How to lose major weight in 2 weeks uk,low carb diet plan book,weight loss programs vancouver bc,weight loss food babe youtube - How to DIY

09.09.2015
According to the most recent NHS statistics, almost two thirds of British people are now overweight or obese and as a result, demand for gastric bypass surgery has shot up.
It's all the more galling for Gregg, 30, a school dinner chef, because unlike the other two, his dramatic 12st weight loss was the result of sheer hard work. Seven weeks after surgery, Gregg is healed and ready to start his search for love.'All my negative thoughts about my body are going,' he explains. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. The best of enemies: They've been arch rivals through 25 years of scandal, wild partying and dodgy boyfriends. Getting some exercise most days keeps your brain strong by increasing the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the brain. Exercising for at least 10 minutes a day working hard enough to break a sweat helps lower the risk of cancers of the colon, uterus and breast by reducing body fat, and by helping to move food through your body more efficiently. One of the best things you can do to prevent bone-weakening and loss as you age is to exercise.
Getting to and staying at a healthy weight not only protects you from disease, it also helps you to look and feel better, improves self-esteem and reduces pressure on your joints helping them to last longer and have less pain. It takes 3,500 calories to burn 1-pound of fat so if you want to lose weight you will need to make small changes in your diet.
There is nothing like a good nighta€™s sleep to improve how you feel and your outlook on life.
Blood pressure is the force exerted on your artery walls as blood passes through them.A  It tells you if your blood is flowing smoothly. Oxygen is required for good health and body function.A  Your respiratory system involves breathing in and out to distribute oxygen to body tissues and to remove waste (carbon dioxide) from the body.
One of the best things you can do to prevent bone-weakening and loss as you age is to exercise.A  Building strength (weight lifting, resistance tubes, body weight) andA a€?weight bearinga€? exercises (exercises that support your body weight such as walking and jogging) are best to keep your bones strong.
Being overweight results in lower self esteem and can cause many health problems.A  Exercise helps you burn more calories and increase your metabolism resulting in weight loss.
There is nothing like a good nighta€™s sleep to improve how you feel and your outlook on life.A  Getting some exercise at least three hours before bedtime will help you sleep better and wake up feeling rested. I've been covering technology in fitness, fashion and health over the last 5 months and I really hope you enjoy these trend reports.
Like I say in the video, we're picking 3 winners per prize category, so you have an excellent chance of winning.
In all aspects of life, I'm drawn to women who take a stand on issues, don't care about being labeled a freak and just come out and say whatever it is they feel needs to be said.
Even when I'm home alone and hungry, I can cook a HelloFresh meal and save the 2nd portion for my lunch or dinner the next day. The concept of the beautifully captured campaign was that an exciting adventure could be as close as your backyard. Every trainer I got was just going through the motions, fully knowing I'd disappear on him or her once my free sessions were up. The day I went to film at KryoLife, owned and operated by Joanna Fryben,  I was actually feeling significant shoulder pain.
Cryotherapy is hailed as a cure-all and people are using it to get rid of all kinds of things like acne, cellulite, unwanted weight, inflammation, depression, libido problems, and body injuries. To be perfectly honest, the TomTom Spark Cardio + Music frustrated me at first because therea€™s a bit of set up involved. I refer to my life as a juggling act because there are so many facets of what I do that need to be in constant motion. In fact, I have more than a few waist trainers that I've been using for over a year since becoming curious about the waist training trend.
As a Latina (my mother is Honduran), I'm feeling the need to spice up Thanksgiving with some Latin peppers. What follows are my favorite photographs from the day I conquered my fears with the Special Olympics of Missouri. You might think that living in downtown Manhattan, I already see it all when it comes to high style. If you haven't been to any of Serene Social's wellness events yet, you're missing out and should definitely go to the one happening tomorrow in NYC at the launch of New York's Fashion Week.
I will be there and looking forward to some heart opening rooftop yoga atop the James Hotel in Soho.
So here's my Flat Stanley Skincare Secret: I seek out skincare that's packaged flat and in single servings.
One of the best parts of going on a road trip adventure is everything that you see along your drive.
This trip will take us to some pretty amazing places where nature makes you feel empowered and free. Barre classes first came about in a big way in the 1950's on account of ballerina Lotte Berk.
