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02.05.2014
Coloring Pages for children is a wonderful activity that encourages children to think in a creative way and arises their curiosity. COLOUR BY NUMBER PRINTABLES HARD [game] printable hard connect the dots adult printable clips to and share color by number (along with color by letter and color by a short, printable book about farm animals and the numbers from 1 to 10 the book has pages for the student to cut out, read, color and short phrases to copy .
As mentioned, what causes yeast infection in women and men is the excessive amount of yeast in the body. Once the infection reached the bloodstream, this can lead to a condition known as systemic candidiasis. Yeast Infection Sufferer Reveals Complete System That Will Show you How To Permanently Cure Your Yeast Infection. Feline spaying (cat spay procedure) - otherwise known as spaying cats, female neutering, sterilisation, "fixing", desexing, ovary and uterine ablation, uterus removal or by the medical term: ovariohysterectomy - is the surgical removal of a female cat's ovaries and uterus for the purposes of feline population control, medical health benefit, genetic-disease control and behavioral modification. Winter: Draw and Write 3 Things Draw three things you might see or do in the winter and write about each of them. Write Winter Alliterations Finish the ten winter alliterations, then write five alliterations related to winter. Reindeer Thoughts: Writing Prompt Write inside the thought bubble, expressing the thoughts of the reindeer. Snowman Thoughts: Writing Prompt Write inside the snowman's thought bubble, expressing the thoughts of the snowman. Unscramble Adjectives: Adjectives Describing Snow Unscramble the adjectives describing snow. There is universal human interest in hair and hair-styling throughout history and around the world. The visual above shows a woman who does not like straight hair even though she looks attractive.
All the frustration of women stem from one thing: trying to change the texture of their hair. This seems to be one of those plural issues where a different plural is used when referring to the large uncountable group. Unlike other tissues of the body, scalp hair and body hair are not essential to our physical well-being.
Hair, a filamentous, often pigmented, outgrowth from the skin, is found only on mammals and often in a high-density of filaments per unit area. The hair thread has a cylindrical structure, highly organized, formed by inert cells, most of them keratinized and distributed following a very precise and pre-defined design. Hair and fur are chemically indistinguishable, having the same chemical composition, and are made of keratin.
Hair and nails are often stated to have much in common in relation to their origin, anatomical structures, and common involvement in many diseases.
The traditional hair styling in some parts of Africa also gives interesting examples of how people dealt with their head hair. The film Easy Rider (1969) includes the assumption that the two main characters could have their long hairs forcibly shaved with a rusty razor when jailed, symbolizing the intolerance of some conservative groups toward members of the counterculture. The remarkable head hair of humans has gained an important significance in nearly all present societies as well as any given historical period throughout the world. The attitudes towards hair on the human body also vary between different cultures and times.
Islam stipulates many tenets with respect to hair, such as the covering of hair by women and the removal of armpit and pubic hair. There are several reasons why men are required to wear their hair short when they are in military service. Hair has its origins in the common ancestor of mammals, the Synapsids, or possibly a subclade, the Sphenacodontoidea, about 310 million years ago. A study examines the molecular evolution of HR (gene for post-natal hair follicle development) and provides a well defined phylogeny, which infer the orthologs and paralogs and reconstruct its history. According to Schwartz and Rosenblum (1981), the density of human hair follicles on the skin is actually about what one would expect for an animal of the same size. A major difference between humans and other primates is the great reduction of body hair in humans relative to other primates.
Humans are the only primate species that have undergone significant hair loss and of the approximately 5000 extant species of mammal, only a handful are effectively hairless. It was expected that dating the split of the ancestral human louse into two species, the head louse and the pubic louse, would date the loss of body hair in human ancestors.
Balding, where terminal hair switches to vellus hair, usually occurs at around thirty to forty years of age. Historically, some ideas have been advanced to explain the apparent hairlessness of humans, as compared to other species.
Another hypothesis for evolution of hair on humans proposes that Fisherian runaway sexual selection played a role (as well as in the selection of long head hair), as well as a much larger role of testosterone in men.
Many theories have been put forth to explain how humans, in contrast to other primates, have evolved into near hairless beings.
The wild card is fire, needed not just to keep the cave warm but for cooking, another critical step.
Experts assert that head hair was evolutionarily advantageous for pre-humans to retain because it protected the scalp as they walked upright in the intense African (equatorial) UV light. At the follicular level, a single layer of cells gives rise to the cuticle, a protective layer covering the core of the fibers. The epicuticle represents a residual of the cuticle cells membrane and has a proteic nature.
The medulla is a thin cylindrical layer in the center of the hair thread containing high lipid rate concentration and poor cystine. The epidermis through which each individual hair projects is largely made up of epithelium and lacks blood vessels, while the underlying dermis, wherein reside the hair follicles from which each hair grows, comprises not only the follicles but also connective tissue, blood vessels, sweat glands, and other structures. The matrix cells (keratinocytes) at the base of the follicle differentiate and push upwards, forming three enclosed cylinders. It is an educational tool and is considered an important contribution to a child's development. In order to learn how to treat yeast infection, it is necessary to be able to learn what does yeast infection look like. This overgrowth may occur in various parts of the body, such as the underarms, groin, lower abdomen, under the breasts, between the fingers and toenails and under the buttocks. This condition is often diagnosed in individuals who are suffering from cancer and AIDS, and is proven fatal if left untreated. Although this is a rare condition, its occurrence can be extremely painful and is usually contracted from women who are infected by the condition. Just type in the keyword and the search box will help you go through our article archive easily. Considered to be a basic component of responsiblefemale cat ownership, the spaying of female cats is a simple and common surgical procedure that is performed by veterinary clinics all over the world. As a bonus, site members have access to a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages.Click here to learn more. Or go to a pdf of the worksheet. Compare and Contrast Snowmen and Scarecrows Write some of the similarities and differences between snowmen and scarecrows. Hair is the only body part of human beings that can be changed to influence social interaction.
Hair also contains trace amounts of magnesium, arsenic, iron, chromium and other metals and minerals. Keratins are made from amino acids and in hair keratins the predominant amino acid is cysteine. If you get to age 60 without developing male-pattern baldness you will probably avoid it altogether. The loss of scalp hair by the physiologic process of balding (androgenetic alopecia) does not make us ill.
The presence of hair is a unique mammalian characteristic, helping mammals to maintain a stable core body temperature. These threadlike fibers protrude from the outer layer of the skin, the epidermis, and grow from hair follicles in the inner portion of the skin, the dermis.
Hair forms a very rigid structure in the molecular level, which is able to offer the thread both flexibility and mechanical resistance. The effectiveness of fur in temperature regulation is evident in its use in such mammals as polar bears, and its perceived beauty is evident not only in its historical use in fur coats, but also in the popularity of pet grooming. The projections on arthropods, such as insects and spiders are actually insect bristles, not hair.
Hair and nails are predominantly epithelial structures derived from primitive epidermis and made up of keratinous fibrils embedded in a sulfur-rich matrix. It can grow on most external areas of the human body, except on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet (among other areas). During the English Civil War, the followers of Oliver Cromwell decided to crop their hair close to their head, as an act of defiance to the curls and ringlets of the king’s men. The Maasai warriors tied the front hair into sections of tiny braids, while the back hair was allowed to grow to waist length. At the conclusion of the Oz obscenity trials in the UK in 1971, the defendants had their heads shaved by the police, causing public outcry.
In some cultures, profuse chest hair on men is a symbol of virility and masculinity; other societies display a hairless body as a sign of youthfulness.
Women’s hair may be hidden using headscarves, a common part of the hijab in Islam and a symbol of modesty required for certain religious rituals in Orthodox Christianity.
