by a white mob.
The violence garnered national attention, sparking a summer of similar rides by CORE, SNCC and other Civil Rights organizations and thousands of ordinary citizens.Desegregating Chicago's SchoolsIn 1960, the Chicago chapter of CORE began to challenge racial segregation in the Chicago Public Schools (CPS). By the late 1950s, the Board of Education's maintenance of the neighborhood school policy resulted in a pattern of racial segregation in the CPS. Predominantly black schools were situated in predominantly black neighborhoods on the south and west sides of the city, while predominantly white schools were located in predominantly white areas in the north, northwest and southwest sides of Chicago.Many segregated schools were overcrowded, and in order to ease overcrowding, the Board instated double-shifts at some schools. Double-shifts meant that students in affected schools attended less than a full day of class. In another measure to alleviate overcrowding at some schools, the Board sanctioned the construction of mobile classroom units. Faculty was segregated, and many teachers in predominantly black schools lacked full-time teaching experience compared to teachers in white schools. According to CORE, “school segregation [was] a damaging bacteria, a psychological handicap, which [festered] a disease generating widespread unemployment and crime in Chicago.” Between 1960 and 1963, CORE wrote letters about the conditions of schools to the Board of Education (headed by Superintendent Benjamin Willis), Mayor Richard J.
In addition, CORE attended the Board's school budget hearings, speaking against segregation and asking for the Board to implement transfer plans to desegregate the schools. In July 1963, CORE staged a week-long sit-in and protest at the Board office in downtown Chicago in response to the Board's inaction. Finally, Board President Claire Roddewig and Willis agreed to meet with CORE to negotiate integration, but no significant changes came to the schools.During the mid-1960s, CORE turned towards community involvement, seeking to equip Chicagoans with ways to challenge segregation.
Freedom Houses, transfer petitions, community rallies and meetings served to educate Chicagoans about segregation and provide them with tools to circumnavigate the neighborhood school policy.By 1966, the Chicago Freedom Movement, led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and Chicago's Coordinating Council of Community Organizations (CCCO), had assumed control over civil rights demonstrations and negotiations. While CORE was a member organization of the CCCO, it increasingly lost influence over desegregation efforts. And when the Chicago Freedom Movement met with representatives of the City to negotiate in the summer of 1966, they agreed on ten fair housing reforms but did not discuss reforms to desegregate the schools.
While CORE played no role in the housing summit, it had shifted towards promoting and developing Black power in Chicago. By fall of 1966, CORE was no longer a civil rights organization, but a Black power organization. Changes in CORE's national leadership and continued inaction on behalf of the Board to desegregate the schools pushed CORE towards separatism and away from desegregation efforts. The chapter collapsed in October 1968.March on WashingtonIn 1963, the organization helped organize the famous March on Washington. On 28 August 1963, more than 250,000 people marched peacefully to the Lincoln Memorial to demand equal justice for all citizens under the law. Its main objective was to attempt to end the political disenfranchisement of African Americans in the Deep South.
In 1962 only 6.7 percent of African Americans in the state were registered to vote, the lowest percentage in the country.
Over 80,000 people joined the party and 68 delegates attended the Democratic Party Convention in Atlantic City and challenged the attendance of the all-white Mississippi representation.CORE, SNCC and NAACP also established 30 Freedom Schools in towns throughout Mississippi.
Volunteers taught in the schools and the curriculum now included black history, the philosophy of the civil rights movement. During the summer of 1964 over 3,000 students attended these schools and the experiment provided a model for future educational programs such as Head Start.Freedom Schools were often targets of white mobs.
Three CORE activists, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner, were murdered by the Ku Klux Klan on 21 June 1964.



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