Barre fitness is all about using small movements to work trouble spots and tone every inch of your body by working multiple muscles in unison. It beats being ohm-ing indoors, especially with the cool breeze off the harbor blowing through your hair. Earlier this summer, I spent one of the most amazing and healthiest travel weekends of my life at the Four Seasons Baltimore. I first saw a pair of Vira Suns on my yoga-instructor-friend, Lauren Imparato, during a yoga class in the middle of Times Square.
What sets this year's event apart from the last few, aside from the bearably cooler weather, was yoga-preneur Lauren Imparato leading the highly publicized morning class. After years of dealing with this issue called a€?sleevage,a€? Ia€™ve concluded that most bras Ia€™ve worn are actually the real culprits.
Before you give a listen though, I want to share my thoughts on what Katya Meyers is doing.
I got in touch with the designer, Geneva Peschka from SunandDaughtersCo on Etsy, to find out more about the inspiration behind the shirt. Geneva bravely decided to act on the lessons she learned through these books and noticed her life change drastically for the better.
The new Lotus Print collection by adidas Originals is urban, striking and feminine in a cool, unapologetic way.
If you're a Zumba fanatic, you should know that the cruise doesn't set sail for another 7 months from Fort Lauderdale, Florida but at least you have some time to plan, right? And just in case you stop dancing to see where the hell you're going, the cruise will be sailing to Falmouth, Jamaica with a stop in Labadee, Haiti for a private live concert featuring the hottest Caribbean artists.
While the entire Team SCA crew was not on board, 2 of its sailors were there to answer all my questions. Their sail, while impressive in it's own right, represents something far greater for women. From your clothes to accessories and gadgets, don't take a risk by wearing it for the first time on race day!
FOR an exclusive womena€™s fitness class combining Surfset Fitness (the NEW surf-fitness trend) and Real Ryder Spinning (35 minutes of each). I picked out some rather loud styles for our shoot but once I got comfortable in them, I had no qualms wearing them "off-set". Short girls are always getting brainwashed into thinking we can't pull off more eccentric looks or fashion trends that taller girls can get away with. Leave a comment below telling me which fitness myth gets under your skin and why it's soooo untrue. If there's something you should know about me it's that I avoid tourist traps at all costs!
For the sake of being accurate, let's call these dangerous deodorants what they really are, which is antiperspirants. It's totally blowing my mind but at the same time I keep asking myself: why should this feel surreal?
I typically only share my press features on my press page, but today I'm expecially THANKFUL because this issue of People Style Watch marks the 12th time I've been quoted in their magazine. One of the most classic New Year's resolutions is to start going to the gym more, which is exactly why gyms start hiking up their enrollment fees around this time.
I was there to buy an assortment of chocolates for my Aunt as a combined birthday and Valentine's Day gift. I make yoga dates with my girlfriends constantly because I feel like I get the most quality time with them during this workout than any other.
This is Nicola Yvette, my longtime friend who teaches yoga & pilates (check her out here). Last night we went on yoga date to Laughing Lotus Yoga NYC and it was pretty awesome to experience her energy and soulfulness right beside me. People dona€™t just show up to classa€¦they show up wearing designer sportswear and the latest in tracking accessories. If you're looking to visit NYC or take a staycation yourself, keep reading for details about the GIVEAWAY I'm offering with Dream Hotels. When I entered my room at the Dream Hotel Midtown, this was the first thing I saw: a framed picture of my 2 puggles, a bottle of champagne and a gluten-free birthday cake! Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector.
Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations. The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced. It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones. As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared). Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them. A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K. As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales. The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts. The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials. Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view. Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found. Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia. In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) .
In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102).
It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period.
To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes. Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy. Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path. Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator. Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity. In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description. Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance. The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side.
Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere. We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down.
Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist.
We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust. The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator. Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions.
The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions. Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands. European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros.
These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times. Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below.
It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top. During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions.
At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records.
It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness. These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world.
But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib. Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came.
From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk.
It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth.
Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts. There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece. In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge. That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole.
The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date.
The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge. Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe.
As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps. The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established.
In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe. Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps.
The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography. The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied. Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess. Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire. When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence. In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life.
Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity.
Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking.
The Byzantine Empire, though providing essential links in the chain, remains something of an enigma for the history of the long-term transmission of cartographic knowledge from the ancient to the modern world. It may be necessary to emphasize that the ancient Greek maps shown in this volume are a€?reconstructionsa€? by modern scholars based upon the textual descriptions of the general outline of the geographical systems formed by each of the successive Greek writers so far as it is possible to extract these from their writings alone.
China is Asiaa€™s oldest civilization, and the center from which cultural disciplines spread to the rest of the continent. An ancient wooden map discovered by Chinese archaeologists in northwest China's Gansu Province has been confirmed as the country's oldest one at an age of more than 2,200. The map of Guixian was unearthed from tombs of the Qin Kingdom at Fangmatan in Tianshui City of Gansu Province in 1986 and was listed as a national treasure in 1994. Unlike modern maps, place names on these maps were written within big or small square frames, while the names of rivers, roads, major mountains, water systems and forested areas were marked directly with Chinese characters. Whoever sets out to write on the history of geography in China faces a quandary, however, for while it is indispensable to give the reader some appreciation of the immense mass of literature which Chinese scholars have produced on the subject, it is necessary to avoid the tedium of listing names of authors and books, some of which indeed have long been lost. As for the ideas about the shape of the earth current in ancient Chinese thought, the prevailing belief was that the heavens were round and the earth square. The following attempts to compare rather carefully the parallel march of scientific geography in the West and in China. But surgery doesn't always provide the hoped-for outcome and as Sarah, the 25-year-old star of Channel 4 documentary, My Baggy Body, knows only too well, it can create problems of its own.Sarah, and co-stars Gregg and Pauline, all suffer from the same embarrassing affliction - rolls of over-stretched empty skin that's failed to snap back and has left them feeling ashamed of their bodies.
Working your body for at least 30 minutes most days of the week (working hard enough to break a sweat) can help prevent and manage diseases like type II diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cancer, depression and more.
The cardiovascular system (heart and blood vessels) involves the circulation of your blood through your body. Getting some exercise most days, choosing healthier foods and losing weight are effective ways to manage and prevent diabetes. Working your body forA  at least 30 minutes most days of the week (workingA  hard enough to break a sweat) can help prevent and manage diseases like type II diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cancer, depression and more.A  It also helps to control and manage weight and stress and helps you look and feel better.A  Exercise is the only proven method to add years to your life and life to your years a€“ so get moving today, youa€™ll be glad you did!
If you have plaques in your arteries, your blood flow is interrupted and can cause life-threatening damage to your cardiovascular system. Getting some exercise most days of the week helps you breathe better, makes your lungs stronger and delivers nourishing oxygen throughout your body, making you feel refreshed and energized. Getting some exercise most days, choosing healthier foods and losing weight are effective ways to manage and prevent diabetes.A  Moving your body not only helps your bodya€™s insulin work better it also removes excess sugar in the blood and helps your body become more effective at processing food.
The reason I find them so relevant is because by 2020, wearable technology alone with generate over 20 billion dollars in revenue.
Last night I made HelloFresh's Carmelized Onion Burger but instead of fries, the recipe included a roasted cauliflower side.
It was supposed to wet your appetite for personal training and help you ease into your new gym-life. People are investing more of their paycheck in health & wellness, and seem to be more committed to their workouts than ever. But if you want the benefits of the treatment, it's worth enduring the very looooong 3 minutes. So I was genuinely hoping to reap the benefits of whole body cryo and report back to you on how quickly it worked. Most of the ones Ia€™ve purchased or have been sent to review bite the dust in my gadget drawer at Mizzfit Headquarters. I have what seems like a billion projects going on at once, and if I ignore one of thema€”well, you know what happensa€”the balls, the chainsaws and flaming sticks come toppling down on you and scatter. Like many of you, I saw Kim Kardashian's selfie that she took in her trainer and wondered what's this?
One of my recipes is an appetizer and the other is a side dish to accompany your turkey dinner.
Look for them in the canned and jar food aisle where you'd find things like stewed tomatoes, pasta sauces, etc. I'm pretty sure it was a combination of the perm's harsh chemicals (it was the early 90's afterall) and my onset of puberty.