Buddhist and Christian monks generally undergo some form of head-shaving or tonsure during their induction into monastic life; in Thailand monks shave their eyebrows as well. The tradition extends back to Roman times and earlier but Roman records are the most complete from an historical basis. It is currently unknown at what stage the synapsids acquired mammalian characteristics such as body hair and mammary glands, as the fossils only rarely provide direct evidence for soft tissues. The outstanding question is why so much of human hair is short, underpigmented, vellus hair rather than terminal hair. The question of this difference has often been asked in the context of the loss of human hair, but this is not strictly true. This list includes elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, walruses, pigs, whales and other cetaceans, and naked mole rats. However, it turned out that the human pubic louse does not descend from the ancestral human louse, but from the gorilla louse, diverging 3.3 million years ago. In prehistoric times, most individuals did not survive to adulthood, let alone reaching their fourth decade and therefore balding tends to act as a signal of maturity.
Several hypotheses explained hairlessness as a thermoregulatory adaptation to hot and dry savanna. Sexual selection is the only theory thus far that explains the sexual dimorphism seen in the hair patterns of men and women.
Recent archaeological analysis suggests hominids were using fire as of a million years ago. Other secondary sexual characteristics include facial hair in males, breast development in females and body structure in both sexes (wider hips in females, broader shoulders in men, etc.) These traits appear at the same time as reproductive maturity and are often under control of the same hormones. Since Africa is directly on the equator, sunlight shines directly down throughout the entire year. While some might argue that, by this logic, humans should also express hairy shoulders because these body parts would putatively be exposed to similar conditions.
The main factor to be consi­dered in the human hair is the high amount of the amino acid cystine, which may be degraded and afterwards may be re-oxidated under a disulphidic bounding form. It is mainly composed of b-keratins and displays a scaled structure, possessing between seven and ten superimposed layers with the cuticle edges pointing toward the tip of the fiber. The cross links of proteins, in this layer, not only give physical resistance but also makes them relatively resistant to chemical attack. When the cuticle is wet, its rigid layers become quilted with alternate consecutive soft (as gel) and hard layers. The 18-methyl eicosanoic acid (18-MEA) is one of the very important lipid com­ponents of the CMC.
The lipid bond (18-MEA) to protein matrix gives the cuticle a substantive hydrophobic surface. It is composed by about 25% lipids and 75% proteins, with 12% of cystine, which represents a high content of sulfur. In the same way as the cuticle, it has cells filled by cross links of cystine and hard cells separated by the cell membrane complex (CMC). Its function is not yet completely eluci­dated, although its cells may become dehydrated and its spaces may be filled with air, which affects both color and shine in white brown and blond hair. A hair follicle is a cavity in the skin that contains the root of a hair and grows hair by packing old cells together.
The part of the hair inside the follicle (below the skin’s surface) is known as the hair root, while the portion you see protruding from the head is the hair shaft. Beyond the educational virtues, coloring sessions allow us, the adults, a little peace and quiet while the boy or girl enjoy coloring.
The infection usually occurs on the roof of the mouth, inside the cheek, on the lips, tongue and gums. The condition usually affects children with weak immune system, as well as children who are consuming antibiotics regularly against other infections. Female or vaginal yeast infection is typically due to pregnancy, consumption of contraceptives, diabetes, menstruation, unprotected sexual activities and hormonal changes. However, the condition can be easily treated by using an over the counter yeast infection treatment. Learn how to treat and deal with the condition by reading our articles and gain more knowledge about yeast infection through our website.
This page contains everything you, the pet owner, need to know about spaying cats (female cat desexing). Attitudes towards hair, such as hairstyles and hair removal, vary widely across different cultures and historical periods. This desire leads women to spend, on average, $35,000 on their hair over the course of their lifetimes. In the second case, your entire head covered with individual hairs is treated as a single object or group which is why it is referred to in a singular form. The graying of hair by the physiologic process of aging does not induce any metabolic changes in our bodies. Externally hairs are thin, flexible tubes of dead, fully keratinised epithelial cells; they vary in colour, length, diameter, and cross-sectional shape. Hair is considered as a dead mater and it is only alive when it is inserted in the scalp (pilose follicle). It was first noted early in the 20th century that the nail unit was comparable in several respects to a hair follicle sectioned longitudinally and laid on on its side. Hair is most noticeable on most people in a small number of areas, which are also the ones that are most commonly trimmed, plucked, or shaved. During the appeal trial, they appeared in the dock wearing wigs.  A case where a 14-year-old student was expelled from school in Brazil in the mid-2000s, allegedly because of his fauxhawk haircut, sparked national debate and legal action resulting in compensation.
In ancient Egypt, head hair was often shaved, especially among children, as long hair was uncomfortable in the heat.
In ancient Egypt, people regarded a completely smooth, hairless body as the standard of beauty. Russian Orthodox Church requires all married women to wear headscarves inside the church; this tradition is often extended to all women, regardless of marital status. Orthodox Sikhs always carry a dagger with them, lest someone try to force them to do something against their religion.
An exceptionally well-preserved skull of Estemmenosuchus, a therapsid from the Upper Permian, shows smooth, hairless skin with what appears to be glandular depressions.
Phylogenetic tree confirms the presence of HR in all hairy animals (therian and prototherian), but no recognizable ortholog of mammalian HR was found in any of the non-mammalian vertebrate animal analyzed.
Modern humans are not hairless in the sense of being glabrous, but rather have had a significant diminution of body hair length and thickness relative to other primates. Most mammals have light skin that is covered by fur, and biologists believe that early human ancestors started out this way also. This suggests that humans had lost body hair (but retained head hair) and developed thick pubic hair prior to this date, were living in or close to the forest where gorillas lived, and acquired pubic lice from butchering gorillas or sleeping in their nests.
In women survival to such an advanced age is usually coupled with a decrease in fertility, but in men fertility is retained beyond middle-age.
The most known thermoregulatory hypothesis in modern paleoanthropology was proposed by Peter Wheeler (1984, 1985). When our ancestors adopted group-dwelling social arrangements roughly 1.8 millon years ago, ectoparasite loads increased dramatically. If it turns out hairlessness and mastery of fire occurred around the same time, we have a plausible sequence of events. This impacted evolution as it drove the natural selection of pigments in humans as dark as possible.
In my view, if all men and women are born without any body hair, they would live comfortably but sexual attraction between men and women would be greatly reduced resulting in possibility of human species getting extinct. The cuticle covers the hair thread from the scalp to the end as overlapping layer and it is the most impor­tant component of the human hair, since it may be more or less affected by cosmetic treatments. This process also intensifies the apex of the surface stages of the thread, which also explains that the friction coefficient is higher in the wet hair than in the dry one. Each one of the cortex cells has a spindle shape, with a 50-100 ?m length and a 3 ?m diameter.
For cell and developmental biologists it has an almost unique ability in mammals to regenerate itself, recapitulating many embryonic steps en route.
Attached to the follicle is a sebaceous gland, a tiny sebum-producing gland found most everywhere but not on the palms, lips, and soles of the feet. The outermost cylinder forms the outer root sheath (ORS) that separates the whole structure from the dermis. Not to mention the result: coloring pages for preschoolers are proudly presented at the nursery, kindergarten or even grandma and grandpa's living room!
Please note the images are not hosted on our servers, hence some of the images might not download. When wiped out, these patches may start to bleed and these may result to the formation of ulcer patches.
Obese individuals are prone to the condition, as well as those suffering from diabetes and those with weak immune system. While some of us define ourselves by our faces and bodies, others place a lot of weight on how our hair looks.
The word hair is usually used without article in singular number when it refers to all the hairs on one’s head in general. No other creature possesses true hair, and at least some hair is found on all mammals at some time during their lives. Inside the skin hairs are part of individual living hair follicles, cylindrical epithelial downgrowths into the dermis and subcutaneous fat, which enlarge at the base into the hair bulb surrounding the mesenchyme derived dermal papilla.
Wool is the fiber derived from the fur of animals of the Caprinae family, principally sheep, but the hair of certain species of other mammals, such as goats, alpacas, llamas, and rabbits may also be called wool.
