What gland secretes a hormone as a response to hypocalcemia,create page on facebook without account,html5 free online course,xiaxue the secret - Downloads 2016

The most important hormone secreted by the middle lobe (pars intermedia) of the pituitary is melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), which is stimulated by CRH from the hypothalamus.
The posterior lobe of the pituitary, also called the neurohypophysis, is actually an outgrowth of the hypothalamus and is embryonically derived from the nervous system.
Oxytocin (from neurosecretory cells) stimulates the uterus to contract during delivery and helps to keep it contracted after delivery (to prevent hemorrhage). The thyroid gland, the largest of the endocrine glands, lies in front of the neck, just below the larynx, with a wing (lobe) on either side of the trachea (Fig.
Because the thyroid removes iodine from the blood to make T4, a person’s diet must supply iodine.
If there is insufficient dietary intake of iodine, a disorder called a goiter (an enlarged thyroid gland) may result.
Another hormone, secreted in the parafollicular cells of the thyroid, is calcitonin or thyrocalcitonin. The parathyroids are small glands, each about the size of a pea, that lie on either side of the undersurface of the thyroid gland (see Fig. The chief cells of the parathyroids secrete a hormone, parathormone or parathyroid hormone (PTH), that regulates the amounts of calcium and phosphorus in the blood, which in turn affect nerve and muscle irritability.
Parathormone has an additional effect on the kidneys in that it promotes the formation of calcitriol, a hormone synthesized from vitamin D.
Nursing Alert A client with severe calcium deficiency may exhibit muscle twitching and spasms, and possibly seizures.
The two adrenal glands, also known as the suprarenal glands, sit like hats, one atop each kidney (see Fig. The central portion of the adrenal gland, called the medulla, secretes hormones called catecholamines, which are made from amino acids.
However, the adrenal medulla is not necessary for life, because the sympathetic nervous system can take over its activities.
Dopamine, also produced in the chromaffin cells, acts to increase heart rate and blood pressure. The zona fasciculata, reticularis, and glomerulosa, which are cells of the outer part of the adrenal glands (the adrenal cortex), secrete many compounds called corticosteroids or corticoids. Glucocorticoids have an important influence on the synthesis of glucose, amino acids, and fats during metabolism. Nursing Alert Clients taking glucocorticoids often experience lengthened healing times and may have a decreased response to infections owing to the drug’s antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive response.
The sex hormones of the adrenal cortex (androgens, estrogens, and progestins) supplement the sex hormones of the gonads. The pineal gland (pineal body) is a small, cone-shaped structure located at the top portion of the brain’s third ventricle (see Fig. Melatonin or another pineal hormone may also regulate the release of substances from the hypothalamus that stimulate and affect the secretion of gonadotropin. The gonads are the glands of reproduction: the testes of the male and the ovaries of the female (see Fig. The female ovaries produce estrogen (primarily estradion) and progesterone, which, in addition to regulating female sex characteristics, are responsible for menstruation; they also influence pregnancy, labor, and lactation. The endocrine portion of the pancreas exists in the 1 to 2 million small islands (islets) scattered throughout its body and tail. Key Concept Insulin is a hormone needed to transport glucose into cells to enable the cells to function. The thymus produces thymosin (thymic hormone), a protein that stimulates production of small lymphocytes called T cells (also called T lymphocytes, T helper cells, or thymus-dependent cells). The G cells of the stomach secrete a hormone called gastrin, and the ECL cells secrete histamine; both stimulate the gastric glands (parietal cells) to secrete gastric juice.
