Is a low carb diet healthy during pregnancy,breakfast foods to loss weight,low carb diet recipes vegetarian 101,ways to lose weight in my face - 2016 Feature

02.03.2014
First, the theory behind LCHF diets: By restricting carbs you force your muscles to burn more calories from fat and less from carbs during exercise, thus ‘sparing’ valuable glycogen stores and allowing you to exercise longer before experiencing fatigue. Indeed, studies have indicated that the body adapts to LCHF diets by producing more fat-burning enzymes (such as hormone sensitive lipase) although the jury is still out as to whether this translates into superior performance in events. So, while a low carb diet may be useful if you’re trying to drop weight or if you’re focusing mainly on high volumes of low to moderate intensity training, it is not useful for training at high intensities (usually defined as anything over lactate threshold). Share withAn evidence-based sports nutrition guide and recipe book rolled into one, Food for Fitness dispels popular myths and gives you the tools you need to reach your maximum performance.
A small study published this month in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine found that obese adults assigned to a low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight over a year than those on a low-fat plan. Before you jump on the low-carb bandwagon, you should know that following a low-carb diet may impact your sleep patterns.
This study serves as a reminder that weight loss does not necessarily equate to optimal health.
One of the main reasons why some experts avoid recommending low carb diet is because it increases the risk of heart problems. Since this diet has several advantages and disadvantages, it is best that you consult a nutritionist before you opt for this diet plan. We urge you to always seek the advice of your physician or medical professional with respect to your medical condition or questions.
Apart from drugs and creams, there are several light therapies and laser treatments that are used to deal with the problem of acne. If cutting down on your sugar intake does not help, it is best that you consult a skin doctor as untreated acne may lead to scars. Top NO2 Nitric Oxide Booster AND L-Arginine Supplement 120 Capsules, Build Muscle Fast + Boost Performance, Build Muscle + Increase Workout Endurance, GUARANTEED Best Nitric Oxide Boost, MORE L-Arginine For MAXIMUM Muscle! Natural Recovery, Best Rated Natural Joint Pain Relief Supplement, Joint Pain Pills, Natural Remedy, Sports Recovery Price: comparatively low Reduce joint pain and inflammation Relieves muscle aches and stiffness Recovery from over exertion Fast acting vegetarian capsules Developed by Health Max, the same developers of the Revolutionary Supplement Oxygen Max. The Ketogenic Diet in some form or another has been labeled by many different names in recent times, and started gaining traction again with Dr.
This diet is not new, however, as it was seen as a therapeutic diet that produced better results than drugs in treating epilepsy way back in the 1920s.
When the Atkins diet gained media popularity several years ago, many critics complained that there were no long-term studies done on the diet. The research that is starting to be published on the effectiveness of the Ketogenic Diet in curing disease is nothing less than amazing.
Dietary and metabolic therapies have been attempted in a wide variety of neurological diseases, including epilepsy, headache, neurotrauma, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, sleep disorders, brain cancer, autism, pain, and multiple sclerosis.
This review article explores the rationale for using the KD and related dietary treatments in neurological disorders outside of epilepsy, and summarizes the clinical experience to date.
Over the past decade, investigators have identified numerous mechanisms through which the KD may provide neuroprotective activity. Two hallmark features of KD treatment are the rise in ketone body production by the liver and a reduction in blood glucose levels. In the end, there are likely many other mechanisms that could contribute to the neuroprotective properties of the KD.
Aging involves the gradual decrease in function, and at times outright degeneration, of neurons and neural circuits. Thus, there is growing evidence that the KD may be an effective treatment for AD through a variety of metabolism-induced mechanisms that reduce oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, and enhance bioenergetic profiles - largely through enhanced mitochondrial functioning. The primary pathophysiology in Parkinson disease (PD) is excitotoxic degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, leading to abnormalities of movement, and to an increasing extent, in cognition and other cortical functions. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive disease due to degeneration of motor neurons of the cortex and anterior horn of the spinal cord.
One potentially important consideration in this regard - applicable to all neurodegenerative diseases - is determining whether timing of intervention is crucial for a protective effect by KD treatment. While clinical validation of this phenomenon is not yet forthcoming, there are several case reports suggesting that the KD may be efficacious in humans with brain tumors.
To date, no clinical trials of the KD have been performed in patients with stroke, but several animal studies of hypoxia-ischemia support the potential beneficial effect of the diet.
Unfortunately, the incidence of brain injury is increasing in both civilian and military contexts.