The epithelial components of hair follicle and nail apparatus are differentiated epidermal structures that may be involved jointly in several ways as congenital and hereditary anomalies and acquired conditions such as alopecia areata, lichen planus, iatrogenic causes, and fungal infection. These include the face, ears, head, eyebrows, legs, and armpits, as well as the pubic region. Having bobbed hair was popular among the flappers in the 1920s as a sign of rebellion against traditional roles for women. It is important to note that African Americans as a whole have a variety of hair textures, as they are not an ethnically homogeneous group, but an ad-hoc of different racial admixtures. An upper class Egyptian woman took great pains to ensure that she did not have a single hair on her body, except for the top of her head (and even this was often replaced with a wig (Dersin 2004). Orthodox Judaism also commands the use of scarves and other head coverings for married women for modesty reasons. She found the perfect gift at last and runs home and begins to prepare dinner, with 87 cents left. The oldest known fossil showing unambiguous imprints of hair is the Callovian (late middle Jurassic) Castorocauda, an early mammal.
This intriguing observation, suggested a key role of HR in hair evolution during mammalian history. The only hair structure that has been truly lost in the human condition is the vibrissae, which are the sensory whiskers that are common in most mammals (Van Horn 1970). Dark skin probably evolved after humans lost their body fur, because the naked skin was vulnerable to the strong UV radiation as would be experienced in Africa.
The evolution of the body louse from the head louse, on the other hand, places the date of clothing much later, some 100,000 years ago. He suggests that a need for decreased body hair originated as a response to climate change that began approximately 3 million years ago.
Males have more terminal hair, especially on the face, chest, abdomen, and back, and females have more vellus hair, which is less visible. Early humans became the only one of the 193 primate species to have fleas, which can be attributed to the close living arrangements of large groups of individuals. Dr Giles argues human nakedness has its origin in the ancestral mother-infant relationship. Once they were no longer at the mercy of the elements, hominids could indulge a yen for less hirsute mates without jeopardizing their offspring.
Today, the amount, appearance and pattern of pubic hair are one of the criteria by which physicians determine what stage of pubertal development an adolescent is in. Dark pigments, like melanin, help block harmful ultraviolet rays from penetrating into the body through the skin and hair. Clothing, along with modern technology such as air conditioning and heating, has made the insulating properties of body hair obsolete.
This is the largest number of follicles we will ever have – follicles are never added during life.
Cystine is very stable; this is the reason why human hair may be found relatively intact, even after several years after the death of an individual. On the cuticle, cosmetic products, such as conditioners, hair sprays, mousses and gels are deposited. When the endocuticle is swelled it has a more brittle structure, which explains both breakage and scaling of threads if they are combed when they are still wet. 18-MEA is the main lipid in the hair composition contributing to the wet and dry combing proprieties. Those lipids, involving mainly the 18-methyl eicosanoic acid (about 30A, or 3 nm), form a hydrophobic region (about 50-70A, or 5-7 nm).
For zoologists, it is a mammalian characteristic, significant for their evolutionary success and crucial for the survival of many mammals-loss of fur or faulty colouration leads to death from cold or predation. The arrector pili respond to stimulus (fear or cold) causing them to contract and make the hair stand up straight. The middle cylinder, the inner root sheath (IRS), molds and guides the shaft in its passage outward.
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Esophageal thrush, on the other hand, usually results to esophagitis, which can make it hard for an individual to swallow food or drink water.
The student cuts out the pages, staples them together, then writes each word in the tiny book.
But if it refers to more than one hair, a few hairs, then it takes the plural form without an article, and needs a plural verb.


Hair and endothermy have aided mammals in inhabiting a wide diversity of environments, from desert to polar, both nocturnally and diurnally. Each fiber comprises nonliving cells whose primary component is long chains (polymers) of amino acids forming the protein keratin. Human hair has about 65-95% of its weight in proteins, more 32% of water, lipid pigments and other components. Multielemental characterization of human hair and nails shows that even after sample washing, many elements are enriched in the surface of the nails. The highly visible differences between male and female body and facial hair are a notable secondary sex characteristic.  Healthy hair indicates health and youth (important in evolutionary biology). In ancient Greece and ancient Rome, men and women already differed from each other through their haircuts.
The ancient Greeks later adopted this smooth ideal, considering a hairless body to be representative of youth and beauty. The more advanced therapsids could have had a combination of naked skin, whiskers, and scutes.
This implies that the hair keratin phenotype of hominids prior to this date, and after the Pan-Homo divergence some 5.5 million years ago, could have been identical to that of the great apes. In light of this interest, a comparative sequence analysis was performed to estimate the functional constraints on primates, rodents and carnivores HR. The hair loss usually begins soon after birth and within first few weeks of postnatal life the animals are completely hairless. Other categories of hair form are seen commonly in humans, and are no different developmentally from other African Apes.
Therefore, evidence of when human skin darkened has been used to date the loss of human body hair, assuming that the dark skin was needed after the fur was gone. At this time, the earth entered a period of global cooling that had a dehumidifying effect on the main early human habitats in East and Central Africa.
The halting of hair development at a juvenile stage, vellus hair, would also be consistent with the neoteny evident in humans, especially in females, and thus they could have occurred at the same time. While primate species have communal sleeping arrangements, these groups are always on the move and thus are less likely to harbor ectoparasites. Skin-to-skin contact between mother and infant was experienced as affectionate and pleasurable by the mother. If the tendency to hairlessness long preceded fire we have more of a puzzle, although not necessarily an insoluble one: the random genetic mutation that made hairlessness possible might have occurred in the ancient past but not expressed itself till conditions were favorable. For our ancestors, pubic and axillary hair were probably one of several visual signals that an individual was fully mature, and therefore could be considered as a potential mate by a member of the opposite sex.
As the size of the body increases as we grow older, the density of the hair follicles on the skin decreases.
Proteins with ?-helix structure wind each other by their left side, as if they were two stretched ropes (winded to each other, curled). Dyers, straightening and curling products also spread themselves through the cuticle to expand their effects by the hair fiber.
This cuticle hydrophobic aspect is important because hydrophobic materials as silicones, fat alcohols, oils and polymers have great affinity for hydrophobic surfaces and they will not settle on hydrophilic surfaces.
The cuticle tightly encircles the cortex that forms the most voluminous part and the heart of the hair fiber. Human follicles also pose a unique paradox for endocrinologists as the same hormones, androgens, cause stimulation of hair growth in many areas, while simultaneously inhibiting scalp follicles causing balding.
However, oral yeast infection treatment for men and women can be easily obtained over the counter. The words are: boots, cap, fireplace, glove, jacket, log, mitten, skis, sled, snow, and write another winter word.
George has brown hair, but I found a hair on the sofa and suspect he’s getting some gray hairs.
It has special significance for us that is manifested in social, cultural and religious settings.
The keratinized cells arise from cell division in the hair matrix at the base of a hair follicle and are tightly packed together.
Some cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises), along with the mandrills, appear to have shades of blue skin.
Regional variations in hirsutism cause practices regarding hair on the arms and legs to differ.
Multiple religions, both ancient and contemporary, require or advise one to allow their hair to become dreadlocks, though people also wear them for fashion.
Evolutionary rate difference is coupled with structural and biochemical information to infer for potential functional changes at the sequence level among primate HR. Biochemical and genetic data suggests that HR protein corepressor functions induce hair follicle rest to regrowth (telogen-anagen) transition by promoting Wnt signaling in hair follicles. The hairlessness of humans compared to related species may be due to loss of functionality in the pseudogene KRTHAP1 (which helps produce keratin) in the human lineage about 240,000 years ago.
Most species evolved as the climate in Africa changed, to adjust their thermoregulation to the intense UV and sunlight at the equator, mostly by panting.
