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The first law of thermodynamics dictates that body mass remains constant when caloric intake equals caloric expenditure. The hormonal changes associated with a low-carbohydrate diet include a reduction in the circulating levels of insulin along with increased levels of glucagons, leading to activation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-biphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase and inhibition of pyruvate kinase, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, and hexokinase, favoring gluconeogenesis over glycolysis. Gluconeogenesis is an energy-consuming process as 6 mol of ATP are consumed for the synthesis of 1 mol of glucose from pyruvate or lactate [10]. A high-protein diet also spares muscle glycogen, lowers insulin, and decreases lipogenesis [2]. Finally, ketogenic diets are characterized by elevations of free fatty acids, leading to the increased transcription of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and of peroxisomal ?-oxidation [13]. In [3] there were profound metabolic adaptations to a high fat diet, after only two days, with increased fat oxidation in both lean and obese subjects.
Not only is there an increased oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle with a high fat diet [3], you can use fat for fuel during weight training, contrary to popular belief.
Lipolysis may, therefore, provide energy during heavy-resistance exercise of relatively short duration. We conclude that intramyocellular lipid and glycogen stores are readily used during resistance exercise and this is likely associated with the reported increase in whole-body insulin sensitivity following resistance exercise. In moderately active adult females, ingestion of a single LC meal resulted in greater lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise as compared to a single LF meal.
William of Occam coined the idea that any explanation should be as simple as possible, but no simpler than that. I just read through Mario Iwakura’s article and the comments section, and once again am left shaking my head at the blatant reality evasion that has become the hallmark of low-carb advocates.
That single sentence pretty much sums up the deranged low-carb attitude towards scientific debate. Hear no evil, see no evil: The official low-carb policy for dealing with contradictory evidence. For those of you who want to learn for yourself why neither Stephan nor myself consider the Dayton study to constitute anything resembling proof about the role of PUFAs in weight gain, you can read my original discussion of it here. Iwakura et al are trying to shift the blame for low-carb-induced reductions in T3 on to the polyunsaturated fatty acids found in vegetable oils. The likely mechanism by which low-carb diets lower T3 levels is hardly unknown and has in fact been elucidated by numerous researchers (and also in my Is a Low Carb Diet Bad For Your Thyroid? I’ll discuss this some more in a second, but first there’s one other comment I’d like to make in regards to the Dayton et al study, and this applies not so much to Mario but the low-carb crowd in general.
Awrighty … time to get down to business and blow the "It's not low-carb, it's the PUFAs!" hypothesis into oblivion.
My dear jurors, Mr Iwakura is claiming that it is not carbohydrate restriction but omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids responsible for the reductions in T3 observed time and time again on low-carb diets.
Ladies and gentlemen, that pretty much destroys Mario’s hypothesis right there, but I’m not done yet folks, nosirreee. As you look through this paper, my dear jurors, you will see that Dr Bisschop and his colleagues from the Netherlands measured thyroid hormone levels, resting energy expenditure and urinary nitrogen excretion in six healthy males after eleven days of 3 isocaloric diets containing 15% of calories as protein and 85%, 44% and 2% as carbohydrates.
The results were pretty much what anyone who is not a hopelessly biased low-carb shill would expect.
As with the Danforth study, dear jurors, Mr Iwakura cannot even begin to blame PUFAs for the decrease in T3 on the low-carb diet. Champion bodybuilder Branch Warren knows carbohydrates help build muscle, which is why he's been known to put away as much as 1000 grams of them daily! This, of course, is just fine by Mario, who happily extrapolates the results of unrelated studies examining the relationship between thyroid hormones and a bunch of other hormones; studies, I should point out, that did not involve low-carb diets. So even though there was no change in T3 uptake, the two low-carb diets still decreased actual T3 to levels lower than that seen on the higher carb diets. So what the Otten study shows is that the Volek low-carb subjects could indeed have experienced significant declines in T3 despite no changes in T3 uptake, but we’ll never know because the researchers conveniently chose not to measure the former. Davidson et al found that increasing carbohydrate intake over a range of 104-409 grams daily at eucaloric levels resulted in greater T3 levels, while on the high-calorie diet T3 concentrations were similarly increased with carbohydrate intakes of 206 and 407 grams per day[Davidson MB]. Average carbohydrate intake in grams was 250 grams on the standard diet, 71 grams on the low-carbohydrate diet, and 533 grams on the high-carbohydrate diet. When you examine the various studies, it is readily apparent that a wide variety of carbohydrate intakes were employed and yes, in a minority of cases no significant T3 reductions were observed at non-ketogenic low-carb intakes.
