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17.12.2013
Hide your wifea€¦hide your kidsa€¦stock up on toilet paper and milk and watera€¦.Winter Storm Bucky is a-comina€™! If stranded or even if simply plowed in and desirous of warming up your vehicle while you dig out, make certain that your cara€™s breathing system is free and clear.
If youa€™re a daily soft contact lens wearer, you know the panic of forgetting to put solution in your contact lens case.
Whether you wear makeup everyday, a lot or a little, or only on special occasions here are some tips that all women should follow for a healthy face. The content contributions of Welsch Hearing Aid Company should not be considered by anyone as a substitute for medical or other hearing health professional diagnosis, treatment, advice, or recommendations.
According to this neurologist, the intense craving we have for these foods from time-to-time is similar to a drug addicts craving for drugs.
Currently there is legislation pending to make hearing health care more accessible to our Veterans. Due to the resultant backlog, veterans across the country are having difficulties accessing convenient and high-quality hearing care through the VA. Within the VA system, only audiologists are permitted to perform hearing evaluations, hearing aid fittings, programming, and adjusting, and hearing aid counseling services, despite hearing aid specialists being ready and competent to provide these services. Everyone one of you have friends or family members who have served or are serving in the Armed Services. Join natural health and supplement expert, Terry Lemerond, as he dives deeper into this powerful natural medicine. Yesterday I got the privilege of joining some very beautiful and talented ladies at Mint Salon in downtown Green Bay to get to work on a fun campaign called Beautiful on Both Sides. There are a lot of great bathroom products out there that suck you in with the siren song of minimal effort.
You can go into your cabinet and toss everything you've got in there, replacing it with a spray bottle filled with two inexpensive, easily obtained, and incredibly safe products you quite likely already have in your home.
Slightly warming the vinegar helps the Dawn dissolve more easily and is good for really tough buildup.
When Ann Trachtenberg joked she wanted to be escorted out of her last chemotherapy treatment by a marching band, little did she know her niece would contact the Badger Band: The University of Wisconsin Marching Band to do the honors.
I always thought almond milk, although more expensive, was a much healthier option for our family.
I will say that we buy SILK brand and carrageenan is NOT an ingredient, so that makes me feel better. Don't rely on pain relievers that can damage you liver, instead talk to a chiropractor about a natural way to combat that pain. If someone handed you a magic wand and said, a€?We have really failed in the way the government of the United States of America operates and we are now empowering you to make any changes you desire to make this government operate more efficiently and better,a€? what major changes, if any, would you make?
Historically people who climbed to the top have chosen two ways, basically, to govern others -- with some form of absolutism or constitutionalism.
However, the individual, although created to live individually and freely, is always subject to law, and true freedom is always exercised only as one lives obediently under law. In the 17th century crisis and the need for rebuilding after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War led to the push for absolutism.
And so, after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) religious identity and commitment led to a new sense of nationalism based upon a nationa€™s major religious beliefs.
This was the case also in Germany, even though the Treaty of Westphalia had set back the formation of a unified state in Germany. Monarchies developed throughout Europe, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, over vast empires.
Obstacles to Nation Building: Building a centralized government in most a€?nationsa€? (the word was not yet coined nor widely comprehended) was faced with numerous obstacles, not the least of which was the fact that in most countries people spoke numerous dialects, making nation-wide communication very difficult. Absolute rulers overcame these obstacles by building armies, bureaucracies, and using the force of the army to mold the people into one body. Frequent wars and the cost of maintaining large armies: Large armies were needed to impose the monarcha€™s will and to expand the borders.
Popular Uprisings: As food shortages and taxes increased, and frequent wars created havoc, poverty, and death, people began to revolt. In attempting to deal with these problems, monarchs turned to either absolutism or constitutionalism to form effective governments. Government functions are guided by the dictates of the ruler and his or her lieutenants and not by established law. The rules or laws are applied arbitrarily and seldom apply to those at the top, especially the monarch or emperor. Problem solving is by issuing edicts and pronouncements, by creating more administrators, creating a larger bureaucracy, and levying heavier taxes on the people to pay for the expenses of the absolute ruler(s).
Those governed have little participation in government, little input into law-making (unless through protests and demonstrations), and have to simply yield and be satisfied with what is handed to them from the absolute ruler and the top. Constitutionalism or Peoplea€™s Law is a form of government that acknowledges that certain inalienable rights are possessed by both those who govern and by those who are governed. Peoplea€™s Law was introduced into England by Alfred the Great in the late 9th century A.D. In Peoplea€™s Law or Constitutionalism all power is contained within the Constitution, a written contract that all people agree to embrace and to live cooperatively under, either in a monarchy or in a republic. All functions of government are from the people upward through their elected representatives. Government control is exercised through written laws which have their basis in the written constitution.
Government functions as a process guided by established law, which reflects the will of the people and applies to everyone, even to those who govern. Transferring power is carried out by either heredity (in a monarchy or empire) or by popular vote (in a republic), with a peaceful transition from one ruler or set of elected representatives to another.
The people are viewed as the foundation of the government, those with the power to elect to office the representatives of their choosing and if in a monarchy the ruler remains enthroned at the will of the people. All citizens have the right to participate in voting, no matter their social and economic class (although admittedly it took some nations a long time to grant suffrage to all adults, whether male or female, and whether property owners or not!). The land is viewed as the property of the people collectively, who exercise their inalienable right to own personal property and to use their personal property as they see fit. The processes of government are for the most part carried out by the representatives who have been chosen by the people to represent their best interests and to preserve and uphold the Constitution. Problem solving is carried out by elected representatives and officials appointed by those elected representatives. When a problem occurs or a major issue must be decided, the will of the people is protected by a Constitution and requires that they be allowed to express that will through special votes or referendums. Those governed are given every opportunity for upward mobility through personal initiative and hard work.
Another major issue that separates absolutism from constitutionalism is this: are individual rights a€?awardeda€? by a ruler or are they possessed innately as a person created in Goda€™s image? Under Absolutism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as a€?rewardsa€? that the ruler gives out to whomever he or she arbitrarily selects. Under Constitutionalism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as innate possessions of all people. After the religious wars in France, which pitted Catholics against Huguenots, Henry IV (1553-1610) took the French throne after the death of Henry III, and demonstrated to the French that a strong central government offered many advantages.
In 1572, as Duke of Navarre, Henry married a Catholic princess, Margaret of Valois, daughter of King Francis I and Catherine de Medici. When Margareta€™s brother, King Henry III, was assassinated in 1589, Henry, now king of Navarre, was by heredity next in line to become king of France. Henry IV was the first in the line of the Bourbon kings of France, which included Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI, Louis XVIII (wea€™ll find out in a later unit what happened to Louis XVII), and Charles X. With the ascension to the throne of Louis XIII upon the death of Henry IV in 1610, the Bourbon kings practiced an absolutism balanced with a precarious arrangement with the French nobility. Now as king of France, Henry IV, with strong Calvinist ties through his mother, Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, took the important step of proclaiming the Edict of Nantes in 1598, almost as a statement, a€?Ia€™ve become a Catholic in order to rule as king but Ia€™ll grant freedom to my Huguenot friends, now that I have the power to do so.a€? The Edict of Nantes granted religious liberty to the Huguenots.
Richelieu championed the concept of absolutism in government and is known as the Father of Absolutism. Using new and expanded powers under the regency of Richelieu the central government took the eyes of the people off of problems at home (hunger, inflation, an unresponsive and a€?distanta€? government) by expanding war against the Habsburgs in Austria and Germany, foes who Cardinal Richelieu hated. Later, when Louis XIV attempted to bypass the unwritten agreement and impose taxes on the nobility to support his many war efforts, the nobility rose up in protest, maintained their traditional right to not be taxed, and forced the king to back down. Louis XIV held firm to a belief in the doctrine of the divine rights of kings, as did his father, Louis XIII. He also ended religious toleration and in 1685 revoked his grandfather Henrya€™s Edict of Nantes.