Lush, wooded forests gave way to dry, grassland savannah; because of this, early humans were required to travel farther in search of food and water.
Because of this, selection pressure for early humans would favor decreasing body hair because those with thick coats would have more lethal-disease-carrying ectoparasites and would thereby have lower fitness.
This would have encouraged ancestral females to carry their infants, which was essential for the infant’s survival because with the advent of bipedalism infants could no longer hold onto the mother. We know, for example, that Homo erectus lived 1.8 million years ago in the Caucasus region, which had cold winters then as now. The different patterns of pubic, facial and body hair in humans (along with other secondary sexual characteristics) result in sexual dimorphisms in mature humans: males look different than females. Once these human ancestors started migrating to other places throughout the world, the pressure to select for skin and hair colors as dark as possible let up and lighter skin colors and hair colors became much more common.
The base of the hair, sunk in the skin, is called the root, and the part that emerges to the exterior is the shaft. There are approximately 8 to 11 layers of cuticle, which are over­lapped in the distal direction of the thread, depending on the type, condition, and length of the hair. As the cuticle surface undergoes abrasion during the washing and drying processes, as well as in the combing, this hydrophobic layer is removed by washing the surface of Layer A. The cortex is made up of cortical cells, which comprise the macrofibrils, long filaments oriented parallel to the axis of the fiber. As these cells move up through the hair root, they mature through a process called keratinization, fill with fibrous protein and lose their nucleus. Keratins also are a principle part of the cells in the nails, feathers, hooves, horny tissues, and tooth enamel of mammals. Keratin is a laminated complex formed by different structures, which gives the hair strength, flexibility, durability, and functionality. Many mammals are indicated as having blue hair or fur, but in all cases it will be found to be a shade of gray. In case of animals, the core allows for the coating of hair to provide excellent insulation from not only heat and cold, but also a fair amount of protection from rain as well.
They help, for example, earthworms to attach to the surface and prevent backsliding during peristaltic motion.
Hair grows everywhere on the human body except the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, eyelids, and lips. Some religious groups may follow certain rules regarding hair as part of religious observance. Many dyed their hair red with henna and sprinkled it with gold powder, often adorning it with fresh flowers. For men, Islam, Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox Christianity, Roman Catholicism and other religious groups have at various times recommended or required the covering of the head and sections of the hair of men, and some have dictates relating to the cutting of men’s facial and head hair. For Sikhs hair is the symbol of love for God and the respect for everything God has given us. The Buddha also renounced his home-life at a young age by leaving his palace and cutting off his long hair. Jim gives Della her present – an assortment of expensive hair accessories (referred to as “The Combs”), useless now that her hair is short. The more advanced, smaller therapsids could have had a combination of hair and scutes, a combination still found in some modern mammals, such as rodents and the opossum.
In addition variations in domain topologies were explored by comparative analysis of known functional domains of HR protein. In this respect, HR functions are considered indispensable for hair regrowth once they shed after birth (first hair cycle).
Mutations in the gene HR can lead to complete hair loss, though this is not typical in humans. Early hominids likely possessed fur similar to other large apes, but about 2.5 million years ago they developed a greater distribution of sweat glands that enabled them to perspire over most of the body.
As early humans diverged from their chimpanzee-lineage, they also became omnivorous in order to maximize calorie intake, an important distinction in a nutrient-scarce environment.
There is no evidence that sexual selection would proceed to such a drastic extent over a million years ago when a full, lush coat of hair would most likely indicate health and would therefore be more likely to be selected for, not against, and not all human populations today have sexual dimorphism in body hair.
However, early humans were able to compensate for the loss of warmth and protection provided by body hair with clothing, and no other mammal lost body hair to reduce parasite loads. In fact, once the human ancestors reached latitudes as high north as what are known today as the Western European and Nordic countries, skin color had to be much lighter in order for the individuals living there to get enough Vitamin D from the sunlight. Proteins which are winded in the hair have long filaments of unknown microfibers which link to each other to form bigger structures, in order to produce cortex cells.
Each macrofibril consists of intermediate filaments (IF), known also as microfibrils, and the matrix. The inner sheath follows the hair shaft and ends below the opening of a sebaceous (oil) gland, and sometimes an apocrine (scent) gland. The words are beetle, sledding, snowman, jacket, mitten, sweater, blizzard, flurry, fireplace, chimney, winter. Some people want to restore their hair, some want to remove it, and others just want a fancy hair style or color. In humans, hair, with its variety of colors, textures, shape, length, density, and other qualities, adds to individual uniqueness and provides an aesthetic quality for others to see and appreciate. Along with these thermal regulating qualities, coarse nature of animal hair works as a great means of holding in cold or heat, as well as preventing rain and moisture. Hair grows more quickly in summer than winter, and more slowly at night than during the day.
White hair is a sign of age or genetics, which may be concealed with hair dye (not easily for some), although many prefer to assume it (especially if it is a poliosis characteristic of the person since childhood). Amongst Hindus in the case of death of a father, the eldest son is to remove his hair (on the head) before the cremation ceremony. Della then shows Jim the chain she bought for him, to which Jim says he sold his watch to get the money to buy her combs. In order to comprehend why humans are essentially hairless, it is essential to understand that mammalian body hair is not merely an aesthetic characteristic; it protects the skin from wounds, bites, heat, cold, and UV radiation. It is not clear whether the change in body hair appearance occurred before or after the development of sweat glands. Prey, however, are moving targets, and though early humans changed the traditionally ape-like appearance of the australopithecines and adapted long, strong legs to facilitate sustained running, dense, hairy coats still posed a potentially fatal risk of causing overheating during the chase.
This is because ancestral infants lost their prehensile feet and therefore the ability to grasp the mother’s fur with their feet, something that other primate infants must do,’ says Dr Giles.
Once our ancestors had acquired both fire and clothing, there was nothing to prevent nakedness from becoming dominant, and at some point the capacity to grow abundant body hair evidently was lost. While darker pigmentation in skin and hair block unwanted and harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun, it also blocks other components of sunlight that are necessary for survival.
The embryonic epithelium and mesenchyme of mammals has in them the necessary elements that induce the formation of follicles. It has been established that the molecules that aggregate to form the IFs in keratin fibers are type I and type II keratin chains, arranged parallel to one another and in the axial register. Around the papilla is the hair matrix, a collection of epithelial cells often interspersed with melanocytes (cells that produce melanin). By the time the hair emerges from the skin it is merely fiber made of keratinized proteins. The disadvantages of desexing (the cons of spaying cats) - why some people choose not to spay their female cats.3. Hair, whether present or absent, restored or removed, abundant or scarce, long or short, bound or unbound, colored or natural; marks a person as clearly as speech, clothing, and smell. Great cultural and religious symbolism is attached to hair and its display in many societies. Instead, they maintain internal temperatures with a thick layer of blubber (vascularized fat). An animal’s coat of fur may consist of short ground hair, long guard hair, and, in some cases, medium awn hair. In contrast, human hair lacks this ability and does nothing to provide temperature regulation for the body. Male pattern baldness is a sign of age, which may be concealed with a toupee, hats, or religious and cultural adornments. In Rome, hairdressing became ever more popular and the upper classes were attended to by slaves or visited public barber shops. Although Jim and Della are now left with gifts that neither one can use, they realize how far they are willing to go to show their love for each other, and how priceless their love really is.