The ESS-inducing effects of low-carb diets are very real, and people need to know about them. But Tess ignores this entirely, and falsely pretends I don’t have any first-hand experience with thyroid issues.
Tess, I know people like you like to look at those in good shape and flippantly dismiss their superior condition as the product of good fortune or some other unknowable, uncontrollable factor that for some mysterious reason you had the misfortune of not being blessed with.
I know people want me to be ashamed of the fact that I’m not a lazy slob looking for an easy way to lose weight, for instead being a motivated person who actually enjoys working hard at something then subsequently reaping the rewards for it. The reality is that if people spent less time whining, wanking, and acting like pseudo-intellectual tossers on Internet forums and blogs, and instead got off their soft, fat asses and did some real vigorous exercise (angry keyboard tapping is not exercise), there’d be a lot less adipose tissue in the world.
And for the record, even Cindy Crawford exercises, so here’s a news flash: if a gifted gal like Cindy needs to exercise to keep in shape, you flabby Internet warriors certainly aren’t going to do it by remaining sedentary. You can endlessly talk and debate and wank on about acetyl-coenzyme-A-carnitine-transferase-uncoupling-protein-beta-agonist-Lolly-Gobble-Bliss-Bombs, but until you acknowledge the most simple fat loss fact of all – calories in versus out – and start burning the chub off with good honest exercise and sensible eating (as opposed to idiotic low-carb faddism) you will never get lean. I can already hear the self-righteous howls of protest at what I’ve just written, but telling the plain truth is always a sure fire way to piss people off. As you’re leaving, here’s something for you to ponder: This “bloody idiot” is far leaner than any of the low-carb geniuses who so vehemently insist I’m full of baloney.
Anthony Colpo is an independent researcher, physical conditioning specialist, and author of the groundbreaking books The Fat Loss Bible and The Great Cholesterol Con. Disclaimer: All content on this web site is provided for information and education purposes only.
A recent look at 87 long term studies have proven that when it comes to burning body fat, reducing your carb intake DOES work best. I went from near sobbing fits over my computer not working properly to hysterical laughter at the thought of even undertaking such an experiment.
You see, your brain NEEDS carbs just to function properly so doing without any at all was an extreme example of how your body does need to get some carbs to function.
So how can you burn fat using low carb diet plan WITHOUT worrying about whether you'll be fitted for a straight jacket?
This is a little twist I've created that allows you to EASILY reduce the WRONG kind of carbs WITHOUT counting calories and NEVER going hungry. You see, you need more carbs on training days to help your muscles recover from your exercise. I know this is a very different way of looking at the food you eat and doesn't really follow the normal "low carb" pattern. Fad diets come and go - the Low Carb diets have received a lot of attention in the past few years yet again - since it became unpopular in the 70s. The truth is: by eating a Low Carb diet, you do not provide sufficient carbohydrates to your body for daily function. In addition, some Low Carb diets such as the Atkins Diet lump all carbohydrate foods together and give it a bad name. The truth is - in addition to losing water drastically at the beginning, these low-carb diets are often calorie-restricted!!! Information on this site is provided for informational purposes and is not meant to substitute for the advice provided by your own physician or dietitian. Home > Dr Oz > Dr Oz DietDr Oz: Chris Powell Boost and Burn Diet & Do Low Carb Diets Work? Dr Oz shared the Chris Powell Boost and Burn diet weight loss plan that lets you enjoy carb cravings while still priming your body for weight loss results. Human Verification: In order to verify that you are a human and not a spam bot, please enter the answer into the following box below based on the instructions contained in the graphic. All food consumed by humans can be divided into three major groups: proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates are usually processed by your body as a source of energy, and can also get stored as fat if not used up. It has been claimed that low-carb diets can be dangerous for health, however, there is no solid evidence to back up this view (read more about this on our Low-Carb Diet Myths page).