His rationale for revoking the Edict was the earlier agreement reached at the Peace of Augsburg in 1530 which established that the religion of the ruler would be the religion of the state.
The wars of Louis XIV were based upon his belief that in order to increase Francea€™s sovereignty he needed to expand its borders, especially in areas where the people were French by language and culture. Wars were fought by the French with other European nations for more than 50% of Louis XIVa€™s reign. Louis XIV was also known as a€?the Sun Kinga€? because during his reign French culture, French dress, French architecture, and the French language enjoyed a hegemony in Europe. Colbert (1619-1683) was the Controller General of Finance under Louis XIV and believed strongly that the wealth of the state should fund the central government. Colbert believed this was crucially important to financially maintain Francea€™s military power and its European hegemony (the dominance of French language and culture throughout Europe).
In French mercantilism, the principle was also established that through a controlled economy the nation would base its financial stability on the accumulation of gold. Under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Spain developed an absolute monarchy after the struggle to expel the Muslim Moors from Spain was completed in 1492. Furthermore, a strong military was necessary to preserve Spaina€™s presence in the New World, opened initially by the Spanish-sponsored journey of Christopher Columbus in 1492. The development of their colonies and the new wealth in gold and silver in the New World further aided the absolutism in Spain. By the beginning of the 18th century Spain was a weakened nation and never recovered to its 16th century glory. England traditionally attempted to maintain a between the power of government and the rights and participation of the people. Against this notion was the long tradition introduced by Alfred the Great at the end of the 9th century which continued to loom in the thinking of the nobility and later the House of Commons. Hence, the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism in England began after the conquest by William of Normandy, continued during the reign of his descendants, and erupted in armed conflict at a confrontation at Runnymede in 1215 when the English nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta.
Elizabeth also was able to use her commitment to the Protestant faith as a national rallying point against the Catholic mainland (France, Spain, the Habsburgs). Conrad Russell points out that on several occasions the House of Commons used petitions of grace to express their ideas about very important matters. James was angered by the petition, accusing the House of Commons of getting involved in matters than were reserved only for the king -- foreign policy and marriage of the king. Finally, Jamesa€™ response, due to the inability to reach an agreement, was to dismiss Parliament. Each of his three Stuart successors used the same tactic -- if Parliament digs in their heels on an important matter, just dismiss Parliament! These incidents are cited here simply to show how Parliament and the English monarchy interrelated. The Stuart line created great furor in England because of their 1) increased commitment to the divine rights of kings, and 2) insistence upon absolutism. Henry maneuvered Parliament to declare the English Church free from Rome through the Act of Supremacy of 1534. Son of Henrya€™s third wife, Jane Seymour, raised a Calvinist, aided the reformation in England, and maintained order during his brief reign.
With the coronation of James I, the Tudor line of monarchs ended and the Stuart line began. James was totally committed to the idea of the divine right of kings and to the system of absolute rule. When James was crowned King of England, the Puritan Reformers in England thought that at last they would be given new credibility and freedom in England.
Charles succeeded his father, James, as king in 1625 and soon after married Princess Henrietta Maria, a daughter of King Henry IV of France and his wife Maria de Medici. After Parliament was called again into session in 1640, Charles was so angered on one occasion that he stormed into Parliament and attempted to arrest five members (they escaped out a back door!). By 1646 Charles knew that he would lose the war, and, rather than submitting to the English Parliament, fled to Scotland where he hoped they would provide him safety since he was the son of the former king of Scotland. In 1648 he was tried for treason by a High Court of Justice composed of 135 judges, with a quorum for any meeting set at 20 because of the difficulty of travel. A main charge that was after a lull in the civil war and a prospect for peace, Charles renewed the conflict which ultimately, per Geoffrey Robertson, resulted in the death of one out of every ten English citizens.
In the final address given by the lead prosecutor, it was emphasized that no king is above the law, that English law proceeds from Parliament and not the king, and that he had broken the covenant with the people he governed by declaring traitorous war on them. With that act, Parliament abolished the British monarchy and under Oliver Cromwella€™s leadership, created a republic, the Commonwealth of England.
Cromwella€™s contributions during his ten years of leadership in Englanda€™s only experiment with a republic, the Commonwealth, also known as the Interregnum, were (1) by military action to wrap Ireland into a three kingdom Britain, together with Scotland and England, (2) impose (unsuccessfully) the Puritan and Presbyterian ethic, held by Cromwell and the majority of Parliament, on all England (try that one in your community and see what happens!), which included, among other things, banning gambling and bawdy theater performances, (3) granting religious freedom to a new Jewish population that had entered England, and (4) raising the level of creative arts, especially opera, to new heights. After the death of Oliver Cromwell and the disintegration of the Commonwealth, Parliament restored the monarchy in 1660 and, because they were still locked into the pattern of hereditary succession, placed the son of Charles I on the throne, the dissolute and perhaps least capable and worthy man in England to serve as king, Charles II.
After the death of his father and loss of a battle against Cromwell, Charles II fled to France and remained in Europe for 9 years until the death of Cromwell. He also proclaimed a Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 granting religious freedom to Catholics and to Protestant dissenters (English Presbyterians, Baptists, and Independents who refused to practice Anglican worship).
His short four-year reign was filled with struggle and conflict with Parliament, who, looking with great anxiety at the other absolute monarchies being established in Europe, determined that such would not be the case in England.
Their fears also led to the passing of the Test Act of 1673 in which all military and government officials were required to take an oath in which they renounced the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation (see Unit 17), use of relics, and to participate in the Lorda€™s Supper conducted by Anglican clergy. When James refused to take the vow, it became publicly known that while in France during the Interregnum he and his first wife had converted to Catholicism. He further angered Parliament when he created a professional standing army, against English tradition to not maintain an army except in wartime, and when he exempted the soldiers from taking the vow of the Test Act.
James opened many leadership positions to Catholics in government, issued an edict condemning Presbyterians to death in Scotland, and generally favoring Catholics in England. When Parliament opposed him in 1685, like his Stuart predecessors, he simply dissolved Parliament. With that, a group of English nobles approached William III of Orange in 1688 to invade England and overthrow James.
The Revolution was complete, no blood was shed, absolutism was at last defeated, and the last Catholic monarch of England was banished to France.
Within the next year, William III and his wife Mary II, eldest daughter of James, were crowned as co-monarchs of Britain. William III outlived his wife, Mary II, and after her death in 1692 ruled alone as king until his death in 1702.
The House of Hanover (cousins of the Stuarts in Germany) succeeded the Stuarts on the throne. In addition to abolishing absolute rule in England, the most important document that came out of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 was the English Bill of Rights. This was a revolutionary concept following centuries of feudalism and absolute rule, not only in Europe, but virtually everywhere on earth. The king could not suspend laws nor levy new or additional taxes without the consent of the Parliament.
Parliament was to convene regularly (it had not met for eleven years under Charles I had been and dissolved by all of the Stuarts through James II). The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for many of the principles that were included in the American Bill of Rights that were amended to the U.S. The struggle between Absolutism and Constitutionalism was at the heart of the American War for Independence, the French Revolution, the overthrow of Communism in Eastern Europe and Russia, and continues to rage today in Yemen, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, and Syria. The biblical concept views man as having been created in the image of God and has a right, therefore, to certain freedoms that no other person has a right to quench, whether a king or queen or any other authority. These God-given freedoms according to the American Bill of Rights include the freedom of speech, freedom to own property, the right to earn a living in whatever way a person deems best under law, and the right to spend that money in whatever way the individual chooses, under law; the right to vote, the right to a fair trial by a jury of onea€™s peers, the right to own and bear arms, the right to be eligible to be elected to office, the freedom to believe and worship as one chooses, the freedom of speech and assembly, and the freedom to petition. What does it mean for a person to live out freely their God-given rights, but always under Goda€™s law? How could the concept of the divine rights of kings be interpreted and practiced in such a way as to lead to guaranteed personal freedoms?