There's an amazing event called Over The Edge that happens nationwide through the Special Olympics, and I decided to do it in St. In addition to raising awareness for this extraordinary event, I raised money to support it. To some extent that's true because of the amazing and innovative fashion sense people have here. Serene Social has teamed up with Lululemon and Suja for this gathering to kick off the calamity of fashion energy that's about to overtake the city.
By the time his photographs started getting noticed through social media, it was already a passion project. I've talked a lot about Haute Athletics this summer and love that they carry stuff you won't find elsewhere.
Since there are women rockin' this style and attitude in their everyday clothing, clearly there should be activewear that expresses the same vibe!
Her prodigees went on to turn barre fitness into a successful business of popular, packed classes. Quite honestly, I felt like I was hiding out, as if I had taken off for an exotic and faraway retreat. But the real highlight was scoring my room at the Four Seasons for their celebration of Global Wellness Day, which was served up as a full week of fit & healthy activities. Men don't like to be kept in the dark, because they know whatever you give them they'll have to top when it's time to shop for you. I knew this year for Father's Day I was going to give my dad a travel bag that would help him do this.
Here's the link again on Lucy's Blog :)]]>On June 21st, Athleta was the headlining sponsor of Solstice in Times Square put on by Times Square Alliance for it's 13th year. When Katya first reached out to me and shared a bit of her life with me, I was really impressed with her background and how she left a traditional career path to pursue an endeavor her heart was stuck on (racing). She told me that over the last few years she's been doing a lot of self work and stumbled across Spirit Junkie by Gabrielle Bernstein. During my little photoshoot in NYC's Meatpacking District, locals and tourists alike kept pointing out my gear to their group. She works out with me, attends my events and has modeled for print ads (like the one above which actually never ran) and in magazines with me.
After writing about Team SCA and their amazing adventure racing around the world, I was invited on a press trip to sail with them.


Just to clarify, the Volvo Ocean Race is ongoing and was in full effect while I was on this press trip, but a few crew members at a time are allowed to come off the boat for a leg of the race and rest up.
As I write this, there are some incredibly athletic and brave women sailing around the world as part of Team SCA. It stops in nine countries around the world before finishing in Gothenburg, Sweden this June of 2015. Test everything you plan on wearing for the official half marathon race day during your last few training runs. Now that crazy party church is home to David Barton Gym and LimeLight shops where health and fashion are king and "queen" (it's in Chelsea, so I had to). And if anyone has ever told you that knee highs only look good on girls with skinny legs, well, that's just NOT TRUE. Personally, I just think it's a matter of choosing a pattern, color or length that best suit your legs. I like to uncover the healthiest and most active things going on in the places I travel to, and I always prefer to go off the beaten path. As I get older, I find I need to do more to preserve the firmness, the lift and glow factor of my skin.
I'm feeling really grateful for 2.5 years of working with them to report on the hottest fitness trends happening nation-wide. To be honest, I have more health goals than I can count on 5 sets of hands, so I'll keep it short and sweet. Since she's a fashion designer, I knew she'd love chocolates from the most stylish and talked about chocolatier in town (the owners used to work at Per Se).
As a fitness trend expert, Ia€™m thrilled to see this movement thrive, but I go crazy when I cana€™t sign up for a class because it's completely SOLD OUT! It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals. A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them. Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation. Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history. Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps. In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store. When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time. Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others.
Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training. Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art. It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch. It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness. There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic. In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C.
In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213.
The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India.
Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C.
Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther.
We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological. It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period. Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era. Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported. This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death.
The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one. A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained. The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years.
There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole. Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man.
The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre.
These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207). The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance. This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps. The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest.
In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328). The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass.
According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense. We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion. Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ. That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii. That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race). That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c. That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents. The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps. To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps.
We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought. In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice.
Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth. With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general. Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge.
In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed. While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves. Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge. Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions. By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean.