Several recent animal studies support this idea, and investigators have principally focused on ketone bodies (Prins, 2008a).
With respect to anti-epileptogenesis following head injury, the data regarding KD effects are mixed. Mood stabilizing properties of the KD have been hypothesized (El-Mallakh and Paskitti, 2001), but no clinical studies have been conducted as of this writing.
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects language development and social function. Migraine is a paroxysmal neurological disorder having considerable clinical phenotypic overlap with epilepsy (Rogawski, 2008). Interestingly, the first report of using the KD for migraine came in 1928, only a few years after the diet's first use for epilepsy (Schnabel, 1928). Despite the relative lack of clinical data, there is an emerging literature supporting the broad use of the KD (and its variants) against a variety of neurological conditions. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. In some ways a lot of vegetarian Mums to Be have an advantage over meat eating Mums to be in that their diet tends to be at least a little bit healthier. The biggest reason all those well meaning souls will cite for adding meat back into your diet is the fact that Mums to Be need to make sure they get enough protein.
There are plenty of ways that a vegetarian, and yes even a vegan, can get the 60-70 grams of protein a day that it is generally recommended that pregnant women consume and the chances are that most vegetarians are already pretty close to that number with their everyday diet. Calcium is also a very important part of a healthy pregnancy diet for both vegetarians and meat eaters. Another concern that many people will express about a Mum to be’s vegetarian diet is whether or not it is providing her with enough iron.
To help address the issue any Mum to be should try adding some of the foods that are known to aid iron absorption into their diet.
In some cases doctors may prescribe a pregnant woman a separate iron supplement in their second or third trimester anyway if they are concerned that iron deficient anemia might become a concern. Folic acid is crucial for a healthy pregnancy as it can go a long way to helping prevent birth defects as well as enhance the Baby’s developing brain. If you have been a vegetarian for a while you will already know that lots of people still believe that eating meat is the only way you can consume a healthy diet.
One of the biggest challenges many vegetarian Mums to be face is not eating right but warding off criticism from others, usually the people who believe that a big juicy steak is the only way to true dietary perfection. Washington, December 7 : Gladstone Institutes' scientists have identified a novel mechanism by which a type of low-carb, low-calorie diet-called a "ketogenic diet"-could delay the effects of aging.
This fundamental discovery reveals how such a diet could slow the aging process and may one day allow scientists to better treat or prevent age-related diseases, including heart disease, Alzheimer's disease and many forms of cancer. Gladstone Senior Investigator Eric Verdin and his team examined the role of the compound beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta'OHB), a so-called "ketone body" that is produced during a prolonged low-calorie or ketogenic diet. While ketone bodies such as beta'OHB can be toxic when present at very high concentrations in people with diseases such as Type I diabetes, Dr.
Oxidative stress occurs as cells use oxygen to produce energy, but this activity also releases other potentially toxic molecules, known as free radicals. Many people also experience a (desirable) drop in body weight and body fat, which is regarded as advantageous in most sports.
Well, if you’re more interested in high intensity performance as opposed to long distance low-moderate intensity training, then LCHF diets will not help your quest for gold.
Eight competitive mountain bikers were placed on either a low carb high fat diet (15% carbs, 70% fat, 15% protein) or a balanced diet (50% carb, 30% fat, 20% protein) for four weeks in random order. One may think that we would eventually run out of food combinations, but new trends just keep emerging. People on a very low carbohydrate diet may spend less time in deep, REM sleep compared with those who eat more carbs, according to a 2008 study in the journal Nutritional Neuroscience.
However, before you change your diet plan it is important that you understand the advantages and disadvantages of low carb diet. This type of diet not only helps you lose weight but also helps in controlling cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar. For example, if you choose Atkins diet, the amount of carbohydrates that you take will be severely restricted. They are of the view that weight loss after a few weeks on the diet is because of low calorie intake and not because of reduction of carbohydrate intake. Experts who advocate low carb diet plan believe that contemporary diet is extremely unnatural and it is important that people eat less carbohydrates and less meat. Since most low carb diet plans reduce your carbohydrate intake and increase your intake of animal protein, the bad cholesterol or LDL in the blood increases. The information is not intended nor suited to be a replacement or substitute for professional medical treatment or for professional medical advice relative to a specific medical question or condition. Most people, who are not aware of the causes and treatment of this problem, rely on friends for information on acne.