It is posited that thick hair got in the way of the sweat evaporating, so humans evolved a sparser coat of fur. With as much direct sunlight as countries along the equator get on a daily basis, capturing Vitamin D is not an issue. At the pre-natal stage, the primitive epithelium and the underlying mesoderm send out growth signals and the follicles begin forming from the primitive epidermis. After the formation of the alfa-helices, it is believed that the two types of chains associate to form a dimer, which then aggregates with another dimer to form a tetramer. Cell division in the hair matrix is responsible for the cells that will form the major structures of the hair fiber and the inner root sheath. The fibrous protein emerging from the hair follicle as the hair shaft has a specific construction. A muscle called an erector pili muscle attaches below the gland to a fibrous layer around the outer sheath. Although drugs and medical procedures exist for the treatment of baldness, many balding men simply shave their heads. Contemporary social and cultural conditions have constantly influenced popular hair styles. To this end, it can be concluded that benefits stemming from the loss of human body hair must be great enough to outweigh the loss of these protective functions by nakedness. Aside from the mammary glands that produce a specialized sweat called milk, most mammals just have apocrine sweat glands on their armpits and loin. Although hair provides protection against harmful UV radiation, since our hominin ancestors were bipedal, only our heads were exposed to the noonday sun.
He merely noted that hairlessness may have been a factor in sexual selection and that women, historically the object rather than the initiator of pursuit, have less hair than men.
However, as human ancestors migrated farther north (or south) of the equator, the amount of daylight varied throughout the year. Complete hormonal or neural circuits are not required for the hair follicles to begin forming. Finally, the formation of a pseudo-hexagonal structure (the IFs structure) occurs by the association of seven or eight tetramers. The hair matrix epithelium is one of the fastest growing cell populations in the human body. It reflects a person’s gender, racial identification, sexual availability and desirability, age, marital status, social status, religion, personal beliefs, self-esteem, attitude, and even political stance.
A religiously symbolic meaning is seen in the shaven, bald scalps of male monks who choose a life of chastity and poverty.  Scalp hair fashions of movie, television and pop music celebrities have a significant impact on hair styles of everyday life.
In humans, the strands of hair tend to grow independently, while for animals hair growth tends to be more synchronized depending on the weather condition.
Setae on gecko footpads are small hair-like processes that play a role in the animal’s ability to cling to vertical surfaces. Human nails are not necessary for living, but they do provide support for the tips of the fingers and toes, protect them from injury, and aid in picking up small objects. In ancient China, the queue was a male hairstyle worn by the Manchus from central Manchuria and the Han Chinese during the Qing dynasty; hair on the front of the head was shaved off above the temples every ten days, mimicking male-pattern baldness, and the rest of the hair braided into a long pigtail.
Many punks wear a hairstyle known as a mohawk or other spiked and dyed hairstyles; skinheads have short-cropped or completely shaved heads. From the seventeenth century into the early nineteenth century, it was the norm for men to have long hair, often tied back into a ponytail. Humans kept the hair on our head which reflects harmful UV rays, but our body hair was reduced. Therefore, in ancestral times infants survived only if mothers had a strong desire to hold them. In the winter, there were very few daylight hours in which the individuals could get out and obtain the necessary nutrients.
This has also been proved when hair follicles have been found to grow in organic cultures of embryonic skin. The cells in the bulb divide every 23 to 72 hours, faster than any other cells in the body.
A medulla is almost always found in coarse hair, and often is absent from naturally blonde hair and very fine hair.  In fact, your hair is approximately 91 percent protein, and is made up of long chains of amino acids. Spaying kittens - information about the early spay and neuter of young cats (kitten desexing).
The shaven, bald scalp of actor Yul Brynner in the 1970s and ’80s presented male baldness as a symbol of male power and sexuality. While human hair has to be cut according to one’s preference , animal hair grows to a certain point and then simply fall out, to be replaced by new hair when and as the time is right.  Another noticeable difference between human and animal hair is the composition.
The micrometer-scale setae branch into nanometer-scale projections called spatulae on the footpads of geckos. Long stylized bangs were very common for emos, scene kids and younger indie kids in the 2000s and early 2010s, among people of both genders. Let it be said that of all those who give Christmas presents; these two were the wisest because they sacrificed their priceless belongings. There is a trend in primates to have increased eccrine sweat glands over the general surface of the body. The rise in eccrine glands occurred on the genes that determine the fate of epidermal stem cells in human embryonic development.
Not to mention it was also cold during these times which made it even more unappealing to get out during the daylight at all. Once the necessary signals are received, the epithelium grows downwards into the dermis, forming a small plug that joins with the dermal papilla at the base. As a consequence, the IFs are low in cystine (6%), whereas the matrix contains up to 20% of total amino acid residues. The sebaceous glands act as lubricants for the skin and hair, maintaining moisture content and prevent the skin and hair from drying out and cracking.  More sebum is produced after puberty. It plays a big role in determining how people are attracted to us, and whom we’re attracted to. At about the same time, the wavy, thick locks of actor James Dean were a symbol of teen-age angst. Human hair generally have the same texture, while animal hair tends to include a double composition. Nails can be an indicator of a person’s general health, and illness often affects their growth.
In the time of Confucius (5th century BCE), the Chinese grew out their hair and often tied it, as a symbol of filial piety.
Heads were shaved in concentration camps, and head-shaving has been used as punishment, especially for women with long hair. Amongst Muslims, hair removal is part of an impulse towards general purity and cleanliness. While nakedness may increase lust, a fat lot of good that does you if the other party has frozen to death.
Because of this contact, especially in breast-feeding—which many women report to be erotically pleasurable—the desire to hold the infant would have been stronger in mothers possessing a hairless mutation that also enabled them to give birth to hairless infants. As these populations of migrating human ancestors settled in these colder climates, pigments in the skin and hair started to fade and give way to new color combinations. The matrix proteins that surround the IFs through intermolecular disulfide bonds act as a disulfide crosslinker holding the cortical superstructure together and conferring high mechanical strength, inertness and rigidity to keratin fibers. The amino acids of these chains are made up of the elements carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur (are also the building blocks of the skin and nails) and are joined together by peptide bonds. The diameter of human hair ranges from 17 to 181 µm while fur is much thicker than the human hair. The shaven head is common in military haircuts, while Western monks are known for the tonsure.
The sweat glands in humans could have evolved to spread from the hands and feet as the body hair changed, or the hair change could have occurred to facilitate sweating. Since hair color is polygenic, many genes control the actual phenotype of hair color in humans. The fibroblasts control the matrix cells (keratinocytes) and in this way determine the size of the hair. The inner cortex of the fiber is also made from dead keratinized cells that have been flattened and squeezed together. High sulphur proteins, ultra-high sulphur proteins and high glycine-tyrosine proteins are present in matrix proteins (c-keratins), depending on their cysteine, tyrosine and glycine content. Hair is often seen as rather irrelevant medically, as human hair loss is not life threatening.
Carefully shaped and styled hair is essential to the well-groomed look that traditionally symbolizes trustworthiness and sincerity in the business world.
Actual growth rate is dependent upon age, sex, season, exercise level, diet, and hereditary factors. The dreadlocks of the Rastafari movement were despised early in the movement’s history. The trench warfare between 1914 and 1918 exposed men to lice and flea infestations, which prompted the order to cut hair short, establishing a norm that has persisted. Horses and humans are two of the few animals capable of sweating on most of their body, yet horses are larger and still have fully developed fur. The hairlessness that began to appear through this mechanism of maternal selection, Dr Giles says, was then reinforced by sexual selection in the male-female sexual relationship.
That is why there are so many different shades of colors seen in different populations throughout the world. A human is born with a fixed number of follicles, which does not change throughout its lifetime. Certain species of Demodex mites live in the hair follicles of mammals (including those of humans), where they feed on sebum. Contrarily, hair worn in a tangled and matted style may symbolize a significant cultural position when worn by a magnate of the pop music industry. However it has also been advanced that short hair on men has been enforced as a means of control, as shown in the military and police and other forces that require obedience and discipline.


In humans, the skin hairs lie flat in hot conditions, as the arrector pili muscles relax, preventing heat from being trapped by a layer of still air between the hairs, and increasing heat loss by convection. This is because a hairless sexual partner would have enabled the individual to recreate the pleasure of skin-to-skin contact that he or she had originally experienced as an infant.