While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences. The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps. Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries. A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping. In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium. In both Western Europe and Byzantium relatively little that was new in cartography developed during the Dark Ages and early Middle Ages, although monks were assiduously copying out and preserving the written work of many past centuries available to them. Researcher He said that the map, drawn in black on four pine wood plates of almost the same size, had clear and complete graphics depicting the administrative division, a general picture of local geography and the economic situation in Guixian County in the Warring States era. Only a few examples can be given, but it should be understood, even when it is not expressly said, that they must often stand simply as representative of a whole class of works. It may be said at the outset that both in East and West there seem to have been two separate traditions, one which we may call a€?scientific, or quantitative, cartographya€™, and one which we may call a€?religious, or symbolic, cosmographya€™. Each time your heart beats blood passes throughout your body bringing oxygen and to nourish your cells.
Yes, it's going through it's "boutique salon" stage right now, but people have been "floating" and even installing floating chambers in their homes for the last 20 years.
But seriously, it's hard to decide which one is my favorite prize because quite frankly, I own them all.
We often take for granted the wonderful parks and historical sights within the region we live in. A few years ago The New York Times reported that some women were studio-hopping, taking more than 1 class a day to get their fix. It wasn't an overnight kind of relief, but the pain did completely go away about a day and half later. I know youa€™ve probably heard of many fitness trackers already but this one is the tracker of all trackers. 8 years ago I left a career in corporate advertising to pursue my dream of reporting on health & fitness. Ita€™s risky business juggling a lot in your life, but for me personally, I live for the thrill! I reached out to Hourglass Angel (the most well-known waist training seller online) to see if I could try their products and, of course, come to my own conclusion. Again, not complaining as worse things have happened in my life, but as all wavy and curly-haired girls know, learning how to style curls is freakin' hard! Louis at The Arch so that Special Olympics athletes from my hometown can train, compete and enjoy a lifetime of their own thrills.
BUT, I'm never as exposed to the world of fashion and the mind-blowing creations debuting on runways as I am during NYFW.
She presented her "Search Don't Rescue" collection, which really appealed to me because I'm a huge fan of monochromatic, flowy dresses and pairings. Graffiti Beasts leggings feature the art of real street artists whose art can be seen on the streets of Lisbon, Barcelona, Milan, New York City and many more cities across the world. Michelle Austin, founder of the Fluidity Barre, was one of her students among others like Exhale founder Fred Devito, who I interviewed HERE. You will most likely discover parts of your body that you never knew were possible to work out or even move. They have a wayfarer style (which is so classic that they're always IN) and they're made with polarized, UV400 protection lenses. If you set a level of expectation, they will ALWAYS look forward to your gifts and rave about them in conversation.
Let me guess, you know how to break a sweat but you also look forward to showing off how well you clean up and glow like a pro. Check it out because I go into detail about why these skincare products should be in your summer gym bag STAT!
This is the yearly event where yogis come together right smack in the middle of Times Square to celebrate the day the sun is at its highest position in the sky for the longest period of time. The tracker itself is a black shiny oval shaped piece that clips into a metal slip-on bracelet. But what you're paying for is great technology, an app that doesn't baffle you but inspires you and a piece of jewelry that looks good with anything you wear.
A really astounding young lady and go-getter herself, Katya Meyers, created the interview series to share what happens behind the scenes in the lives of successful health & wellness oriented professionals. Spirit Junkie and the book A Return To Love by Marianne Williamson really helped open her mind and heart to all the amazing possibilities that can happen when someone chooses love over fear.
If you know of a case that shoud be on this list, please add it to the comments section below with a direct link. It's a 5 day adventure and my sources are telling me that there will be 130 of the most famous Zumba instructors onboard including Beto Perez himself.
I used to think of her as just my mom without fully worshipping everything she's accomplished. They're competing in the Volvo Ocean Race, which is considered to be the toughest sailing race in the world.
It's a long trip (9 months at sea!) and it's a tremendous challenge for these women, requiring massive teamwork and goal-setting. Of course, you have to train consistently, eat right and get plenty of sleep and hydration. I teamed up with Chrissy's and my bestie, Michelle from YoGoGirls, to bring you these playful and sporty looks.
I'm 5'2" with muscular legs and I loved the way these Polka Dot Socks almost seemed to lengthen my legs.
Aging lines, sun damage and sagging are major concerns of mine, and I'd like to do the most I can to prevent the visible aging process from coming on faster than it needs to. Because aluminum prevents our underarms from stinking by blocking sweat from escaping through our pores onto the surface of the skin.
