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Smart Thinking Summary Mar 19, 16 03:30 PMLearn how to improve your leadership thinking in this Smart Thinking summary of the book by psychologist Art Markman. Great leadership development training doesn't need to start with a lot of money Sep 27, 15 06:10 PMBefore spending lots of money in leadership development training, you should consider a few steps you can take to learn the skill at little to no cost.
Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people.
The first major study of leadership styles was performed in 1939 by Kurt Lewin who led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership (Lewin, Lippit, White, 1939). Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, bad leaders tend to stick with one style, normally autocratic. This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats. This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts.
Even if you have all the answers, gaining different perspectives and diversity of opinions normally provide greater creativity than insularity.
So as you think about diversity and its effects in organizations during this tough economic time, recognize that the most robust practical value of diversity is that it challenges everyone in an organization.
This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and have confidence in the people below you.
A good leader uses all three styles, depending on what forces are involved between the followers, the leader, and the situation. Using all three styles: Telling your employees that a procedure is not working correctly and a new one must be established (authoritarian). Notice that as you go from left to right, it moves from manager-oriented decision making to team or subordinate oriented decision making, thus the teama€™s freedom increases while the managera€™s authority decreases. Manager makes decision and announces it a€“ The team has no role in the decision-making role. Manager presents ideas and invites questions a€“ This allows the team to get a fuller explanation so they can gain a better understanding of what the manager is trying to accomplish.
Manager presents a tentative decision that is subject to change a€“ This action invites the team to have some influence regarding the decision; thus, it can be changed based on the team's input. Manager presents the problem, gets suggestions, and then makes the decision a€“ Up to this point the manager has always presented the decision, although the last style allows it to change based upon the team's input.
Manager defines limits, and requests the team to make a decision a€“ The manager delegates the decision making to the team; but instills specific limits on the team's solution.
Manager allows team to function within limits a€“ Now the team does the decision making, however, the manager's superior may have placed certain limits on the options they can make. Basically, the first two styles or behaviors are similar to the authoritarian style, the next three are similar to the participative style, while the last two are similar to the delegative style. This page describes seven behavior patterns or styles of leaders, to include Social Leadership as described by Howell and Costley (2001).
Most leaders do not strictly use one or another, but are somewhere on a continuum ranging from extremely positive to extremely negative.
Consideration (employee orientation) — leaders are concerned about the human needs of their employees. Structure (task orientation) — leaders believe that they get results by consistently keeping people busy and urging them to produce. There is evidence that leaders who are considerate in their leadership style are higher performers and are more satisfied with their job (Schriesheim, 1982).