What basic biblical doctrine about who and what a king or queen is in their nature that would tend to lead to constitutionalism? What were several items that are missing from the English Bill of Rights that you would have thought would have been included? Why does the English Bill of Rights seem to have been slanted so heavily in favor of Protestants? What caution does this raise for us as we (1) interpret what has happened in history, (2) how we should interpret the actions of current governments, and (3) how this should influence how we behave individually today? What is the English tradition that resulted in New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island refusing to ratify the newly proposed U. Prior to 1549 each of the seventeen states had their own sets of law, their own judicial system, and otherwise made it difficult to administer them piecemeal.
This, and other administrative decisions made by the emperor, led to the Dutch revolt in 1568 against what they perceived to be political and religious tyranny. In 1571 the seventeen states formed the Union of Utrecht and in 1589 declared themselves to be independent of Spain. After several other attempts to move under the oversight of other European monarchs, including for a brief time, Elizabeth I of England, the Dutch proclaimed the independent Dutch Republic. The Republic endured until 1795 when the Netherlands was overrun by the French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte. The Republic provided the groundwork for the Golden Age of the Netherlands in the 16th century, when free enterprise enabled the Dutch to become the leading merchant fleet in Europe, to found and oversea a vast colonial network in North America, the Dutch West Indies, and the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). Absolutism is grasping all power within a nation -- politically, economically, militarily, religiously -- and placing it totally in the hands of a ruler or group of rulers. Constitutionalism is placing all power within a nation under a written constitution that sets limits and boundaries on the exercise of power. In a Constitutional Monarchy power is shared by the democratically elected parliament either with or without a monarch, with the greater power lying with the parliament. Mercantilism is a form of economics wherein the central government controls the national economy through regulating the rate and type of production, the price of goods, tariffs, and seeks to have exports always outperform imports. Empires developed as monarchs sought to control overseas colonies in order to (1) gain natural resources demanded by society and needed for industrialization, (2) gain greater agricultural areas to feed their populations, (3) obtain new areas to export a growing population of farmers, managers, and military to protect them, and (4) to bolster national prestige and pride. The diagram below attempts to depict the differences between the two major forms of government that arose, ABSOLUTISM and CONSTITUTIONALISM, the two contrasting methods of governing. The Ottoman Empire is discussed more fully in Unit 8, a€?Islam.a€? The Ottomans were ruled by an absolute ruler, the Sultan or Caliph.
At various times there were several caliphs in existence at the same time, causing great rivalries to exist.
The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) devastated so much of Germany, Hungary, and Poland, so depleted the economies of most nations in both West and East, and resulted in the loss of so many people, that central, authoritarian governments seemed to be the only hope for survival.
Serfdom: The existence of serfdom in Eastern Europe, as a remnant of centuries of feudalism, enabled the nobility to gain almost total control over the common people. Results of the Thirty Years War: The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 brought an end to religious wars in Europe. Rise of Austria and Prussia: Absolutism took different forms in Austria and Prussia, but the existence of almost continual warfare in their territories enabled leaders in both countries to increase their power. Austrian Habsburgs in German territories: The Habsburg emperors worked hard to keep their multi-ethnic empire together, with preference and priority always given to those who were German speakers.
Austrian Habsburgs in Hungary and Bohemia: The Habsburgs fought and defeated the Ottoman Turks for control of Hungary and by 1648 controlled most of Hungary.
Prussia: Prior to the Thirty Years War the noble land owners gained the dominant power in Prussia, but as a result of the war they lost holdings, wealth, and power. Prussia, the Sparta of Europe: Frederick William built the most professional army in Europe, introduced a military mentality throughout the three provinces, created a strong central bureaucracy, and controlled the nation by military might -- creating the Sparta of Europe. Russia: The Huns ran roughshod over Russia for several hundred years, leaving behind not only fear and disruption but many descendants. Peter Romanov (Peter the Great) opened the window and doors of Russia to the rest of Europe. The Ottoman Empire: By the middle of the 16th century the Ottomans controlled the worlda€™s largest empire in total geographic territory. By 1529 the Ottomans had conquered most of Hungary and viewed the Austrian Empire as a threat to their new territories in Eastern Europe. In 1683 the Ottomans laid siege a second time to Vienna, cutting off all supplies into the city for two months. After the defeat in 1683, the Ottomans began a long process of withdrawal from Eastern Europe because of inefficiency in government, and because of the frequent rebellions within its occupied countries.
Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: In spite of the heavy taxation of Christians and Jews, the Ottomans allowed local leaders to govern their own locales. 1542 King James V of Scotland dies, 9 mos old daughter, Mary, becomes Queen Regnant, married to future king of France, Dauphin Francis, in 1558.
1588 -- Spanish Armada -- Philip determined to make Elizabeth and England pay for Henrya€™s offense against Catharine of Aragon, for treatment when husband of deceased Mary I, for Elizabetha€™s spurning of his marriage offer, and for her aiding the rebels in the Netherlands. 1685-1688 -- James II of England and VII of Scotland (1685-1688) (continued to claim the English and Scottish thrones after his deposition in 1688 until his death in 1701).
The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for the American Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
In the 16th and 17th centuries the Protestant Reformation led to a deepened sense of nation and nationhood, often based upon religious commitment. The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) tore Europe apart, but it solidified the sense of nationhood and religious identity. Monarchies developed in most European regions, replacing feudal lords, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, and the Spanish crown over vast empires. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 greatly hindered the rise of nationalism in Germany, resulting in a sectionalism containing up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler. Due to the expanding size and complications that developed in managing their territories, most of the new rulers turned to absolutism as a means of governing.
Cardinal Richelieu, regent for the young Louis XIII of France, is known as the Father of Absolutism.
Absolutism led to heightened nationalism and this, in turn, to a quest to expand borders, usually into areas where the people spoke the same language and were members of the same culture. France, Spain, Russia, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire developed absolute monarchies in the 16th and 17th centuries. In Great Britain the reign of the Tudors and Stuarts illustrate clearly the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism, beginning with the Magna Carta of 1215, the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the English Bill of Rights of 1688. The coronation of William of the Netherlands and his wife, Mary, as co-monarchs of England in 1689, England established a Parliamentary government that limited the powers of the monarchy in government. The Fathers of the new United States of America rejected a limited monarchy when framing the new Constitution and established a constitutional republic.
List from memory the list of the Tudor and the Stuart kings and queens of England and identify (1) their governing philosophy, whether absolute or constitutional, and (2) their religious loyalty, whether Protestant or Roman Catholic. List from memory the list of the Bourbon line of kings and queens of France from Henry IV to Louis XVI and identify their unique contributions to the development of France. Describe the causes and outcomes of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and the decisions of the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and its impact on shaping Europe.


Compare and contrast the two styles of governing used in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries -- absolutism and constitutional republicanism.
Discuss in a written essay the history of individual freedom in England from Queen Elizabeth I to William and Mary. Discuss in a written essay how the United States of America would be greatly different today if France had gained victory in Seven Yearsa€™ War between France and England in North America, based upon what you know about conditions in France and England in the 16th and 17th centuries. There is to be a thesis statement which you will a€?provea€? or a€?establisha€? in your essay. For the majority of people, an encounter with a major snow event will prove an inconvenience and minor to mid-major annoyance. The potentially deadly carbon monoxide that emits from your vehiclea€™s tailpipe will find a way out. Accumulating snow and drifting snow can pile up around your furnace exhaust pipe, your dryer vent, around anything that vents out of your home. This is a step that lots of people skip especially those who don't wear makeup everyday or don't wear much at all. A Usually it has to do with things high in carbs and oftentimes our "comfort foods" are items that contain bread.
As a result, these audiologists are being pulled away from the more complex care and services they are uniquely qualified to provide. A Second, pay attention to some everyday things like washing your hands often and coughing into your sleeve or a tissue, and then discarding the tissue. A This is from Terry Talks Nutrition and it's a great way to learn more about this powerful natural medicine! And the treatment options offered by conventional medicine can cause severe side effects and dona€™t guarantee survival. Learn about the exciting research on Grape Seed Extract, how to pick the most effective Grape Seed Extract and how this brilliant botanical can help bring you closer to vibrant health.