While it is possible that skin color and hair color are at least somewhat linked, they are not so closely linked that various combinations are not possible. At the center of most hairs is the medulla, made up of large, cuboidal cells, often distinctively colored and interspersed with air pockets. Dispersed throughout the structure of the cortex in granular form are the melanin pigment particles. A recent study says that an average woman spends 10 days a year making sure her hair looks perfect. Additionally, slaves and defeated armies were often required to shave their heads, in both pre-medieval Europe and China.
Once these new shades and colors emerged in various areas around the world, it started to be less of a natural selection of traits than a sexual selection.
The distribution of the hair follicles and their spacing is genetically predetermined and does not change throughout the lifetime of the mammal. The arrangement of scales, thickness and color of the cortex, and distribution and color of medulla cells are often diagnostic of species.
The number, chemical characteristics and distribution pattern of these cells determine the colour of the hair. The salt and hydrogen bonds are most prevalent, but are weaker and are broken by heat and moisture. It further says that 10 minutes each day are devoted to washing and conditioning, 15 minutes to blow drying and 15 minutes in styling the locks; that sums up to 40 minutes in total.
Infants who are breast-feed in full naked contact with the mother experience fewer problems, show less distress and breast-feed longer than infants who are separated from their mother by clothing.’ ‘The Naked Love Theory’ also helps to explain the evolutionary origins of romantic love. Studies have been done to show that the less abundant any given hair color is in the gene pool, the more attractive they tend to be for suitors. The follicles in different parts of the body are different and produce hair fibers of different size, shape and color. Using a microscope, a researcher can easily examine the cortex and medulla of individual hairs. Like all polymeric structures, keratin fibers consist of long, tightly bound molecular chains held together in many different ways from covalent bonds to weaker interactions such as hydrogen bonds, Coloumbic interactions, van der Walls interactions and, when water is present, hydrophobic bonds.
It is the action of salt and hydrogen bonds that allow the use of wet roller sets and curling or flat irons to change the amount of curl in the hair.
One might sometimes wonder why women are willing to invest so much time and money into their hair. In liberated countries of post-World War II Europe, women who were identified as collaborators with occupying troops were often shaven bald and forced to march down the street before jeering crowds.
This is thought to have led to the proliferation of blonde hair in Nordic areas, which favored as little pigment as possible for maximum absorption of Vitamin D. Cuticular scales are more difficult to visualize; to see them, they usually imbed a hair in substances such as ethyl acetate, then remove it and examine its impression.
Hair reactivity is complex and depends not only on the presence of reactive groups in the fiber, but also on their availability.
Many women in conservative Pentecostal groups abstain from trimming their hair after conversion (and some have never had their hair trimmed or cut at all since birth). Once blonde hair began to be seen on individuals in the area, their mates found them more attractive than the others who had dark hair. When you get a permanent wave service, or a relaxer, it is the disulfide bonds that are broken and reformed to give you the change in the amount of curl. Hair, in a way, is a mode of expression and the way you carry your hair talks a lot about your personality. This provided the pre-condition for the extensive long-term romantic attachments that human beings are capable of. Over several generations, blonde hair became much more prominent and proliferated over time. Although some other primates have long term attachments, our closest relatives tend not to have them or form only short-term consort- ships. The blonde Nordics continued to migrate and found mates in other areas and hair colors blended. This reflects the important role hair plays in human communication in both social and sexual contexts, and explains why hair loss causes serious psychological distress. Neanderthals also most likely had lighter hair colors than those of their Homo Sapiens relatives. There was thought to be some gene flow and cross breeding of the two different populations in the European areas. A group of studies have recently shown that genetic patterns at the EDAR locus, a region of the modern human genome that contributes to hair texture variation among most individuals of East Asian descent, support the hypothesis that (East Asian) straight hair likely developed in this branch of the modern human lineage subsequent to the original expression of tightly coiled natural afro-hair. FAQ 5 - My pregnant cat needed a caesarean (C-section) - can she be spayed at the same time?8k.
FAQ 8 - My veterinarian offered a pre-anaesthetic blood screening test - is this necessary?8n. Feline birth control method 1 - separate the tom from the queen and prevent her from roaming.10b. Feline birth control method 3 - "the pill" and hormonal female oestrous (heat) suppression.10d.
Feline birth control method 4 - inducing ovulation to suppress feline estrus (heat).WARNING - IN THE INTERESTS OF PROVIDING YOU WITH COMPLETE AND DETAILED INFORMATION, THIS SITE DOES CONTAIN MEDICAL AND SURGICAL IMAGES THAT MAY DISTURB SENSITIVE READERS. The picture on the right shows a cat uterus that has been removed by cat spaying surgery - it is labeled to give you a clear illustration of the reproductive structures that are removed during surgery.
Basically, the parts of the female reproductive tract that get removed are those which are responsible for egg (ova) production, embryo and fetus development and the secretion of the major female reproductive hormones (oestrogen and progesterone being the main female reproductive hormones). The benefits of spaying cats (the pros of spaying) - why we spay female cats.There are many reasons why veterinarians and pet advocacy groups recommend the desexing ofentire female cats. The prevention of unwanted litters:Pet overpopulation and the dumping of unwanted litters of kittens (and puppies) is anall-too-common side effect of irresponsible pet ownership. Every year, thousands of unwanted kittens and older cats are surrendered to shelters and pounds for rehoming or dumped on the street (street-dumped animals ultimately end up dying from starvation, predation or transmissiblefeline diseases or finding their way into pounds and shelters that may or may not beable to find homes for them).
Many of these animals do not ever get adopted from the pounds and shelters that take them in and most end up being euthanased. This sad waste of healthy life can be reduced by not letting pet cats breed indiscriminately and the best way of preventing any accidental, unwanted breeding from occurring is through the routine neutering of all non-stud (non-breeder) female cats (and male cats too, but this is another page). To reduce the spread of inferior genetic traits, genetic diseases and congenital deformities:Cat breeding is not merely the production of kittens, it is the transferral of genes and genetic traits from one generation to the next in a breed population. Petowners and breeders should desex female cats that have conformational, coloring and temperamental traits,which are unfavourable or faulty to the breed as a whole, to reduce the spread of thesedefects further down the generations. Picture: This is a close up image of the vulva of a bitch (?) with hermaphrodism (canine hermaphrodite).
A uterine intussusception is a condition whereby one section of uterine horn telescopes into another section of the uterine horn. The telescoped uterine horn becomes strangled inside the other section of uterine horn (as seen in this image), causing it to die and rot and become necrotic (decaying tissue). You can see the dead telescoped section of uterus in this image - it is green in color and gangrenous. Some entire bitches develop follicular cysts on their ovaries (also termed polycystic ovaries - ovaries with too many actively-secreting ovarian follicles), which produce excessive amounts of oestrogen, well above the quantities usuallyseen in a normal entire bitch. This is probablybecause this species cycles almost continuously all year round (as opposed to the bitch who only cyclesonce to twice a year) and has thus developed a much greater tolerance towards its own reproductivehormone fluctuations than the dog. Diseases such as vaginal hyperplasia, mammary neoplasia, cystic endometrial hyperplasiaand pyometron are much less common in the cat than the dog. This reduced incidence of hormonally-associated disease is, however, no excuse notto get this species desexed. Although not as commonly seen in the cat as in the dog, cats do stillget mammary tumors, the development of which is likely to be affected by the presence ofovarian reproductive hormones.
Similar to the situation described in the dog, early desexing of cats may have some protective effect in preventing the development of mammary cancers in cats.
Note - one reference (23) suggested that the breast-cancer-preventative effect of desexing in cats was not quite as strong as the preventative effect seen in dogs, however, another reference (2) suggested that it was greatly preventative. I would err on the side of caution and have the animal desexed early in case there is value in having the procedure done. For mammary cancer is a condition that cat owners should seek to minimize where possible - the vast majority of mammary cancersin the cat are very nasty (>80% are malignant and have the potential to spread throughout the cat's body, resulting in death). Progesterone inhibits the action of insulin onthe body cells' insulin receptors, producing a condition called 'insulin resistance' and Type 2 diabetes (similar to parturient diabetes or 'pregnancy diabetes' seen in women).