A recent study has shown that having a low carbohydrate diet not only helps you lose weight but also helps in erasing your acne. Nothing like going to a holiday party starving to cause you to raid the carb loaded appetizers or sides. The only thing worse than leaving a party guilt ridden about what you ate is to leave the party having had too much to drink. Today, the diet is being studied in the medical community with applications to all kinds of diseases. However, there are plenty of studies on the Ketogenic Diet and there has never been any negative effects recorded from long-term use.
The impetus for using various diets to treat - or at least ameliorate symptoms of - these disorders stems from both a lack of effectiveness of pharmacological therapies, and also the intrinsic appeal of implementing a more "natural" treatment.
Even in patients with medically refractory epilepsy who have remained seizure-free on the KD for 2 years or more, it is not uncommon for clinicians to observe that both anticonvulsant medications and the diet can be successfully discontinued without recrudescence of seizures (Freeman et al., 2007). An underlying theme of such diet-based therapies is that nutrients and metabolic substrates can exert profound effects on neuronal plasticity, modifying neural circuits and cellular properties to enhance and normalize function.
Many of these mechanisms are thought to relate principally to the KD's anticonvulsant effects, but some if not all of them could contribute to cellular homeostasis and preventing neuronal injury or dysfunction. After its introduction in 1920, the KD was used as a first or second-line treatment for severe childhood epilepsy.
It is possible that by altering energy metabolism with the KD, rates of degeneration of certain neural structures and functions might be slowed (Balietti et al., 2010a).
While the essential pathological processes of AD involves neuronal degeneration with accumulation of abnormal cellular products such as fibrillary plaques and tangles, recent evidence points to alterations in the function of extant neural circuits and mitochondrial homeostasis (Kapogiannis and Mattson, 2011).


A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a MCT KD resulted in significantly improved cognitive functioning in APO?4-negative patients with AD but not in patients with a APO?4 mutation (Henderson et al., 2009).
AGE accumulation is a process of normal aging that is accelerated in AD; proteins are non-enzymatically glycosylated and this cross-linking of proteins accentuates their dysfunction.
However, caution should be exercised in extrapolating findings in animals to humans, as discrepancies in terms of both clinical efficacy and untoward side-effects have been noted. As a consequence, voluntary motor activity gradually deteriorates, leaving the affected individual profoundly weak despite largely retained cognitive functioning.
Neurological disorders in late stages of progression may have such extreme neuronal dysfunction and death to allow a "re-fueling" with metabolic substrates to help recover integrity and function. Most of these models entail pre-treatment with the KD (or with BHB), resulting in decreased structural and functional damage from the stroke. At the same time, it must be considered that inherent mitochondrial dysfunction might predispose individuals to adverse toxicities from high fatty acid loads that could overwhelm ?-oxidation within the mitochondrial matrix.
KD treatment - either before or after fluid percussion injury in rats - did not alter later seizure sensitivity to fluorothyl, even though the degree of hippocampal cell loss was reduced by pre- but not post-treatment (Schwartzkroin et al., 2010). The heterogeneous etiologies leading to autism spectrum disorders, plus the uncertainty about what causes autism in the majority of "idiopathic" cases, has hampered the development of a universally beneficial treatment, aside from symptomatic treatment of autism-related behaviors such as aggression or anxiety.
Although the intrinsic mechanisms underlying seizures and migraine attacks differ in many fundamental respects, there are theoretical reasons to consider the KD for chronic migraine.
Nine of 28 patients reported "some improvement," although the validity of this clinical study is uncertain and some patients admitted poor compliance. As a veggie you will have to take a little time to come up with just the right eating plan but you may actually have an easier time doing so than your carnivorous peers!
The getting enough protein advice is absolutely correct but meat is far from the only source of protein in common foods!
Legumes, nuts and the kinds of meat substitute soy products that many vegetarians and vegans already eat are all protein rich.