A Now we drink it regularly (I probably drink 2-3 cups a day between smoothies and a glass with dinner) and my wife uses it for smoothie mixes. Picking up sticks, raking, digging up flower beds, weeding gardens, painting decks, maybe even laying stone and patios. Not only can regular chiropractic adjustments help relieve pain, but it can also keep you on the move so this summer you can enjoy all the fun the outdoors in Wisconsin has to offer. Countries were were emerging from feudalism, some had been impacted by the Black Plague, others had also experienced the Renaissance. This was the case with the early monarchies that arose in Europe in the 14th-16th centuries in Europe. Princes in Germany drew up their territorial boundaries because much was at stake, as provided for in the Peace of Augsburg (1530) and the Treaty of Westphalia (1648). The treaty resulted in a sectionalism that produced up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler.
In addition, poor roads, poor transportation, and a zeal to hold on to traditional local power and local culture worked against unifying the people of several regions into a nation.
In many cities they resorted to armed uprisings and it was not until the late 17th century that the central governments were strong enough to deal effectively with the frequent uprisings among the populace. In response, people often reacted against absolutism by resorting to a€?No Law,a€? or Anarchy. It makes possible the free expression and free exercise of those innate inalienable rights.
He was a student of biblical law and understood well the form of government given by God to Moses.
The Constitution usually has a provision by which amendments can be added by a vote of the people.
Where a person is born, with regard to poverty or social class, is not where they are forced to remain.
They cannot be given out nor taken away by the ruler or the government because they are given by the Creator and not the king or emperor.
He restored peace and order by personal example through his conversion from Calvinism to Catholicism.
The nobility and the clergy in northern France, including Paris, strongly opposed the idea of a Protestant king. The nobles promised their continued support of the throne if the throne continued to hold them free from taxation.
His Catholic wife, Marie de Medici, a princess of Austria, appointed a regent, Catholic Cardinal Richelieu, to serve as regent for her young son, Louis XIII. Richelieu promoted the idea of limiting the strength of the nobility and expanding and strengthening the role of the bureaucracy (officials hired to do professional government work). But, in a compromise measure, the nobles left in place a strong monarchy -- just so long as it did not tax the nobility! To increase his central power, Louis XIV centralized his government (1) by appointing intendants to govern for him in the various districts of France, (2) he kept the nobility powerless in government by refusing to call into session the Estates General (the parliament of France), and (3) he developed a widespread secret police by which he spread terror and fear. He became known as a€?the War King.a€? His war efforts plunged France into debt, required more and more taxation to pay the debt, and increased the poverty of the lower classes.
The a€?suna€? of the French hegemony seemed to extend from east to west, wherever the sun rose and set.
His major successes included 1) development of New World French colonies, 2) building up the French merchant fleet, 3) developing government-controlled industry, and 4) improving the process of tax collection. Only a strong central government with a large, professional army could preserve the new freedom from Islam.
His journey was not primarily a trip to find new lands, but to discover a westward route to the Spice Islands in the Pacific. The problem that continually checked the growth of constitutionalism in England was the concept held by the Tudor and Stuart dynasties was the divine right of kings. The nobility and common people continually had recall to days when a just legal system prevailed and the ideas and opinions of all the people mattered.
Concerning the execution of Mary, for example, she was twice petitioned to sign a death warrant for Mary.
She added the Dutch in their 80 year war for independence from Spain, and the failed Spanish Armada of 1588 simply rallied the people behind their queen.
To illustrate, consider how the House of Commons was expected to bring their requests and ideas to the attention of the king or queen.
Sir Edward Coke, member of Parliament, is quoted as having commented to King James I, a€?I hope that everyone who saith, our Father, which are in heaven, does not prescribe God Almighty what he should do so do we speak of these things as petitioners to his Majesty, and not as prescribers, etc.a€? (Conrad Russell, Unrevolutionary England, 1603-1642, Continuum International Publishing Group, 1990, p. These were issued with more a tone of, a€?We are the House of Commons and this is what we think you should do. In 1586 both the House of Lords and House of Commons petitioned Queen Elizabeth to sign the order for the execution of her cousin, Mary, Queen of Scotland for her reported involvement in plans to assassinate Elizabeth. He seemed to carry a chip on his shoulder, always alert to any hints of the Parliament moving into his kingly rights.
Allow him to impose current taxes and tariffs to take care of current debt but no more in the future.
Constitutionalism was certainly not at work in England during the Tudor dynasty and through the reigns of James I and Charles I.
Today the queen of England is officially head of the Church of England and head of Great Britain, but her powers are very limited. In 1455 a series of wars were fought between two rival branches of the dynasty, the House of York (symbolized by a white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose). Elizabeth allowed a high degree of religious freedom in England during her reign, even though she was aware of the constant attempts by Catholic monarchs in Europe to have her deposed and Cathholicism re established in England. James became infant King James VI of Scotland after his mother, Mary, Queen of Scotland, was banished from Presbyterian Scotland for her Catholic faith and the intrigue resulting from the death of her husband. Their oldest daughter, Mary, was married at 9 to the Prince of Orange in the Netherlands, and subsequently became mother of William III, Prince of Orange who became King of England following the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The High Court was composed of member of the House of Commons, without the consent of the House of Lords. As Goda€™s appointed absolute king, he refused to acknowledge their authority over him and concluded his comments with, a€?. In 1660 he was invited by Parliament to return to England and they composed all documents to make it appear that Charles had succeeded his father in 1649, as though the republican Commonwealth had never existed! He conducted war against the Netherlands and entered into a secret treaty with his first cousin, King Louis XIV of France. Parliament forced him to rescind the Declaration, viewing it as a Roman plot to return England to Catholicism.
With that, Charles dissolved Parliament and for four years until his death in 1685 ruled England alone as absolute king. He was (1) pro-French, (2) pro-Catholic, (3) was himself a Catholic, and (4) his announced plans to establish an absolute monarchy.
He created the army to protect him from rebellions after having to put down two rebellions in Scotland and southern England.
In 1687 he unilaterally issued the Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, which called for religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant nonconformists.
The wife of William was Jamesa€™ oldest daughter, Mary, a staunch Calvinist, as was William.
The basic premise of the Bill of Rights was the following: everyone, from the poorest beggar in the street to the richest merchant, from a child in school to members of nobility, lords, military officers, judges, monarchs, all have certain basic rights that are guaranteed. But this freedom is limited in the sense that the freedom of the individual is always to be carried out while living under the law of God. In 1549 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which solidified the Empirea€™s control over the seventeen states comprising the Netherlands. From the viewpoint of the seventeen states, however, this was the imposition of a level of control that threatened their independence. The major causes for the revolt also included persecution of the Calvinist majority as heretics by the Catholic Phillip II, removal of institutions of governance practiced by the states for generations, and the imposition of high taxes. A chief ally of William was Elizabeth I of England who supplied men, weapons, and financing to the Calvinist cause. In 1582 they took the strange, but politically astute move of inviting Francis, duke of Anjou in France, son of King Henry II of France. Each province was managed by its own representative assembly and each province elected representatives to sit in the general assembly of the united provinces. While the monarch ruled supreme, there were certain limitations placed upon his or her exercise of power, but this was a limited curtailment. In the French version of mercantilism, it was also believed that a nations stockpile of gold was the basis for economic health.
The one thwarts, squashes, and denies the inalienable rights of people and the other fosters, promotes, and grants those rights. It produced a new more crushing in serfdom in Russia and the eastern portions of the Habsburg Empire, and the Ottoman Empire, and resulted in severe restrictions on travel, relocation, private ownership of land, and produced heavy taxation. It weakened the power of the Habsburg Empire in Vienna so that (1) it had to remain a confederation of multi-ethnic, multi-cultural states, (2) it gave former Habsburg territories to France and Sweden at the expense of Austria, and (3) made Calvinism a legal choice alongside Catholicism and Lutheranism throughout Europe, at least on paper if not always in fact. The Kaiser (Prussia) and the Emperor (Austria) gave almost total control over the peasants to the nobility in exchange for total loyalty of the nobles to the monarchy and their granting Kaiser and Emperor almost total freedom to raise taxes, raise professional armies, and conduct foreign affairs.