Caninsulin, Actrapid and others) given to the pet to manage its diabetes does not work as effectively in the presence of progesterone.
This can make the animal's diabetes very difficult to control every time it has a season and it is one of the main reasons why vets recommend the desexing of diabetic cats as part of the management of the disease.
It is the ovaries that make female catsexhibit the kinds of "female" hormone-dependent behaviors normally attributed to the entire animal. Cats cominginto season can also be moody and unpredictable (PMS?) and they may bite and scratchowners and other household pets who get too close to them or touch them on the rump. Some of the more dominant cycling females will even display unwanted dominance and territorial behaviors such the marking of territory with urine (although much more commonly exhibited by entire tomcats, some dominant females will also exhibit urine spraying in the house).
Additionally, entire, in-heat female cats are more likely than neutered animals areto leave their yards and roam the countryside looking for males and trouble. The spaying of entire female cats may help to reduce some of these problematic hormone-mediated behaviours.
Author's note: Fighting between cats is more common when cats are left entireand undesexed. Although fighting is much more common between entire male cats, fighting canalso occur between male and female cats when a male attempts to mate with a female whois not yet receptive to his advances.
Owners of fighting cats often spend many hundreds of dollars treating theirpets for fight wounds and cat-fight abscesses.
The reduction of tom cat attraction:When a female cat comes into heat, she releases pheromones and hormones in her urine thatnotify male cats of her increased fertility. At the peak of her cycle, she will alsocall and wail, notifying males of her desire to mate.
For these reasons, it is not uncommonfor the owners of undesexed female cats to have tom cats constantly coming into their yardsat all times of the day and night.This is a problem for many reasons. Firstly, the wandering toms willfight amongst themselves and wail back to the female from outside, thereby producing a lot of ruckus in themiddle of the night. Secondly, the toms will fight with the house owner's cats, resulting in costly cat fightabscesses and the spread of diseases. Third, the toms will void urine and faeces in the female-cat owner's yard, which kills the plants and grass and leaves behind a pungent and noxious odor.
Sometimes, the tomcats will even venture into the female-cat owner's house (they certainly will if there is a cat flap), where they will steal food and mate with the in-heat female in question.
If the female cat does escape the house, she is almost certain to be mated and to fall pregnant. By spaying all of the female cats in your household, there will be nothing to attractthe tom cats into your yard and, consequently, the problem of trespassing tomcats willbe solved.
A spayed cat potentially costs less to feed than an entire animalof the same weight and, therefore, neutering your animal may well save you moneyin the long run. Desexing equates to a loss of breeding potential and valuable genetics:There is no denying this. In an era where many unscrupulous breedersand pet owners ("backyard breeders" we call them) will breed any low-quality cat, regardless ofbreed traits and temperament, to make a quick buck, the good genes for breed soundness, breedtraits and good temperament are needed more than ever. As an elective procedure, spaying is risky:Certainly, female cat desexing is a more risky and invasive procedure to perform than male cat desexing is. If the animal gets lost prior to this age, the unchipped cat may fail to find its way home. What this means is that early age desexing is now compulsory, regardless of any (minor) anaesthetic risks to the animal, andveterinarians who advise desexing at 5 months of age onward are breaking the law.
This role in feline population control is why most shelters choose to neuter early.Cats spayed very early will not attain sexual maturity and will therefore be unable to fall pregnant.
Consequently, owners of female cats will not have to deal with the dilemma of having an 'accidentally' pregnant pet and all of the ethical issues this problem poses (e.g.
Likewise, veterinary staff also benefit from not having to perform desexing surgery on pregnant animals, a procedure that many staff find very confronting.
This again helps to reduce the incidence of irresponsible breeding - cats sold already desexed cannot reproduce.
In particular, breast cancer (mammary cancer)in dogs (and maybe cats) is almost non-existent in animals that are desexed prior to their first season.From a veterinary anaesthesia and surgery perspective, the duration of spay surgery and anaesthesia is much shorter for a smaller, younger animal than it is for a fully grown, mature animal.
I take about 5 minutes to neuter a female kitten of about 9 weeks of age compared to about 10 minutes for an older female and even longer if she is in-heat or pregnant.
More early age neuters can be performed in a day than mature cat neuters and less anaesthetic is used on each individual, thereby saving the practice money per procedure.Routine, across-the-board, early spay and neuter by shelters avoids the need for a sterilization contract to be signed between the shelter and the prospective pet owner.
A sterilizationcontract is a legal document signed by people who adopt young, non-desexed puppies and kittens, which declares that they will return to the shelter to have that dog or cat desexed when it has reached the recommended sterilization age of 5-7 months.
The problem with these sterilisation contracts is that, very often, people do not obey them (particularlyif the animal seems to be "purebred"); they are rarely enforced by law and, consequently, the adopted animal is left undesexed and able to breed and the cycle of pet reproduction and dumped litters continues. Many of these disadvantages were outlined in the previous section (3a)when the reasons for establishing the 5-7 month desexing age were discussed and include: Early age anaesthesia and desexing is never going to be as safe as performing the procedure on an older and more mature cat. Regardless of how safe modern anaestheticshave become, the liver and kidneys of younger animals are considered to be less mature than those of older animals and therefore less capable of toleratingthe effects of anaesthetic drugs and less effective at metabolizing them and breaking themdown and excreting them from the body. Even though it is very uncommon, there will always be the occasional early age animal that suffers from potentially life-threateningside effects, in particular liver and kidney damage, as a result of young age anaesthesia.
Thishypothermia predisposition is caused by the young animal's increased body surface area (larger area for heat to be lost), reduced ability to shiver and reduced bodyfat covering (fat insulates against heat loss).
The predisposition towards hypoglycemia is the result of a reduced ability to produce glucose from stores of glycogen and body fat as well as the fact that these stores of fat and glycogen are smaller in the young animal. Early neutering may result in retained juvenile behaviours inappropriate to the animal's age later on. Early neutering may result in urinary incontinence later on (but so can later neutering too). Because shelter policy was not to add tothe numbers of litters being born irresponsibly by selling entire animals, all cats, including kittens, were required to be desexed prior to sale. Consequently, it was not unusual for us to desex male and female puppies and kittens at early ages (anywhere from 8 weeks of age upwards). Hundreds of puppies and kittens passed under the surgeon's knife every year on their way to good homesand I must say from experience that the incidence of intra- and post-operative complications that were a directresult of underage neutering was exceedingly low.
Cat spaying procedure (spay operation) - a step by step pictorial guide to feline spay surgery.As stated in the opening section, spaying is the surgical removal of a female cat's internal reproductive organs. During the procedure, each of the female cat's ovaries and uterine horns are removed along with a section of the cat's uterine body. And, to be quite honest, from a general pet owner's perspective, this is probably all of the information that you really need to know about the surgical process of desexing a female cat.