Since May of 2009, I've been on a mission to take everything I learned and experienced from my advertising career and turn into something truly positive that will help women embrace health & wellness.
I also wanted to take a moment to tell all of you that I'm always here to answer your questions about health & wellness so feel free to contact me. Speaking of sweet, Valentine's Day reared its rosy head and lured me into a chocolate shop last week.
As I admired the glossy bonbons (they're literally lacquered with a sugary coating and some are topped with edible gold leaf) my mouth was watering insatiably.
Yoga's the one activity where even though you're not talking, you're still connecting with each other while on your mats.
They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment.
Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?.
In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals. Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse. The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist.
A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes.
Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships. But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive.
The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period.
Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms. The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries. From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties. We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus. In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work. But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven.
On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan. Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors.
Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated. Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them. Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra. Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire.
John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor. In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions. In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps. Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged.
Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella.
Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world. Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation. It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena. On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places. To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society.
Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence. Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections. Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance. Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions. When we come to consider the mapping of small areas in medieval western Europe, it will be shown that the Saint Gall monastery map is very reminiscent of the best Roman large-scale plans. Some maps, along with other illustrations, were transmitted by this process, but too few have survived to indicate the overall level of cartographic awareness in Byzantine society. Eighty-two places are marked with their respective names, locations of rivers, mountains and forested areas on the map. Experts said that graphics, symbols, scales, locations, longitude and latitude are key elements of a map. Thus in the Ta Tai Li Chi, Tseng Shen, replying to the questions of Shanchu Li, admits that it was very hard to see how, on the orthodox view, the four comers of the earth could be properly covered. The category continues to evolve and expand beyond the fitness tracker we're all familiar with. The prizes I pick for each Booya Fitness challenge are based on my favorite products and gear that I've personally test out for you. I only ate half the bun and the wonderful part about the meal is that the portions are JUST RIGHT. I already have enough gadgets and gizmos in my life that if I'm going to add something to the mix, it better do something spectacular.
Let's just say I ended up falling in love with waist training, which is something I really didn't expect. I made some amazing stopsa€”this one was my favoritea€”and had a lot of time to think along the way. You essentially have to ask yourself whata€™s next in my lifea€¦what road will I take and where do I hope it will lead me? As a fitness trend expert, I never limit myself to just fitness events because EVERYTHING is fusing together these days. But yes, I have a FLAT approach to skincare that I want to share with you today that literally saves my life every time I travel. Fact of my life: my toiletry bag + makeup bag + hair dryer and roundbrushes = most of the weight in my suitcase. Ia€™m discovering new spots to work out, sharing my favorite places to unwind and scoring face-time with friends. Not only do they keep you from squinting but they'll save those precious eye corners of yours from sun damage. The 2 pieces together are minimal and sleek in away that far out-styles FitBit, UP by Jawbone, Nike+ Fuelband and similar black band trackers. The 2 metal bracelet finishes--Midnight Purple and Brushed Gold--blend exceptionally well with silver and gold tone jewelry. I'm honored to be a part of her series and my interview is LIVE and ready to be heard by clicking RIGHT HERE.
My mom and I don't always agree on everything but she's been very supportive of my life choices and has taken great care of me throughout my life. It's going to be a fun springtime evening social, if you will, and a great chance to check out the evolution of LimeLight!
Come join our healthy party with cocktails from SkinnyGirl and Juice Press, and wine sorbet from Frosae Wine Sorbae, which is basically FROZEN WINE!


So I've put a little something together with a posh studio that's new to the area called Core3 Fitness.
Hopefully they'll inspire you to get creative with something as simple and inexpensive as a pair of socks. So, I did for a little bit but then over time I became empowered by how great my mid-30's felt. I can't perform magic tricks but I can wear Altchek MD's Daily Moisturizer made with SPF30, Ester C and Vitamin E.
The plus side is less sweat and stink but the downside is that antiperspirants prevent the human body from doing it's job, which is to rid itself of toxins.
I thought I'd share with you what I've got on my desk today: the March issue of People Style Watch Magazine and my new favorite toy, a Ball Wide Mouth Mason Jar with a fruit infuser lid!