They kept the empire together by a program of rewarding the nobility (with land, control over peasants, expanded trade rights) and imposing Catholicism on everyone in the southern German states where they still retained power. The nobility in Hungary proved a real problem because they resisted Austrian control, rebelled whenever possible, and as Calvinists resisted the attempts to impose Catholicism on them.
The head of the Hohenzollern family (a traditional royal Prussian family), Frederick William (Wilhelm), came to power, took away the traditional representative rights of the nobility, and gained control over the three Prussian provinces in northern Germany.
He controlled the nobility (a€?Junkersa€?) by placing in their hands the officer corps of the giant military machine. Ivan the Terrible (not given that title because he was a nice guy!) was able to recapture Russian dominance away from the Huns, but was ruthless in his actions to gain absolute control. Beginning with their capture of Constantinople in 1453, which was both a strategic victory -- opening eastern Europe to their campaigns and occupation -- as well as a victory giving to them great prestige.
This created a level of interaction between Muslims, Jews, and Christians not often experienced by Catholics and Protestants in the rest of Europe. Religious commitment gave weight to a new sense of nationalism based upon a state or nationa€™s major religious beliefs. Economic Minister Colbert who served under Louis XIV, is known as the Father of Mercantilism. England fought an ongoing struggle between the absolutist Stuarts and the non-absolutist Parliament.
But dona€™t worrya€¦in many cases, you can easily reconstitute your shriveled up peeper cheatersa€¦it just takes a little time. You dona€™t need to pick a€?em up to confirm, and therea€™s a good chance you will crack or break off a chunk of that lens if your handle it.
The contraction and expansion of the lens in the process of it all can cause microscopic cracks and tears that can cause some issues, potentially big issues. I use a makeup remover cloth at night to remove all my makeup and wash with face wash and hot water in the morning so I always start my makeup routine with a clean face.
Some people just throw on a little powder and hit the road, but you're skipping a critical step to protect your skin.
There are a few different ways you can do this, you can use an antibacterial liquid soap and hot water, you can buy a makeup brush cleaner that you drip into the sink with hot water, or you can buy a spray to make cleaning quick and easy.
564, the Veterans Access to Hearing Care Act, which would make care more accessible for our veterans. Images,snapshots,and pics often capture a sentiment,a mood,a feeling,or even an idea of a person who's at the center of attention. This was the case within the dynasties of China and with the tribal leadership in Meso-America, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. But it also gives a clear pattern for how the monarchy is to operate: (1) there must be law with justice, (2) the just law must apply to everyone, and (3) everyone, because created in the image of God, has certain God-given inalienable rights that no one is to seek to block or take away.
These inalienable rights are guaranteed in a written constitution under which all people live. He codified that system of law in his work Liber ex lege Moise (a€?The Book of the Law of Mosesa€?) c. Bartholomewa€™s Massacre, he was forced to quickly convert to Catholicism in order to save his life. They promoted his uncle, Charles, but after the death of Charles delayed finding a replacement.
The marriage was subsequently annulled by the pope in 1599 after Henry IV conveniently converted to Catholicism in 1593 (confiding at the time to a friend, a€?Paris is worth a massa€?).
He even brought France into the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) on the side of the Protestants in an attempt to deal a death blow to fellow Catholics, the Austrian Habsburgs!
The French kings never were able to rule with a€?absolute absolutism.a€? A peace of sorts was delicately maintained by an agreement -- the nobility would support the monarch if the monarch did not levy taxes them.
It is interesting how a peace treaty intended to settle religious conflict in Germany was used by Louis 150 years later to maintain absolutism in France and to crush the Huguenots! Further, the other European nations, tired of Louisa€™ bullying tactics, built alliances pitted against France and did much to isolate France from the rest of Europe, negatively impacting Francea€™s economy and trade. The traditional routes from Spain to Asia were now jeopardized by Islamic navies in the Mediterranean. If God set a king on the throne, then the common people, if they feared God, would do as the king commands -- or so the thinking went. His daughter, Mary, controlled a predominantly Protestant Parliament with the same tactics and over 400 persons, mainly Protestant ministers and leaders, were executed under her reign. Each time Elizabeth could not get herself to execute someone whom God had placed on a throne.
Then the Catholics in England could be dealt with quietly with without causing a ruckus at home. A code of law was was established and a history of court decisions recorded, yet there was no one written document that could be call a legitimate constitution. His marriage to Catherine of Aragon and struggles for an annulment are discussed in Unit 17. Catherine was given funding and housing for life after her marriage to Henry was annulled by Pope Clement VII.
In that treaty Louis promised military support to Charles, and to pay him a pension, and in return, Charles promised to convert to Roman Catholicism. Further fear in this regard broke out when it was discovered the Charlesa€™ brother James (and next in line as heir to become king!) was a Catholic!
When the Dutch forces landed in 1688 James succumbed to fear and did not oppose them, although his own army was superior in numbers.
James chose the later, fled to Paris in 1688, and was given a pension for life and security by his cousin, Louis XIV.
King George V changed the family name during World War I from Hanover to Windsor to avoid the reminder of their German ancestry. Its independence was formally recognized by all of Europe in the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648. Basically, it merged all seventeen states, for the purpose of administration, into one entity, and established that in the future, all seventeen would pass as a unit to the next emperor. Through the terms of the Treaty of Westphalia four more bordering provinces were added to the original seven, bringing the total to eleven. Chart #2 reviews the history of the monarchy in England as it progressed from Absolutism to the passage of the English Bill of Rights and the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The nobility (landowners) weakened the economic power of merchants (former serfs) in towns and cities by selling their agricultural goods directly to merchants in other countries, by-passing the local merchants. The emperor used his professional army to keep control in the southern German speaking areas. Charles VI arranged the acceptance of the Pragmatic Sanction which eliminated the traditional Salic Law in the empire and thus allowed his daughter, Maria Theresa, his only heir, who was to become, perhaps, the dominant female ruler of the era, to gain the throne in 1740. Surrounded by Russia to the north and the frequent invasions into Prussia by the Tartars (descendants of the Huns in Russia), Austria to the East, and France to the South, Frederick Wilhelm did not have to do much convincing of the population to show the necessity for a strong, absolutist monarchy. After his death, Michael Romanov rose to power as the first hereditary ruler in Russia, establishing the Romanov family line that lasted on the Russian throne until 1918. After suffering a humiliating defeat at the hands of Sweden in the early stages of the Great Northern War, Peter Romanov strengthened the economy, the army, and the central government. Building a new capitol city from ground zero, he used the blood and sweat of serfs and forced cooperation by the nobles to build the city. The Ottomans continued their movement westward into Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, and even as far westward as Hungary. The city was defended by farmers, merchants, and other citizens, and by German and Spanish troops sent by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. The parliament of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth valued highly the trade relations they enjoyed with the Ottoman Empire and wanted nothing to harm that relationship. Find a good foundation that contains SPF for the added protection from the sun (don't rely on this as your only sun protection if you're going to be spending a lot of time outside). Throughout the years,pictures has become one of the most popular ways to capture memorable moments. Now the question arose, a€?How should we govern ourselves?a€? or to be more accurate, asked the question, a€?Now that we have fought our way to the top, how will we govern this country?a€? They had no patterns or role models to follow.
The excitement of the discoveries in the Renaissance and explorations in the New World began to fade.
If you lived two feet on the other side of the state line your were compelled to be a Catholic. Full time, professional armies led to the frequent wars for expansion that characterized this period. His marriage with Margaret was not a successful marriage, with both Henry and Margaret often separating and engaging in infidelity.