Also notice that consideration and structure are independent of each other, thus they should not be viewed on a continuum (Stogdill, 1974).
Blake and Mouton's Managerial Grid is a good example of a leadership model based upon the concept of consideration and structure. Leadership is influencing people by providing purpose, direction, and motivation while operating to accomplish the mission and improving the organization.
A system under which an authority undertakes to supply needs or regulate conduct of those under its control in matters affecting them as individuals as well as in their relationships to authority and to each other.
Thus, paternalism supplies needs for those under its protection or control, while leadership gets things done.
The last revolution in Sweden disposed of King Gustav IV, whom they considered incompetent, and surprising invited Jean Baptise Bernadotte, a French general who served under Napoleon, to become their new King. Bernadotte was a victim of culture shock—never in his French upbringing and military career had he experienced subordinates who laughed at the mistakes of their superior. Sweden differs from France in the way its society handles inequality (those in charge and the followers). For example, Malaysia has the highest PDI score, being 104, while Austria has the lowest with 11. Keeping the above in mind, it seems that some picture paternalistic behavior as almost a barbaric way of getting things accomplished.
That is what makes leadership styles quite interesting—they basically run along the same continuum as Hofstede's PDI, ranging from paternalistic to consultative styles of decision making.
However, when paternalistic or autocratic styles are relied upon too much and the employees are ready for a more consultative type of leadership style, then it can becomes quite damaging to the performance of the organization if change is not advanced. Directive leadership style is defined by a leader clearly defining roles and responsibilities of the team and seeking compliance of the team towards those tasks, while participative leadership is defined by a sharing of problem solving among team members (Sauer, 2011).
As a new leader, I can see how it would be difficult to make the distinction between directive or participative leadership styles. In a recent research paper Sauer (2011) found that low-status leaders were rated more favorably when they used a directive style, whereas high status leaders were rated higher when using a participative style.
As a rookie manager, it is best to evaluate your new situation to determine how you are perceived by your new team members. As seen by the employees, it includes the total pattern of explicit and implicit actions performed by their leader (Newstrom, Davis, 1993).
If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style. A leader is not expected to know everything—this is why you employ knowledgeable and skilled people. We are more thoughtful, and we recognize and utilize more of the information that we have at our disposal, when diversity is present. Now the team is free to come up with options, however, the manager still has the final say on those options. If the manager sits in on the decision making, he or she attempts to do so with no more authority than the other members do. This approach gives the leader more options that can be refined to specific situations or environments. Positive leaders use rewards, such as education, new experiences, and independence, to motivate employees, while negative employers emphasize penalties (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). They believe the only way to get things done is through penalties, such as loss of job, days off without pay, reprimanding employees in front of others, etc.
People who continuously work out of the negative are bosses, while those who primarily work out of the positive are considered great leaders. They build teamwork, help employees with their problems, and provide psychological support.


For example, a leader who is more considerate does not necessarily mean that she is less structured. Most definitions of leadership normally state or imply that one of the actions within leadership is that of influencing.
Part of his study was on the dependence relationship or Power Difference—the extent to which the less powerful members of an organization expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. This story has a happy ending as he was considered very good and ruled the country as a highly respected constitutional monarch until 1844.
At the root of his idea was the thought that when entering a new position as a leader, it was easier to display a directive style as opposed to participative one.
Fiedler theorized in his contingency theory that leadership effectiveness depends on both the style of the leader as well as the favorableness of the situation (Northouse, 2013).
Rookie managers, like most people, want to be liked, and this is completely understandable. The graphic illustration to the left (Sauer, 2012) demonstrates that managers that are perceived as low status leaders (such as new leaders) need to appear decisive, and when they do so they are seen as more effective by followers.
If you are seen as competent and experienced, engage your team, get their input and use a participative style.
Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect. Using this style is of mutual benefit as it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions.
This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it.
The negative approach has a place in a leader's repertoire of tools in certain situations; however, it must be used carefully due to its high cost on the human spirit. They believe their authority is increased by frightening everyone into higher levels of productivity.
At the time, I didn’t understand the theory behind it his advice, but I took it never the less. It may initially seem that it would make outcomes better if a new leader started their career by including their followers in their decision making process. However, managers seen as being high status leaders appear most confident and effective by their followers when they delegate authority.
However, if you sense that you are seen as a low-status leader, it may be best to employ my former mentor’s advice and give clear direction, assign tasks and give specific deadlines (Sauer, 2012). Taking the Reins: The effects of new leader status and leadership style on team performance. While lower numbers mean a more consultative style of leadership is used, which translates to employees who are not as afraid of their bosses. However, this could be a mistake that could ultimately hurt the perceptions of the team as well as their growth as a manager. Leaders that are low in assertiveness as well as low in leader status are seen as weak by the people they lead (Sauer, 2011). This can build credibility and confidence among your followers and increase the effectiveness of your team.
Stephen Sauer (2012) says that new leaders can be perceived as having low status, due to their age, education or experience, and thus face different rules as compared to more experienced leaders.
However, assertiveness can be a double edged sword as displaying too much assertiveness can lead to negative socio-emotional outcomes, thus the goal for a new manager becomes strong self-evaluation as well as an evaluation of the perception of the new team.



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what leadership style is used in the military



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