The lining of the upper part of the small intestine secretes hormones (pancreozymin, secretin) that stimulate the pancreas to release pancreatic juice and another hormone that regulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and causes the gallbladder to contract (cholecystokinin). The placenta is a temporary endocrine gland that secretes hormones to assist in maintaining pregnancy. A structure within the kidney called the juxtaglomerular apparatus produces a hormone called renin (part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone [RAA] mechanism), which acts on the vascular system to assist in blood pressure control (see Fig. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), or atrial natriuretic factor (ANf), is a hormone produced in the cardiac myocytes in the atrium of the heart as a protective mechanism. Another hormone secreted in the same cells is brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), which also reduces blood pressure, but to a lesser degree than does ANP. In addition to cells in the liver, myocytes in voluntary (striated) muscles secrete thrombopioetin, which stimulates the production of platelets. NCLEX Alert The NCLEX requires under standing of the interdependence of normal and abnormal functioning of the body’s systems.
The endocrine and circulatory systems are also interdependent because hormones travel from the glands through blood and lymph.
Interaction occurs between nervous and endocrine systems in response to stimulus from both systems.
Signaling occurs between neurons within the nervous system; endocrine influence on or by the nerves (neurosecretion).
Signals transmitted along cell membranes via proteins or lipids; can affect adjacent cell or same cell. The hypothalamus and anterior and middle pituitary are components of a unit that can be called an “information relay system.” Specialized cells in the hypothalamus respond to changes in the internal and external environments.
The fine balance within the endocrine system called feedback regulates the rate and quantity of hormone secretion.
Monitor for heart disease, which increases in women after menopause, with loss of estrogens. NCLEX Alert It will be important to understand the relationship of the endocrine system to a client’s status and treatment of specific diseases (especially diabetes mellitus), neoplasms, and injuries. Different receptors Same receptors but different intracellular proteins (not shown) Different cellular responses Epinephrine ? receptor ? receptor ? receptor Glycogen deposits Vessel dilates.
Tip: To turn text into a link, highlight the text, then click on a page or file from the list above. This have a number of functions including releasing stored glucose from the liver (for energy) and controlling swelling after injury. The adrenal medulla is part of the autonomic nervous system (ANS).The ANS is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system, maintaining homeostasis in the body. MSH influences skin pigmentation and is chemically similar to ACTH (produced in the anterior lobe). In this case, the hypothalamus secretes a hormone called thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Calcitriol increases the rate of calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus absorption from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced in the chromaffin cells and are catecholamines.

Aldosterone, the most important mineralocorti-coid, stimulates reabsorption of sodium into the plasma and secretion of potassium and hydrogen in the kidney.
The adrenals primarily produce androgens, with only minute amounts of estrogen and progesterone secretion. These signs are a result of redistribution of fat in the body giving the client an appearance of being overweight or obese. In addition, progesterone has an influence on the gall bladder, blood clotting mechanisms, thyroid function, nerve function, and many other body functions. Within these islets, called the islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets), are special types of cells that secrete pancreatic hormones. Delta cells secrete somatostatin, which is identical to the growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) secreted by the hypothalamus.
F cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide, which is believed to inhibit the secretion of somatostatin and pancreatic digestive enzymes.
If there is a lack of insulin or if the insulin is not working as it should, an increased blood glucose level will result. The cells lining the ilium and colon also secrete the human incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-I (GLP-I), which encourages the pancreas to secrete insulin. These include insulin-like growth factor (somatomedin, IGF), which has insulin-like effects in regulating cell growth and development. Adipocytes in fatty tissue produce leptin, which causes a decrease in appetite and increased metabolism.
Hormones that are very involved in the body’s inflammatory process are called leukotrienes (LTs). The prostaglandins are specialized fatty acids that were first isolated in the seminal fluid of the prostate, from which their name is derived.
After the desired effect is achieved, information is sent to the gland to halt secretion of the hormone.
For example, if there is a need for a hormone to meet the body’s needs, a message is carried to the appropriate gland. The results of aging include a risk for disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, hyper- or hypothyroidism, and osteoporosis (a disorder that causes brittle bones, owing to decreased bone mass and decalcification).
In women, menopause (cessation of menstruation) begins in middle age with a decrease in estrogen levels. The NCLEX may require knowledge of the infant, youth, adult, or older adult, all of whom may have specific, different needs. These activities are generally performed without conscious control.The adrenal medulla secretes the hormone adrenaline.