There are many surgical desexing techniques available for use by veterinarians, however, I have chosen to demonstrate the very commonly-used "midline incision procedure" of feline spaying. Diagrammatical images are provided to illustrate the process and I have included links to myphotographic step-by-step pages on feline spaying procedure and pregnant cat spaying procedure. Any food that the animal fails to consume by bedtime should be takenaway to prevent it from snacking throughout the night. Do remember that your vet has the right to refuse to admit your pet for surgery if you arrive late. Her gum color will be assessed, her heart and chest listened to and her temperature taken to ensure that she is fit to operate on. This pre-surgical examination is especially important if your pet is old (greater than 7-8 years). In addition to the routine health check, your cat will also be examined in order to determine whether or not she is in-heat or pregnant.If she is, the vet will discuss the added costs and risks of the spaying procedure with you and you can decide whether you want to continue with the operation or post-pone it. This is a simple blood test that is often performed in-house by your vet in order to assess your cat's basic liver and kidney function. It may help your vet to detect underlying liver or kidney disease that might make it unsafe for your cat to have an anaesthetic procedure. Old cats (>8 yrs) in particular should have a pre-anaesthetic blood panel performed (many clinics insist upon it), but cautious owners can elect to have young pets tested too. Things happen (very rarely, but they do) and you need to be aware of this before signing an anaesthetic consent form. Remember that the costs of spaysurgery will increase if your cat is in-heat (in season) or pregnant. As with human medicine, it is becoming more and more common these days for pet owners to sue vets for alleged malpractice. Vets today require clients to sign a consent form before any anaesthetic procedure is performed so that owners can not come back to them and say that they were not informed of the risks of anaesthesia, should there be an adverse event.
Vets may need to call owners if a complication occurs, if an extra procedure needs to be performed on the pet or if the pet has to stay in overnight.
It is often best if you ring the veterinary clinic before picking your pet up just in case it can not go home at the time expected (e.g. The sedative calms the feline makingit slip into anaesthesia more peacefully; the sedative often contains a pain reliefdrug (analgesic), which reduces pain during and after surgery and the sedative action resultsin lower amounts of anaesthetic drug being needed to keep the animal asleep. General anaesthesia is normally achieved by giving the cat an intravenous injection ofan anaesthetic drug, which is then followed up with and maintained using the same injectabledrug or, more commonly, an anaesthetic inhalational gas.
The animal has a tube inserted down its throat during the surgery to help it to breathe better; to stop it from inhaling any saliva or vomitus and to facilitate the administration of any anaesthetic gases.
The surgery:In order for you to properly understand the process of cat spaying surgery, I have to take a second to explain the anatomy of the female cat's reproductive organs. Image: This is a diagram of the reproductive anatomy of a female dog as it appears whenthe abdomen is incised and entered from the abdominal midline.
This anatomy also holds true for the female cat except that the suspensory ligaments, important in the bitch, are of little significance in the cat.
I have not drawn in the intestines or bladder (aside from the stump of the bladder neck - bottom), which would normally overlie the animal's reproductive structures when the animal is positioned on its back (thereproductive organs occupy the roof of the abdomen, near the animal's spine and kidneys).Of particular importance, when it comes to feline spay surgery, are the fatty ovarian pedicles (the tubes ofdense fat and connective tissue containing the ovarian arteries and veins) and the uterine body, just ahead of the animal's cervix. These are the highly vascular sites that must be tied off securely with sutures (so that they do not bleed) and cut in order for the uterus and ovaries to be removed. Image: This is a diagram of the reproductive anatomy of a female dog as it appears from theside. This anatomy also holds true for the female cat except that the suspensory ligament, important in the bitch, is of little significance in the cat. I have drawn this view in order to give you a three-dimensional idea of where the uterus sits in the dog or cat (it is located very high within theabdomen). This is the anatomy that would be encountered if the veterinarian performed a flank spay(a spay technique whereby the veterinarian enters the animal's abdominal cavity via an incision madethrough the muscles of the animal's flank).
These are the highly vascular sites which must be tied off securely with sutures (so that they do not bleed) and incised (cut) in order for the uterus and ovaries to be removed from the animal. Photograph 1: A small incision (usually around 1cm long, but can be up to 3-4 cm long) is made in the cat's skin, approximately 1 inch below the umbilical scar on the abdominal midline. Picture 2: In this image, the veterinary surgeon is removing some of the fat (termed subcutaneous fat, sub-q fat or SC fat) from the incision line region.
The fat is the white, shiny substance in the center of the incision line.There is generally a lot of fat located between the cat's skin and its abdominal wallmuscles. The veterinarian aims to cut along a central line of scar tissue that joins the right and left sides of the animal's abdominal wall musculature.
This line of scar tissue is called the linea alba (literally meaning - "white line").By cutting through scar tissue, rather than the red muscle located either side of the linea alba, the veterinarian reduces the amount of bleeding incurred in entering the cat's abdominal cavity. Photograph 2: This is a close-up picture of the incision line after the lineaalba has been incised.
Image: This is the same diagram that I presented earlier, showing the reproductiveanatomy of the female dog or cat. In this diagram, the sections of the reproductive anatomy that are ligated (tied closed with sutures) and incised (cut through) are indicated with green lines. This tying-off and cutting procedure needs to be performed with great care, otherwise there is the risk of severe internal bleeding occurring or a section of ovary being left behind (ovarian remnant), which could result in the animal returning to heat (showing signs of heat) after it has been 'desexed'. In this diagram, the sections of the reproductive anatomy that are ligated (tied closed with sutures) and incised (cut through) are indicated with orange lines.
This procedure needs to be done with great careotherwise there is the risk of severe internal hemorrhage occurring or a section ofovary being left behind (ovarian remnant), which could result in the animal returning to season(showing signs of heat) even though it has been 'desexed'. Because the linea alba is essentially a tendon-like, collagenous structure (made of collagen), it has less blood supply than red muscle and, therefore, takes longer to heal than muscle would. To take this slower healing into account, the veterinarian often uses a longer-lasting suture (a suturethat is slower to lose its strength and slower to absorb) to close the linea alba. They look like a line with no suture material showing.They are useful because cats find it harder to chew them out. A Photographic Guide to Spaying a Pregnant Cat:As will be discussed in the FAQs and Myths section (section 8), it is possible to desex afemale cat who is already pregnant. What should be understood, however, is that the desexingof pregnant animals carries with it a much higher risk than the desexing of non-pregnantfemales does (the ovarian and uterine blood vessels are much larger and bleed a lot more and the uterusitself is greatly enlarged and much more friable and prone to tearing apart, compared to the non-pregnantuterus).
In viewing this page (which does contain images of surgical abortion) what shouldbe clear to you is that there is added danger and risk and pain (a bigger surgical incision) to the female animal in desexing her whilst she is pregnant and that, for this reason, the emphasis shouldbe placed on having a female cat desexed well before she manages to become pregnant. If you would like to view a complete, step-by-step, photographic guide to pregnant cat spaying surgery, please visit our informative Spaying a Pregnant Cat page. Spaying After Care - all you need to know about caring for your female cat after spaying surgery.When your cat goes home after spay surgery, there are some basic exercise, feeding,bathing, pain relief and wound care considerations that should be taken into account to improve yourpet's healing, health and comfort levels. 1) Feeding your cat immediately after feline spaying surgery:After a cat or kitten has been spayed, it is not normally necessary for you to implement anyspecial dietary changes.
Unless your veterinarian says otherwise, it is normally fine to feed your cat the night aftersurgery. Offer your pet a smaller meal than normal in case your pet has an upset tummyfrom surgery and do not be worried if your pet won't eat the night after surgery.It is not uncommon for pets to be sore and sorry after surgery and to refuse to eat that evening.
If your cat is a bit sooky and won't eat because of surgery-site pain, feel freeto tempt her with tasty, strong-smelling foods to get her to eat. Many cats also like strong-smellingfishy foods like fish-containing tinned food, tinned tuna or salmon or cooked fish filletsand small prawns. Avoid fatty foods such as mince, lamb, pork and processed meats (salami, sausages, bacon) because these may cause digestive upsets. Some catsgo home on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as Carprofen(trade names include: Prolet, Rimadyl, Carprofen tablets) and Meloxicam (tradenames include Metacam)after surgery. Do not give these drugs if your cat is refusing to eat.Most cats that get spayed are not normally off their food for more than a day. It is therefore recommended that running-around exercise be avoided or minimized for a minimum of 2 weeks after surgery to allow the skin the best chance of staying still and healing.
Restrictingyour cat's exercise will also reduce the risk of a large seroma forming (section 6b) andreduce post-operative spay-site pain.



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