Henry took that opportunity to wage war against the Catholic north in order to secure the crown. In 1600 Henry then married Marie de Medici, daughter of the Duke of Tuscany (Florence, Italy) and a devout Catholic.
At the time most people simply identified themselves by the region or town in which they lived.
Mercantilism looked good on paper, but if no one in Europe will trade with France, the economy suffers greatly.
Mercantilism is the philosophy and practice of a national economy that is controlled almost entirely by the central government.
Spain needed new income to replenish a bankrupt treasurer emptied by the struggle to defeat the Moors. But she used the strength of her personality and popular support among the people to wield great power over Parliament.
But on the third occasion, the petition from Parliament was so strong and the rationale so convincing, the Elizabeth finally relented and issued the death warrant for Mary. The issue also involved the kinga€™s right to levy taxes and tariffs to fund his expenses apart from Parliamenta€™s consent. If they gave one inch they would compromise their authority to control the funding of the monarchy. Parliament continued to exercise some degree of power because it possessed the purse strings. As a sop, thrown in their direction with a view to pacifying them, but with an ulterior motive, James permitted them to publish a new English translation of the Bible.
His frequent conflicts with Parliament resulted in his dissolving Parliament on three separate occasions when they did not yield to his wishes. This greatly threatened the privileged position of the Church of England and furthered the resentment and opposition to his rule. However, the move notified Spain that any attempts to overthrow the move for independence would result in French involvement.
Michael built a strong central government, opened relations with other European countries, expanded Russiaa€™s territory, developed a government bureaucracy, and created Russiaa€™s first professional army. The many ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups made the centralization of government difficult. For instance, Jews and Christians were not permitted to ride horses, could not walk on the same side of the street as Muslims, were frequently forced to yield their 12-year old sons and daughters as slaves, and were generally treated as lower class people. One inch of ice in 3 days !!!It wasreal windy most of the day and I spent more time in the EskimoQuick Fish 3.The two holes in the shelter provided some steady action for perch and bluegills.
Foundation also protects your skin from all the free radicals we are exposed to in the air. Grape seed extract is beneficial for a wide variety of health concerns, such as high blood pressure and diabetes, but it also stands out as a cancer fighter, particularly for cancers that are aggressive and difficult to treat, such as treat triple negative breast cancer. And certainly,for a tantamount of consumer and shoppers you cant put a price tag on family and holiday pics.
Imagine yourself to be the head of the XYZ Family who through warfare and intrigue just gained control over the country of Bakonia. Central governments attempted to deal with the increasing problems of stagnation and decline by (1) building larger armies, (2) forming larger bureaucracies, (3) raising greater taxes to pay for the armies and bureaucrats, and (4) generally creating a stronger central sovereignty by also controlling the military, economy, production, the court system, and in most cases, religion. This second marriage produced six children, including Henrya€™s heir to the throne, Louis XIII. The central government determines the prices of goods, controls export and import quotas, determines the numbers established for industrial production, and sets as its goal a controlled market where exports outnumber imports.
They in turn kept her in check because she needed their approval for funding to keep her court afloat. The rationale given was that so long as Mary was alive, the Catholic monarch on the continent and the pope in Rome will not cease their attempts to overthrow Elizabeth in order to set Catholic Mary on the throne and thereby recapture England for Rome.
The debate was taken to the judicial officers of England who finally ruled that the king could not.


The House of Lancaster won the battle in 1485, and then reconciled the two family lines through marriage. After failing to produce a surviving male heir was accused of adultery and executed, leaving behind young daughter, Elizabeth. Since the Tudors produced no heirs, James, a cousin to Elizabeth, became also King of England as James I. Because James authorized its publication, it became known as the Authorized Version of the King James Bible (1611). James also appointed numerous Catholics to faculty positions at Cambridge and Oxford, began to purge Parliament of all his dissenters, began a screening process to allow only his supporters to run for Parliament if he should again call it into session, and of greatest concern, his wife gave birth to a first son. The people were unified by nationalism and generally given freedom to practice private ownership of property, freedom of movement, freedom of religion, and freedom to practice their vocations.
The vastness of the empire, poor communication, and poor transportation further hindered Russiaa€™s development. Therefore, they forbad Jan III, the king of Poland, who was in command of the commonwealtha€™s army, to go to the rescue of the Austrians against the Ottomans. All sorts of junk is floating around us and absorbed through our skin, but that layer of foundation helps stop those toxins from getting through. Decades after the invention of the first camera, a large number of consumers and shoppers continue to take pics, in a hgh tech fashion.
In the same way the dividing line between Anglican England and Presbyterian Scotland also took on importance, as did the line separating Protestant Switzerland from Catholic France and Catholic Austria. It is also Peoplea€™s Law -- the people agree concerning how they will be governed, who will govern them, and, in turn, they vow to live cooperatively under the law. His ulterior motive was to rid England of the Geneva Bible, an earlier English translation that was published in Geneva. Now his Protestant daughters were not in line to ascend the throne, it would be a Catholic heir. Nevertheless, by reducing the common people to serfdom, requiring them to give summer months to government projects, and compelling the nobility to serve in a new military-civilian bureaucracy, Peter gained the controlling upper hand. Petersburg (notice his humility in naming the city for himself!) following the best in European architecture and culture -- but as a capitol city of a population in which 90% of the people were serfs. Defying the Commonwealtha€™s parliament, the Jan III marched his troops south to Vienna where they came to the rescue of the outnumbered troops of the Holy Roman Empire. The boys were castrated and then trained as personal body guards and shock troopers for the Caliph or Sultan. The death lull kicked in around1230 and fishing picked back up again at 3pm.I landed the usual residents of the lake-- a few trout, afew nice crappies, perch and gills. Instead of the antiquated bulky cameras with huge lenses,consumers and shoppers frequently use SmartPhones and digital cameras to capture images and to take holiday pics. The Polish-Lithuanian army arrived the very night before the Ottomans played to complete their tunnels under the walls of Vienna! From family gatherings,to family picnics to traditional weddings to the holidays,consumers and shoppers often seize the opportunity at planned events and during the holidays for instance Thanksgiving and Christmas to take pictures of loved ones,family,friends and co workers.
And we have to remove them from society by locking them away because they willingly choose to not live by the law of the land.
This opened the door for the long-enduring caliphate that was formed in Istanbul which existed from the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D.
Thus, the King James Bible was authorized but the notes from the Geneva Bible were not allowed to be included in the Authorized Version of 1611. Since founding csaccac Inc in 2010, as Founder and President,I fill many hats including Product Tester and photographer. Marriage was never really consummated because Henry was displeased with her almost immediately after the wedding. The president, and senators, and generals in the army, and all the people in major positions all have to obey the same law. And truthfully speaking,in the beginning I experienced some difficulty;however,after I purchased my first digital camera I began to feel comfortable and enjoy the ease of taking pics with a digital camera. If the president ever robbed a bank he would go to jail just like a homeless person would if he robbed a bank.
Plenty ofpanfish with a few perch hitting the 9-inch mark and a crappie thatwas almost 10 inches.I caught trout sporadically throughout the day, ending with 9.
Months after I purchased my first digital camera,I set my sights on a tripod, a universal stand to hold my digital camera. The main reason I purchased a tripod__ at the time, I wanted to create high quality self pics and group pics. Eventhough, I've had my tripod for some months,I am still learning the ins and outs of both my digital camera and tripod.
Well,if you havent guessed or envisioned what the featured product for the month of November 2013 looks like or remotely even resembles __then as productor tester I guess I'll do the honors first__it's my tripod.
Eventually, I wanted to find out what the craze had been all about and the reason that consumers seemed to ofA  been trading in personal computers for Tablets,_well, at least leaving them at home. Ultimately, I placed online an order for a NookHD+ then opt to pick up the tech item from the store instead of waiting for it to be shipped to my place of residency.
AA  few weeks with the NookHD+, I was hooked_eventhough, IA  wasna€™t a fan of touchscreen only.