The hypothalamus inhibits secretion of MSH by secreting melanocyte-inhibiting factor (MIF). It is also involved in orgasm and circadian homeostasis (body temperature, wakefulness, and activity level). The epithelial cells of the thyroid secrete two hormones: thyroxine (tetraiodothyronine or T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). A lack of iodine in the body could cause a decrease in thyroid function over a period of time.
The thyroid gland is made up of follicles, each containing an outer wall of follicular cells, with colloid material inside. When circulating calcium levels are high, calcitonin responds by promoting increased storage of calcium in bones and increased renal excretion of calcium, resulting in lowered serum calcium levels.
Usually, there are four, in two pairs; despite their relatively small size, the parathyroids are essential to health and to life itself. This secretion increases the number and size of osteoclasts (large cells associated with reabsorption of bone). As with the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands each have two parts; each part produces different hormones. They are said to prepare people for “fight or flight.” The functions of the adrenal medulla are important in management of and adaptation to stress.
These substances also function as neurotransmitters, are involved in movement, mood, and behavior, and are found in a number of locations in the body. This action results in increased water reabsorption and, therefore, an increase in blood volume. Theorists speculate that the amount of daylight animals receive regulates their pineal secretions, influencing their breeding seasons. In addition to producing sperm, the Leydig cells of the testes produce testosterone, the male sex hormone. As an exocrine gland, it releases digestive enzymes into the duct system leading to the small intestine. A condition known as diabetes mellitus results when there is a disturbance in the oxidation or utilization of glucose (often the result of a malfunction of the beta cells of the pancreas). After puberty, the thymus becomes smaller, but little is known of the longterm effects of this phenomenon.
T cells are essential for the development of cellular immunity and the body’s response to invading organisms. Two other hormones produced by these cells are angiotensinogen, which, on hydrolysis by renin, gives rise to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).
The pregnant uterus also secretes prolactin, which influences the production of milk after delivery. Erythropoietin (renal erythropoietic factor) is a glycoprotein (protein and carbohydrate combination) hormone produced in the extraglomerular mesangial cells of the adult’s kidneys and in the child’s liver.
It does this by acting on the kidneys to inhibit renin secretion, which inhibits the production of angiotensin.
The inflammatory process can result in bronchoconstriction and anaphylaxis (similar to histamine, except that leukotrienes are released at a slower rate). One example is the secretion of insulin by the endocrine system, which enables the digestive system to use glucose and glycogen from foods. The hormones secreted by the hypothalamus and released from the anterior and middle lobes of the pituitary then travel through the bloodstream to certain target tissues.
This is a negative feedback system or negative feedback loop, because the body has again achieved homeostasis. Reduced hormone production by other glands may also be seen as a result of the normal aging process. As a result, breast tissue changes from glandular tissue to connective and adipose (fat) tissue. The ability to achieve erection, orgasm, and ejaculation remain but may take longer than in earlier years.
The two hormones released by the posterior lobe, oxytocin and vasopressin, are secreted in the hypothalamus by neurosecretory cells, and then released by the neurohypophysis (see Fig. Common symptoms a healthcare provider could see in a client with decreased thyroid function are fatigue, weight gain, and complaints of being cold.

Its actions are to make the heart beat faster, contract blood vessels, raise blood pressure, and increase muscle power by causing the liver to release glucose for energy. In recent years, the abuse of anabolic steroids (synthetic derivatives of testosterone) has been increasingly reported, particularly in relation to sports. Melatonin production is not completely understood, but is related to the amount of exposure to environmental light. The effect of daylight on humans is not well understood, but is believed to affect the brain and to influence the rate of gonad (ovary and testis) maturation.