If you suffer from any sort of medical condition, or are worried about health consequences for any reason whatsoever, please consult with your GP before staring a low-carb diet. You might find the diet a bit boring and monotonous, and will crave carbohydrate foods initially.

Your grocery bills will probably increase a bit, as protein-based foods such as meat and fish tend to be more expensive than carbohydrate-based food, such as bread and pasta. Finally, if you are a vegetarian, you might find it more difficult to follow a low-carb diet plan. If you’re not, all you need to know is that it allows you to lose fat without counting calories. How is that possible? It should be noted, however, that different diets lead to different biochemical pathways that are not equivalent when correctly compared through the laws of thermodynamics. We review here some aspects of thermodynamics that bear on weight loss and the effect of macronutrient composition. Uncoupling proteins allow the proton gradient generated by the respiratory chain to re-enter the mitochondria by pathways which bypass the F1 ATPase, resulting in the generation of heat rather than ATP. Also, fatty acids undergoing ?-oxidation with peroxisomes have no mechanism for energy conservation and result solely in heat production [13].
It turns out that you can get the same metabolic benefits simply by restricting carbohydrates [6]. It decreases muscle atrophy, increases mitochondrial biogenesis, decreases apoptosis and protein breakdown, and promotes balanced autophagy (which is also necessary to prevent atrophy). In fact, the high fat groups had increased levels of PCG1-alpha, which implies that a high fat diet gives the same benefits as exercise!
Also, storage and utilization of intramuscular substrates appear to be influenced by the metabolic profile of muscle. As an Economics graduate and medical student, we view fitness through the lens of human behaviour and biology.
It affects almost every physiological process in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, body temperature, and heart rate. It’s yet another classic example of how low-carbers single-mindedly plod through life, refusing to even acknowledge the existence of contradictory evidence to their beloved yet fallacious beliefs.
With a single throwaway line, Mario conveniently discards my PUFA discussion and refuses to even acknowledge any of the points I raised. For these vicious little misfits, it’s not about an impartial search for the facts, it’s all about grasping any opportunity to smear your opponent and getting the smug, warm, fuzzy feeling of having your beliefs validated.
I gave a detailed dissertation on why this study could not even begin to be used as evidence for the weight-promoting effects of PUFAs, but of course, Mario isn’t having any of it. You can’t just dismiss a compelling argument based purely on your own personal whims and fancies. The full text of the Dayton study can also be found at the above link so that you can peruse first-hand the data and study methods for yourself.
However, as you scan through the above paper, you will notice that one of the groups followed a zero-carb diet consisting of nothing but lean meat, fish, fowl, and vitamin and mineral supplements.
Isocaloric carbohydrate deprivation induces protein catabolism despite a low T3-syndrome in healthy men. The diets supplied 33.1 calories per kilogram of bodyweight, which is the equivalent of 2,483 calories per day for a 75 kilogram person. I emailed Dr Bisschop for the fatty acid composition of the diets employed in his study, and he so kindly sent me the requested data by return email. The study headed by Jeff Volek  is the only one allegedly showing no change in thyroid hormone levels on a low-carb diet, so of course it is eagerly cited by Mario as proof that I’m wrong. Instead, let’s have a look at what might have happened had Volek et al bothered to measure not just resin-binding T3 but actual thyroid hormone levels as well. In fact, on the highest fat diet, T3 levels fell to levels similar to those observed during starvation!
To use the Volek study as evidence that low-carb diets do not lower T3 levels is merely another exercise in extremely dodgey extrapolation. It’s by doing the very thing you low-carbers are so highly averse to; namely, examining the evidence in its entirety, as opposed to cherry-picking only the studies that can be twisted and distorted to support your case. That paper reports that 800-calorie diets containing no carbohydrate (20 percent protein, 80 percent fat) mimicked the fall in T3 found during starvation.