And in all honesty, since the beginning of the Smart Phone craze, I had insisted upon that all of my primary tech gadgets used for work, research and blogging had to be equipped with a QWERTY keyboard. However, in this particular instance,The NookHD+, again, touchscreen only, I made an exception.
As I continued to learn the ins and outs of my newly purchased NookHD+ , at the same time, I began to inquire about the accessories compatible with the tech gadget. In doing so, I foundA  the tech item had a Stylus Pen specifically made to use with the NookHD+. Weeks later, I purchased a different kind of Stylus Pen , I noticed while standing atA  the checkout counter at Walgreens,pictured next to this article is that Stylus Pen.
Quite astonishing the Stylus Pen worked wellA  with both of my tech gadgets ( Smart Phone & Tablet). Teddy told me the lake is completed covered and the ice might be about 1 inch orso.Teddy has patrolled and lived next toAntietam Lakealmostall his life and he knows the lake. A frequent question a tantamount of consumers and shoppers find themselves entertaining especially during the holidays when manufacturers and retailers offer what they consider to be great deals and bargains.
After giving the device a run for its money as well as a brief critique of the various apps and functions,I stated in my review of the Nook HD+ how pleased I was with the tech gadget. Further into the critique, I also commented that I was soooo pleased with the tech gadget that I wanted to protect my investment. Based on my income and budget,I considered the purchase of the Nook HD+ to be a major purchase of the year. Shortly after, I purchased the Nook HD+,I began to look at the recommended accessories for the tech gadget. Eventually, after I and my Nook HD+ survived the return and exchange 14 day trial period,I chose to protect my investment with a Nook HD+ cover.
As I began to search and think of different items that could be the product of the month for September,I began to heavily weigh in on August's product of the month,the Nook HD+cover. Hours later,I arrived to the assertion that there's more than one way to protect your investment.
With the assertion___, there's more than one way to protect your investment, I made the final choice to make Smart Phone covers as the product of the month for September.
Furthermore, within the past five years,Ive purchased several Smart Phones from Virgin Mobile. To be truthful, I've even purchased Smart Phone insurance,a good choice because a few months later my Smart Phone had an accident.
Despite all of the stuff I tried, sampled, tasted and tested during the recent months, as a result of a long review and critique besides from featuring the Smart Phone as a product of the month,I began to think of the different ways Ia€™ve used to protect my Smart Phone as an alternative product of the month. For instance,Smart Phone insurance has been one the ways I protect my investment from unexpected accidents.
Ostensibly, there's more than one way to protect your Smart Phone from accidents such as, for example, you accidentally drop and break your Smart Phone or in some weird, odd, freak accident as you rush out the door you accidentally step on your Smart Phone or heaven forbids the same thing happens to you that happen to me, a few months ago, I dropped my Smart Phone in the toilet.
Without a question, eschewing further debate, Smart Phone insurance is a great investment for consumers and shoppers who use their Smart Phone daily and for work.
Best of all, Smart Phone insurance usually saves the consumer from digging deep into their pockets. So, what about before those mishaps and accidents, if you havena€™t figured it out__ there's more than one way to protect your investment.
Even though, at first, I might of skipped over protecting my investments, I am more open to the idea of investing and protecting my major purchases. Here's an example of what I am talking about, I currently have several Smart Phone covers to protect my Smart Phone from breakage, moisture, and malfunctioning. Varying in price,color,size and shape, most of today's Smart Phone manufacturers and retailers offer to consumers and shoppers Smart Phone covers as an accessory. From passwords, to anti-theft apps, to screen locks and codes, there's more than one way to protect your investment.
Regardless of the price, and hopefully it is within your budget, a true frugal savvy shopper knows the importance of protecting their investment.
Above everything else,both I and my Nook HD+ survived the return and exchange process,quite remarkable,I even have the receipt to prove it.
There isplenty of rainfall predicted for that area.Most of the fish sitting in the estuary should be entering the river as I type this. Unlike sooo manyA  items, I ve returned and exchanged in the past,__it,meaning my Nook HD+ survived the fourteenth days as printed on the receipt. A business practice that's part of Barnes and Noble store policy that allows customers fourteen days to return an item. In short,the 14th day, adhering to store policy was the final day that I couldA  actually return my Nook HD+ and get cash back. It goes without saying ,I readA  the instructions,totally unavoidable with a new tech gadget,as well as,downloaded apps,and,uploaded wallpapers. Anglers tend to give you space, the scenery is beautiful and the Osprey's always put on a show. Not quite sure,on the day I purchased my Nook HD+__ifA  in fact, I would be satisfied with my purchase,I chose at the time not to purchase any kind of accessories. As it turns out,I was soooo pleased with my purchase of the Nook HD+,I wanted to protect my investments.
It doesnt matter if you're on lunch break,on a mini vacation,at a webinar or conference,filling out an online report or having to send emails can be a hassle if you don't have a wifi connection,a Broadband device is just one of the many tech gadgets that consumers and shoppers frequently use to get an internet connection. Constantly,on the go,I wanted to have access to wifiA  while away from my place of residency.
Because,I perform an arrary task that frequently requires wifi access ,I purchased a Broadband to Go device from Virgin Mobile.
Wednesday was spent in the upper fly zone and wasslow in the morning but pretty consistent in the afternoon. Egregiously,as a Virgin Mobile customer and fan,I live by Virgin Mobile products except in the case of Virgin Mobile wifi devices. Recently,I purchased Virgin Mobile's MiFi 2200 to conciliate my worries about not being able to access wifi home.
Aside from very slow internet speed,the device could only connect to one tech gadget and,the 3G USB plug n play stick broke too easily. Ialso landed a smallmouth bass, a few small brown trout, afew small rainbows (steelhead smolts ?), a fallfishand a baby AtlanticSalmon.
The Mohawk egg pattern accounted for many smaller fish and the salmon sized Light Spruce fly produced a few hookups. Last years--One Day Trip-- hot fly,Olive bugger with White marabou tail and redcrystal flash also received plenty of attention and did account for 2 fish. The guyI was fishing withused plenty of flies with smaller bucktail flies doing most of the damage.
He didhook-up with a few fish while usingmy Death Stonefly, landing one nice Coho.I can tell you this---the next few weeks will provide some serious action. Affordable,great to have on hand for shopping emergencies,the latest in recycling,a recyclable tote makes shopping less of a hassle.
There are fish in the system at this moment and with the water release at 1800 CFS and the rain. Ditching the old biodegradeable plastic bags for a recyclable tote,it's a smart move and a great investment for frugal,savvy,and environmentally conscious consumers and shoppers.Available in most local chain stores and at grocery stores,recyclable totes are becoming the better choice than leaving stores with the traditional biodegradeable plastic bag. Part of a movement to get consumers and shoppers involved in recycling and to think about going green,consumers and shoppers now have the option of trading in those plastic bags for a recyclable tote. A frequent shopper,I usually purchase a couple of recyclable totes to hold store purchases and other stuff.
Eventhough,I like having the choice to purchase a recyclable tote,I havent completely stop using biodegradeable plastic bags.
However,I have to point out the fact that when a consumer and shoppers purchase a recyclable tote they're not limited to using the tote only in that store,that's why they're called recyclable totes because they can be used more than once. In fact, most recycable totes last for more than a week,I should know because I still have a few leftover from the previous month.
A great deal,a really good find,a price you wont find anywhere else,and the best price among competitors,I love a great sale and I love rewards for shopping.
Savings and Rewards,for most consumers and shoppers,it's all about getting the best price for items purchase daily. From household supplies to groceries,anyone who shops frequently knows consumers and shoppers love a really good sale_,the economic recession of 2008 could be the culprit. In fact,since the 2008 economic recession savings and rewards has become extremely important to American families on a budget.