Other steroid hormones produce masculinizing effects; as a group, they are called androgens. The types of hormones secreted are glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide (see Table 20-3). It also stimulates the breakdown of fats and proteins for conversion in the liver into additional glucose. Because insulin is necessary for adequate functioning of the body medical intervention is necessary to manage diabetes mellitus. If the T-cell count of a person is diminished, that person would have a diminished ability to fight off attacking pathogens. These two hormones cause vasoconstriction, rising blood pressure, and the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. ANP inhibits aldosterone secretion and also reduces vascular resistance in the body and lowers the content of fats in the blood.
Drugs have been developed to decrease the amount of leukotrienes in the body in different ways.
Prostaglandins are not hormones, but rather are hormone-like substances that share characteristics with hormones and neurotransmitters. These hormones usually bind to receptors on the target tissues in a “lock-and-key” fashion. This situation will now cause an inhibited glandular response because the previous imbalance has been resolved. The desired effect (response) by the body does not cause the hormone secretion to cease (as in the negative feedback system) but allows it to continue and intensify. These decreases in function have a more gradual onset than do the hormonal changes that occur in women.
Physiological reaction includes increased heart rate.Adrenaline lead to the arousal of the sympathetic nervous system and reduced activity in the parasympathetic nervous system. PTH also enhances reabsorption of calcium and magnesium and excretion of phosphorus in the kidneys.
Melatonin is an antioxidant and is thought to participate in the maintenance of the sleep-wake cycle.
This conversion of excess amino acids and fatty acids into glycogen, which is later released as glucose, is called gluconeogenesis. This type of diminished immune response may be seen in the person with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or in the client undergoing cancer chemotherapy. Yet another hormone produced by the hepatocytes is thrombopoietin, which stimulates the production of platelets. Also secreted in the kidneys is calcitriol, an active form of vitamin D3, which influences absorption of calcium and phosphate.
The result of these actions is to inhibit sodium reabsorption and to promote diuresis (the secretion of large amounts of urine).
An example of a positive feedback system is exemplified by the hormone oxytocin, which is produced during labor. In sunlight, sympathetic nerve fibers release norepinephrine, which inhibits the secretion of melatonin and results in wakefulness. It has recently been discovered that the beta cells also secrete amylin, which responds to food intake and works with insulin and glucagons to help regulate glucose balance. Thus, it lowers the rate of gastric emptying and reduces smooth muscle contractions and blood flow in the intestines.
The result of this excretion of sodium and water is a lowering of blood pressure, which reduces the workload of the heart and lowers stress on the blood vessels. They can cause pain, they perform a role in platelet function, and stimulate either contraction or relaxation in the smooth muscle. For example, certain parts of the nervous system stimulate or inhibit the release of hormones. Oxytocin intensifies the contractions of the uterus and enables the uterus to expel the fetus.
In darkness, the lack of norepinephrine stimulates the secretion of melatonin, resulting in sleepiness.
Amylin acts especially during the few hours immediately after eating (postprandial period). The prostaglandins influence blood pressure, respiration, digestion, and reproduction— and in some cases, actually can have opposite effects on these functions.
When a stress response is triggered, it sends signals to two other structures: the pituitary gland, and the adrenal medulla.
These hormones regulate body metabolism, controlling the rate at which cells do their work. It slows the production of glucose to the liver and serves to help the person feel full or satisfied (satiety) by sending a signal across the blood-brain barrier. For example, one prostaglandin may cause dilation of the bronchioles, whereas another may cause constriction.
These two systems are also similar in function because they both stimulate and control body actions. These short term responses are produced by The Fight or Flight Response via the Sympathomedullary Pathway (SAM).
Extensive research relating to prostaglandins is being conducted to determine their specific functions. Generally, the effect of nerve stimuli is immediate and lasts only as long as the stimulation is present.
In addition, they affect sensitivity to catecholamines and sympathetic amines, such as dopamine and epinephrine.
The possibility exists that many disorders may be treated in the future by the administration of substances that control prostaglandin secretion.
It works primarily as an anti-inflammatory agent, by inhibiting production of prostaglandin.

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what gland secretes a hormone as a response to hypocalcemia

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