Both diets caused significant reductions in T3, with the ketogenic diet causing the largest decline[Mathieson RA]. No-one is saying that an exact % reduction in T3 will be noted at an exact specified number of carbohydrate grams. While this kind of rationalization no doubt helps you avoid some pretty discomforting introspection, it’s complete garbage. I know we now live in a world where people are raised to believe they are entitled to anything and everything they want without having to put in any real effort, and taught to blame every single thing that’s ever gone wrong in their life on external factors, but too bad – I don’t subscribe to that bullshit, and if you low-carb folks ever want to amount to something more than a bunch of chubby, disgruntled, groaning Internet losers, you’d be well served to do the same. Not to mention a lot less annoying, aggrieved low-carbers with rattlesnake personalities rabidly angry at the world because Mother Nature didn’t endow them with the ability to look like Cindy Crawford despite sitting on their lazy butts all day.
I know MMA fighters, cyclists, bodybuilders and runners who wouldn’t have a clue what an “uncoupling protein” is, and if asked what “COA” stands for would probably venture “Certificate of Authenticity” instead of Coenzyme A.
Sorry folks, but at no point in time did I say I was here to piss in your ear and tell you everything you want to hear. Effect of carbohydrate and noncarbohydrate sources of calories on plasma 3,5,3?-triiodothyronine concentrations in man. The effect of varying carbohydrate content of a very-low-caloric diet on resting metabolic rate and thyroid hormones.
Effects of slimming and composition of diets on V02 and thyroid hormones in healthy subjects.
Now YOU can have the lean, sexy body you've always wanted by using the same exact strategies used by the MEN AND WOMEN of the world's finest military units! With millions of book sales and aggressive marketing campaigns, many people turn to these Low Carb diets such as the Atkins diet and the Zone. For example, the Atkins diet limits carbohydrate intake to just 20g daily at the beginning (vs 130g recommended level by the National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine). Followers only eat an average of 1000 - 1400 calories daily; compared to an average intake of 1800 - 2200 calories.
Studies and clinical practice showed that lower carb diet is important in diabetes management. Information and statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. We just have to change the way we think about them, because they can be as powerful and addictive in our lives as drugs. He was born with a remote control in his hand, and is grateful to finally have a haven at Recapo for his pathological love of daytime television. You would not have to cut all of them out completely, but you would consume less than you would on another type of diet.
Restricting carbohydrates consumption makes your body switch into a different metabolic state called ketosis, where your body starts using up fat for energy.
If you do it properly and stick your chosen diet plan, you will lose weight, and most likely will find it happening easier and faster than on a standard diet. Low-carb diets have been around since 1970s (the original Dr Atkins diet), and enabled millions of people around the world to lose weight and actually improve their health.
If you are worried about getting the full spectrum of nutrients, you might also consider taking a multivitamin supplement.
It is inappropriate to assume that the only thing that counts in terms of food consumption and energy balance is the intake of dietary calories and weight storage. The focus is the so-called metabolic advantage in low-carbohydrate diets – greater weight loss compared to isocaloric diets of different composition. It activates uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1),  increasing thermogenesis and producing more brown adipose tissue. It was found in [5] that higher fasting plasma levels of GLP-1 were associated with higher resting energy expenditure and fat oxidation rates. Our mission is to provide the simplest solutions that yield dramatic results and allow you to have that slice of cake while you’re at it. And of course, the moronic low-carb haters in the comments section are just fine with his evasiveness. Well, Mario and the heroic Franco may not want to address the evidence that contradicts their pro-low-carb hypothesis, but I certainly will. It doesn’t confirm his confirmation bias, so he simply dismisses it without so much as a cursory discussion: “Nothing there to convince me, so case closed. Yours truly avoided these fat sources like the plague and still suffered euthyroid sick syndrome on a low-carb diet.
Unlike many of the previous studies where the fat intake of the low-carb diets was boosted by n-6-rich oils like corn, Dr Bisschop and his team used liquid formulas with a far more balanced fatty acid composition. Just one wee problem: Volek et al didn’t even measure levels of T3, the critical thyroid hormone in question!

In contrast, the same subjects receiving isocaloric diets containing at least fifty grams of carbohydrate showed no significant changes in T3 levels. And the following studies indicate that the 50-100 gram level used as the cut-off for non-ketogenic dieting is no sure-fire guarantee of optimal T3 levels either.