For many American consumers and shoppers,the unexpected downturn of the American economy caused a disruption in their daily activies thus forcing consumer and shoppers to rethink the way they shop and how they shop. As a frequent shopper and consumer,I am constantly looking for a great deal and sales on items I purchase regularly,mainly because I do live on a strict budget. Admittedly,after the 2008 economic recession,I rediscovered coupons,and began clipping coupons frequently. In addition to clipping coupons,I also began to check sale ads at home and at the door of stores before shopping. Along with making a shopping list,clipping coupons at home,checking sale ads at the door and comparing prices,these days one of the best ways to save and get the best deals,I feel without a question has to be with a savings and reward card. And speaking honestly, a savings and rewards card from your local chain store should be a consumer or shoppers BF(bestie).
A must have for consumers and shoppers who seriously want to save,a savings and rewards card. Throughout the years, my experience with last minute shopping in most instances was not too pleasant. Admittedly,I empathize as well as concur with consumers who express sentiments that last minute shopping makes the shopper(consumer) feel uncomfortable and forlorn with the just thought of buying a gift at the last minute. Often tight on funds to purchase a gift ahead of time,last minute shopping for an overwhelmed consumer with a limited budget could cause the consumer to be late and in some instance not to attend the event or special function. Subsequently, over the years, I have come to realize that last minute shopping it's not the best of fun. As a result, I definitely would not recommend last minute shopping to a consumer as a shopping tip.
Unequivocally, shopping for special events and functions such as finding an appropriate could take several visits different stores. Finding the appropriate could mean spending an entire day in a Hallmark store reading cards, it could also mean spending all day on the phone with friend or relatives discussing gift registry,preferences,stores,likes and dislike of the recipient.
Ostensibly,the older you get the adults in your life expect two things from you one not to embarrass them in public and two if you don't have a gift to bring at least show up at special functions on time. Indeed, an earnest shopper as well as a meticulous shopper knows finding the right gift or card for a special function could require hours of shopping and visiting different stores. The pool we were fishing was loaded with suckers and chubs and I did see a few trout and a couple of nice sized smallmouth bass. Shopping done precipitously could result in purchasing the wrong size,color, or something way out in left field. Don't wait until the last minute to shop for a party,baby showers,bachelorette bash,birthdays,holidays ,and anniversaries avoid uncomfortableness and the feeling of being inadequate,plan the week before. On certain days, I have even shopped the day of the event that often leaves me feeling embarrassed ashamed, and guilty about my finances even worse depress. Incontrovertibly,last minute shopping in many instances could causes the consumer to become distraught,exasperated, and disconcerted not surprisingly all the emotions take away from the planned day.
What's more important being punctilious for the planned event or arriving with a hand picked gift for the recipient or recipients? Ultimately,the answer remains with the shopper (consumer) The answer should be non bias and based on the event as well as the recipient and not the shoppers wallet .
The meticulous consumer that normally keeps track of birthdays, holidays,and anniversaries with calendars,through emails,P DA's ,Smart phones and other tech savvy gadgets of courses would not necessarily share the same feelings of a last minute shopper .
Any questions as to what to tie, just shoot me an email or use the Contact 2Bonthewater page. All that cold water coming from a quarry and the creek itself in that area is near lifeless. The bridge is now being painted a Hunter Green color.Most of the creeks in the OleyValley are really low. Even with the rain, the creeks remain very low.A I have a trip scheduled to the Salmon River planned inlate September thanks to Jack. Without Jack's kindness and awesomeness, I would not be going salmon fishing.A I have startedtyingflies for the upcoming salmon trip. Zoe competed in a National Beauty pageant and won honorable mention in the beauty competition (FYI -- Zoe wears no make-up, fake hairor fake teethand she competes in the natural division--she is my little girl and I would never DRESS HER UP like all those crazy folks you see on TV). We dressed as fishermen, answered a question about each other and then Zoe did some fly casting on stage. Zoe was crowned Little Queen when she won the Pennsylvania state pageant back in 2006 while competing in a Sunburst pageant. There are plenty of out of the way smaller streams that are teeming with Smallmouths, Carp and a variety of Panfish.
Perkiomen Creek -- air temp 89 degrees, checked the temperature at two spots, temps were 70 and 69 degrees -- Taken between 415-425 pmA Manatawny Creek -- air temp was 88 degrees, checked the temperature at three spots, temps were 76 degrees at Red Covered Bridge, 74 degrees above TIKI bar and 76 degrees below the Rt. This heatwave has made most ofthe local trout streams too warm to fishfor the catch and release angler.
Maiden Creek below Ontelaunee Lake should provide anglers with some fishthat are willing to bite.
You can find Carp, Smallmouth Bass, Largemouth Bassand a wide assortment of panfish to keep you busy.
Take some cold water with you !!!Your best way to keep the water cool is to freeze a bottle or two of water the night before you head out. As the day heats up, the water bottles will slowly melt, leaving you with nice cold waterto drink throughout the day. I fished for 30-minutes on Manatawny and landed 2 wild browns on a tan caddis dry fly in the area where the water temp was 68 degrees.
Temperature wise, if it is 90 degrees outside, pretty sure most, if not all of the local trout waters will be at 70 degrees or higher.
We don't wantto kill the trout.The trout that survive through the summer will offerus great fishing in the fall.
I have not made a trip to the Schuylkill River as of yet, but I'd bet the house that the smallie action should be pretty darn good. You can also takeyour watercraft outbefore Epler atCross Keys Road or at Muhlenburg Township park which is below the PFBC Epler Access. There is little room to fish, unless you don't mind walking the shoreline that is covered with all types of vegetation, including Poison Ivy.
Pleny of fish to be caught in this body of water, that is if you can get to them.A Manatawny Creek fished OK. This stretch used to provide some very nice smallmouth action, but the last few trips here have been poor.
Switched to a spent spinner pattern and hooked up twice--snapped one off and landed a nice stocker brown.
The water is up from recent rains inthe valley, but the stream was clear and in perfect condition. The Schuylkill River and a few tribs shouldprovide any cat or carp angler with a few bites each nite.
Channel catfish prefer dead baits andsmaller live bait, while the Flatheads prefer larger live bait.
Carp will eatsmaller live bait including minnows andcrayfish along with the standard fare of homemade MUSH bait or whole kernel corn.The bottom line is--It doesn't really matter what bait you areusing.
But, by now it was pitch black and it was raining pretty good and thelightning made it look like the 4th of July came early.I managed to land 2 fish on my emerger pattern androll 2 other trout. Started out at the mouth of Sacony Creek but there was some serious bridge work going on, so I left after a few casts.
Caught some nice bluegills, onebrown trout, pumpkinseeds, green sunfish, agolden shiner and I almost hooked into a very nice largemouth bass. Kids and water mean plenty of noise,lots of splashing and lots offun.Normally, 750pm is about the timethe sulphurs start popping off. I saw some Iso's and huge stoneflies coming off and flying around.I caught a trophy Bluegill, no kidding check out the picture, almost 9 inches. I left my headlamp in the truck so I had to walkout before it got too dark and miss the potential spinner fall.
I then drove to another stretch of the crick and hooked up a few times fishing a brown spent spinner. I lost them at the bank.A Fish the mornings with a brown or white spent spinner and you might get a few takes on the surface. My favorite is a "John's Spring Creek Pupa" tied in size 18 and 20 (Trout Flies of The East--page 93). I caught two brookies on a CDC sulphur dry fly and the rest of the fish were caught with nymphs. What an amazing fish, especially on a 2 wt bamboo fly rod with a fly reel that is dated to the 1930's or 1940's. What a specimen.He looked like a submarine swimming in the water !!My first impression of the leviathan is that it was a wild fish. Tonights fishing provided a mixed bag of fish, a few smallwild brown trout, along with a few stocker browns, stockerrainbows and the brook trout. I topped it all off with a visit to Ted's house to show off the bamboo fly rod and talk shop. It was about 40 degrees and raining.I didroll a larger fish on a midge, but aside from that, it was a very slow night. Cast down and across and hop the flies upoff the bottom with quick upward lifts of the fly rod.The fish would really strike hard. I still have not figured out whyone day I will catch all browns, one day I will catch all rainbows and some days, you will catch a little of everything.



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