It's one of the easiest invitations to extend because no one has time--including me--to workout and see their friends unless it's happening simultaneously. In this case, it's imperative that your mats are side by side so you can visually bond with your friend.
This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time.
The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction. After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text. Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns.
They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on.
The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy. The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period. They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope. The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes. We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science.
With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens.
Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained. Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean.
Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt. Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period.
Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret.
The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration.
In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors. Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances. If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps.
This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators. While almost certainly fewer maps were made than in the Greco-Roman Period, nevertheless the key concepts of mapping that had been developed in the classical world were preserved in the Byzantine Empire.
What is more surprising is that the map marks the location of Wei Shui, now known as the Weihe River, and many canyons in the area. The map of Guixian County has all these elements except longitude and latitude, according to historians.
It's drastically changing these industries with more advanced fabrics, lighter and more funtional parts, more accurate tracking and motion sensors, and overall cooler customization.
Whether it's my boyfriend coming over to cook with me, my mom visiting from Missouri or my best friend coming to spend the weekend with me to play in New York City, I literally ALWAYS have a meal in the fridge for 2 that only takes 30-45 minutes to whip up.
And can you blame them for not caring when they know new members are taking them for joyride? Since I'm the healthy one in my familia, they count on me to contribute an interesting veggie concoction that wows their taste buds.
I caught the flu somewhere between rushing to shows and shaking hands with and hugging everyone. I've been to a few of their events, but this year's New York Fashion Week 2015 showcase was one of my favorites. Fashion is going sporty on NYFW catwalks and tech is catering more than ever to wellness conscious users.
Ia€™m doing it all in a 2015 Ford Explorer to celebrate Tri-State Forda€™s a€?Where To Now?a€? adventure and summer sweepstakes! My products have to be effective, easy to apply, fast working and light (on my shoulder, not just my face!). It's challenging, modern, music-oriented, and doesn't follow all the yoga rules you're used to. Most people won't even notice you're wearing a tracker because it looks like a fancy bangle. The lotus flower is now bold, proud and sharp looking, which I personally think translates better to fitness and sport.
I learned a lot from them about Team SCA's voyage, race conditions and day to day life at sea during this gorgeous afternoon spent sailing on the Hudson River. I've been running long distances since highschool and to this day I'm still discovering new tricks for a smoother run.
Going to the Big Island this past February was my 3rd time back to the wonderous state and I used a new online travel guide service called Localfu to navigate my way around like a local. Even my hunky Australian officemate who is the epitome of a guy's guy goes to SoulCycle and has a ClassPass acount. Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making. All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times.
He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing. Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents. Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts. However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca. From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II.
There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed. Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od. Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on. The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase.
Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e.
At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth. In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive.
Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres]. And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world. It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands. On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping.
Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes. This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade.
90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition. The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography. Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history. However, the maps of Marinus and Ptolemy, one of the latter containing thousands of place-names, were at least partly known to Arabic geographers of the ninth to the 10th century. The most accomplished Byzantine map to survive, the mosaic at Madaba (#121), is clearly closer to the classical tradition than to maps of any subsequent period. He Shuangquan, a research fellow with the Gansu Provincial Archaeological Research Institute, has made an in-depth study of the map and confirmed its drawing time to be 239 B.C. As I get older, I realize how important it is to poke around and get the inside scoop instead of just taking things at face value. It's really amazing to see all the companies being born out of these kind of technological advancements. It's been a whirlwind of a month but I'm finally back at Mizzfit headquarters blogging about all my exciting Fall adventures. Ia€™ve worked really hard to get where I am, but if you had asked me years ago whether Ia€™d be in the drivera€™s seat of my own business and reporting on womena€™s health, Ia€™d think you were nuts. I worry that I won't have what I need and as a frugalista, I don't want to buy what I already own while away from home.
Most importantly they have to feel good on and revitalize my skin, whether Ia€™m running to a workout or freshening up right after one. It's simply amazing, so I was thrilled to see her join what has become a yogi cult favorite summer event.
But when it comes to fitness--my area of expertise--there's no fooling me or anyone else for that matter.
She told me to choose my deodorant wisely because many popular brands pose health risks, especially to women.