The remaining two diets were either low- or high-carbohydrate, and were consumed by all the subjects in random order between the two standard diet phases. In saying that, I want to make it perfectly clear that the kind of high-carbohydrate diet I recommend is one high in healthy carbohydrates.
Since writing my article, I’ve had grateful emails from people who finally realized what was causing their low body temperature, cold intolerance, and general sluggishness. This issue has very real relevance to me, because I suffered firsthand the low morning temperature and cold intolerance symptoms induced by low-carb dieting.
I just love the way low-carbers like Tess trumpet their own personal anecdotal experiences as inalienable truths that apply to everyone, but flat out ignore the anecdotal reports of (far more reliable) commentators who have had negative experiences on low-carb diets.
The real reason, my dear Tess, I kept lean despite suffering ESS is because I nevertheless obeyed the utterly inescapable reality of calories in versus calories out.
You’re living proof that those who abide by the scientific principles outlined in The Fat Loss Bible achieve far more than the sad malevolents who childishly and fruitlessly rebel against me and said principles. There is no way for someone to eat that much fatty food and justify that it is healthy to do so!!!! Most grains, fruits, beans, potatoes, rice, pastas, some vegetables are all excluded from this diet.
Dr Oz had another new diet plan (called Carb Cycling) to share on his show, and this is one that a lot of people might be excited about. Chris shared a one-week plan to change the way we look at carbs, which he promised would cut carb cravings and result in weight loss.
The amount of protein and fat consumed on a low-carb diet will probably be higher than that on a standard diet.
There is also an additional metabolic advantage, as your body needs to use up extra calories to process high amounts of protein.
You will not end up feeling hungry all the time, as can be the case on a low-fat or calorie-restricted diet. Providing you follow a proper low-carb diet plan, there should be no detrimental effect on your health, and you may even find some health advantages – some people have reported better digestion, lower cholesterol and reduction in allergies. And why does eating to satiety help, even when calories aren’t explicitly restricted?
Well-controlled studies suggest that calorie content may not be as predictive of fat loss as is reduced carbohydrate consumption.
Two laws of thermodynamics are relevant to the systems considered in nutrition and, whereas the first law is a conservation (of energy) law, the second is a dissipation law: something (negative entropy) is lost and therefore balance is not to be expected in diet interventions. You can’t embrace the results of a study claiming that PUFAs turn your thyroid into a raging furnace that melts fat away even under conditions of gross overfeeding, but then turn around and claim that PUFAs suppress thyroid hormone levels and cause weight gain in an attempt to rebut me when I point out the well documented links between low-carb diets and low T3 levels. The data show that n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) constituted only 20% of the fatty acid content of the mixed and low-carb diets (the fatty acid content of the highest carb diet was next to non-existent).
Urinary nitrogen excretion is a long-standing and widely employed marker for protein (as in, lean tissue) breakdown.
Instead, as I explained in my article, the pro-low-carb and Atkins-sponsored Volek team chose to only measure T3 uptake, a test also known as “resin-binding T3 uptake”. Mario and Stabby jump on this finding as if it is proof that only fifty grams of carbohydrate is needed to maintain optimal T3 levels.
I’ve noticed a rather sneaky and disingenuous trend of late in which low-carbers are increasingly using the terms “high-carbohydrate” and “high sugar” interchangeably, as if they are the same thing.
What is clear from the literature is a consistent pattern in which low carbohydrate intakes, be they ketogenic or non-ketogenic, produce significant declines in serum T3 levels, the effect being most pronounced on ketogenic diets. I’ve also had emails from people who sorely wished I’d written the article years earlier, as it would have saved them a lot of hassle and frustration.
I had to endure icicle-like extremities and rug up like the Michelin Man every damn winter for years on a low-carb diet, the problem only disappearing when I began eating a high-carb diet. I expended enough calories to maintain a low body fat level, low-morning temperatures and inferior low-carb dieting be damned.
They’re all leaner and fitter than you, and have body fat levels that would put virtually every low-carb and Paleo guru to complete shame. Therefore the drastic initial drop of weight at the beginning is only water you lose as a result of burning glycogen.
Numerous well-proven scientific research showed that diets high in fat and saturated fat can increase the risk of heart disease. Fruits and Vegetables especially, are rich in fiber as well as antioxidants such as Vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids, etc which are essential in the prevention of heart disease and cancer. Therefore, it doesn't matter if you eat a high or low carb diet, you will lose weight if you restrict your calories to less than you need.
Finally, eating a lot of protein helps you feel full for longer, thus making it easy to consume fewer calories overall. In addition, many people also report an improvement in their digestion, overall health and wellbeing. Here, we propose that a misunderstanding of the second law accounts for the controversy about the role of macronutrient effect on weight loss and we review some aspects of elementary thermodynamics. Since PGC1-alpha activity decreases with age, and it is one of the key mechanisms by which calorie restriction (and fasting) increases lifespan, it may be vital for anti-aging and preventing age-related disease.
Now, I’ve made no secret about just what I think of this so-called ‘research’ - I’ve discussed it in detail here.
Low-carb diets have repeatedly been shown to increase nitrogen excretion, which is one reason why they suck the big one for building muscle. They’re not, and only a bloody idiot would try and claim that sucrose and fructose are the same as sweet potatoes, berries, and taro (more about bloody idiots in a moment). While not all people may experience overt symptoms of euthyroid sick syndrome (ESS), the literature clearly shows without a doubt that low-carb diets open the door wide for such symptoms to occur in susceptible individuals. Of course, the low-carb camp doesn’t care about any of this; they prefer to simply ignore people who experience adverse effects on low-carb diets.
Instead of scowling and hissing like a spoilt little shit on Internet forums and blogs about my “slow thyroid”, I took the little bugger with me on my bike rides, whether it wanted to come along or not.
To explain how, he shared the Chris Powell Boost and Burn diet ultimate weight loss plan that is all about Carb Cycles. We use data in the literature to show that thermogenesis is sufficient to predict metabolic advantage. But to quickly recap, this crew compared MUFA and PUFA-rich diets, and reported weight loss on the PUFA diet but not on the MUFA diet. The remaining 78.5% - over three quarters – of fats on both diets were derived from fatty acids of the monounsaturated (oleic acid) and saturated (capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid) variety.
They totally ignore all the other studies showing T3 reductions at higher carbohydrate intakes. Yep, while you and your low-carb ilk were pissing and moaning on the web with your “Oh woe is me, I have a retarded thyroid” carry-on, I was on my bike up in the Dandenong Ranges, clocking up the miles, chewing up the calories, and giving my lungs (and thyroid) a good tickle in the chilly winter air.
The owner and contributors to this site accept no responsibility or liability whatsoever for any harm, real or imagined, from the use or dissemination of information contained on this site. What’s more, the astronomically high caloric intakes allegedly consumed while this weight loss was supposedly occurring would indicate that PUFAs accelerate metabolism to a greater degree than a hyperactive thyroid on jet fuel.
Despite what Mario and his snarling cheer squad would prefer to believe, the results of this study cannot even begin to be explained away by the consumption of inordinate amounts of n-6 PUFA; the amounts consumed in this study would easily be replicated by any pork-, poultry- and beef-fat-slurping low-carber.
As Dr Bisschop stated in the passage I quoted earlier, the reduction in T3 appears to be an attempt by the body to try and at least partially counter the increase in protein breakdown that occurs on low-carb diets.
Speak to your registered dietitian - they are able to calculate how much calories you minimally need per day. Again, as I discussed here, all evidence reports to these results being complete crap, but that doesn’t stop the low-carb movement from citing the aforementioned study as ‘proof’ of a metabolic advantage.
The key mechanism behind this increased catabolism, by the way, is dramatically lowered insulin levels. They are conscientious individuals who take responsibility for their physical condition, and know full well the physical results they strive for will never be achieved by sitting at a computer selectively wanking on about metabolic minutiae. Yep, insulin - that much maligned hormone that the low-carb fringe lunatics would have you believe is more evil than an Australian Labor-Green Party coalition - is actually helping you preserve your muscle mass and keeping your T3 levels at a healthy level.

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