Check me out in Lacroix Sparkling Water's new campaign called "Start A Healthy Relationship", which can be seen on the Lacroix website and in several fitness & health publications like Oxygen Magazine. Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made. It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem. I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia.
This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map. It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era. The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making. See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes. Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands. Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research. Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions.
By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions. The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents. From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic. Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction.
The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps. There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice.
With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century. It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration. Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property.
But the transmission of Ptolemya€™s Geography to the West came about first through reconstruction by Byzantine scholars and only second through its translation into Latin (1406) and its diffusion in Florence and elsewhere.
But as the dichotomy increased between the use of Greek in the East and Latin in the West, the particular role of Byzantine scholars in perpetuating Greek texts of cartographic interest becomes clearer. Forested areas marked on the map also tallies with the distribution of various plants and the natural environment in the area today. So I've whipped out a larger magnifying glass (aka camera and corresponding film team) and started doing a lot more poking around than usual.
I take a lot of criticism for being an outspoken Republican (I'm NOT anti-gay marriage or pro-life though), for wearing waist trainers and even for making a living off of social media. That being said, I was pretty excited to see which brands would be making their debut at TechStyleNYC! If you live on the West Coast, keep reading because I have details on an amazing fit event happening out there as well.
They either burnt out or broke after 1 drop and then it was back to the Apple store for a new one.
Find out what's in store for you and please check out this Facebook Invitation (where I'd love for you to RSVP). I want you to be informed on all the possibilities of fitness instead of believing bogus stories that discourage you.
My aunt is no stranger to disease as a survivor of Melanoma tumors and having recently lost her beloved husband to Esophageal cancer, so I decided to take heed and do a little research of my own. No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars.
It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps. The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged. The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities.
Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense. The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South. Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society.
In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds. Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts. Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail.
In the case of the sea charts of the Mediterranean, it is still unresolved whether the earliest portolan [nautical] charts of the 13th century had a classical antecedent. Byzantine institutions, particularly as they developed in Constantinople, facilitated the flow of cartographic knowledge both to and from Western Europe and to the Arab world and beyond. Even if it doesn't (and if so, I'm jealous that you've mastered being a sane packer), I think this tip might come in handy. Many thanks to Altchek MD for all the attention and for making my skin look so great at 36 years old.
I'm a hustler and a dreamer, which means I'm constantly working to grow my company and my career as a TV host.
The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature.
Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned. The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C. The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports. If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas.
It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate. It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him. Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks.
Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction.
Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world.
If they had, one would suppose it to be a map connected with the periploi [sea itineraries].
Our sources point to only a few late glimpses of these transfers, as when Planudes took the lead in Ptolemaic research, for example.
People are always judging but that's OK, I enjoy the path less traveled if it sparks my curiosity.
Around the time I turned 12, my dad took me to get a "Mariah Carey" perm because I wanted Mariah's exact hair from her music video Someday.
You'll eventually find yourself clicking on every square on his instagram profile much like I did. Ia€™m a sleeveless-outfit-kind-of-girl and my issue is finding a bra that makes the area where my underarm and side boob meet look shapely. Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization. Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps.
Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias. The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar. The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface. Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India.
The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps. Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars. In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries. But in order to reach an understanding of the historical processes involved in the period, we must examine the broader channels for Christian, humanistic, and scientific ideas rather than a single map, or even the whole corpus of Byzantine cartography.
Ita€™s frustrating when you work out as much as I do to maintain an athletic physique, to look in the mirror and spot a bulge protruding from under your arm!
I discovered there's a lot out there in the world of iPhone cases, and with a brand new iPhone 6 on my hands, I began to test. The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs.
Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?.
What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate. Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date. Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night.
There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form.
Viewed in this context, some of the essential cartographic impulses of the 15th century Renaissance in Italy are seen to have been already active in late Byzantine society. Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc. They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through. He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter.
The influence of these views on Chinese cartography, however, remained slight, for it revolved around the basic plan of a quantitative rectangular grid, taking no account of the curvature of the eartha€™s surface.
So I reached out to him to express my fandom and whadayaknow, he's the nicest guy on earth!
It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement. As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities. At the same time Chinese geography was always thoroughly naturalistic, as witness the passage about rivers and mountains from the LA? Shih Chhun Chhiu.




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