The type of protein found in plants is a little different to the type of protein found in meat and ideally you do need both. As the foods that are rich in calcium tend to be things that a lacto vegetarian eats everyday anyway – dairy products and leafy greens not getting enough calcium is probably not an issue. Pregnancy related iron deficiency is a concern for Mums to be but it is one for both meat eaters and veggies alike. These include any food that contains a good amount of Vitamin C and vegetarians usually do a better job of getting enough vitamin C than many meat eaters anyway. Ask your doctor before you start taking one on your own though because some people prone to iron deficiency cannot even absorb the iron in a supplement and direct injections are occasionally called for. This tends to be another area where vegetarian Mums to be are already in better shape than many meat eaters. Verdin and colleagues found that at lower concentrations, beta'OHB helps protect cells from "oxidative stress"-which occurs as certain molecules build to toxic levels in the body and contributes to the aging process. As cells age, they become less effective in clearing these free radicals-leading to cell damage, oxidative stress and the effects of aging. But increased levels of beta'OHB block the HDACs from doing so, which by default activates the two genes. Those following the low-carb diet became leaner than those on the balanced diet (11% body fat vs 14.9%). Many of them are variations on the same core principles — and any way you cut it, low-carb and low-fat diets are still all the rage. In fact, the study's participants were not permitted to exercise during the one-year period, so a true comparison could be made between the two diets alone.
The study only followed participants for 48 hours, so the longer-term effects remain unclear, but the findings do suggest that sleep is affected in the short term by eating a low-carb diet.
Vegetables also contain certain forms of carbohydrates, and they contain a great deal of vitamins and minerals that the body needs. Today, there are several types of low carb diet like Atkins, South Beach or Zone diet that you can choose from. However, if you opt for South Beach or Zone diet, the carbohydrate intake is less restrictive when compared to Atkins Diet. These experts of are of the opinion that low carb diet does not help in the long run even if you continue with this diet plan. These experts are of the view that modern diet is the main cause of problems like obesity, high blood pressure and diabetes. Also, increasing your intake of products like red meat can increase the iron and homocysteine levels in the body. There is no replacement for personal medical treatment and advice from your personal physician.
Therefore, it is important that you check out the benefits and side-effects of the treatment before selecting a treatment.
Some people who suffer from acne may also have high insulin and consuming low carbohydrate food can help in controlling acne by lowering the insulin levels in the body. With the holidays approaching, I knew that I would be up for a challenge to keep my carbs low and not ruin everything I have worked hard for– a six pound weight-loss and more to come. So, to avoid both of those situations, have reasonable expectations on how much you’ll eat and drink. It is a totally natural product which regulate and balances all the human body’s organs and process with regard to extensive wellness preservation. There are various nitric oxide benefits such as bodybuilding activities, increase cardiovascular endurance, reduce recovery time from injury, increase the ability to perform learning and memory tasks as well as bone and joint health. Would not the idea possibly be wonderful if all your favored ease dinners naturally promoted fat loss? Today's latest fad diet, the "paelo diet" is another example of a diet based on the ketogenic principles.
Of course, most of the medical interest in the diet is to try and develop a line of "ketone" drugs to mimic the diet. The enormous spectrum of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the aforementioned diseases would suggest a degree of complexity that cannot be impacted universally by any single dietary treatment.
This intriguing clinical observation forms the basis of the hypothesis that the KD may possess anti-epileptogenic properties.
At a fundamental level, any disease in which the pathogenesis is influenced by abnormalities in cellular energy utilization - and this implies almost every known condition - would theoretically be amenable to the KD.
An important caveat, however, is that yet unidentified mechanisms may operate in diseases outside of epilepsy, and this possibility presents further opportunities for examining the pleiotropic effects of this metabolism-based therapy at a mechanistic level. With the introduction of anticonvulsant medications in convenient pill form, the use of the KD waned, only to resurge later in the early 1990s, due largely to the efforts of concerned parents who brought the diet back to greater public awareness (Wheless, 2008). However, KDs may induce differential morphological effects in structures such as the hippocampus, perhaps as a consequence of region-specific neuronal vulnerability during the late aging process (Balietti et al., 2008).
This view is bolstered by the higher incidence of seizures in patients with AD as compared to the unaffected population (Palop and Mucke, 2009).
In this study, the primary cognitive end-points measured were the mean change from baseline in the AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale, and global scores in the AD Cooperative Study - Clinical Global Impression of Change (Henderson et al., 2009). Transgenic AD mice fed 2DG demonstrated better mitochondrial function, less oxidative stress, and reduced expression of amyloid precursor protein and ?-amyloid compared to control animals (Yao et al., 2011). One proposed mechanism is increased ROS and free radical formation, which, as discussed above, hampers mitochondrial function.
The essential pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie this relentless disorder are yet to be fully elucidated, but similar to other neurodegenerative disorders, the involvement of energy-producing systems likely play a role and mitochondrial dysfunction probably contributes to disease pathogenesis. Certainly, this appears to be the case in a small pilot study of KD treatment in patients with Lafora body disease (Cardinali et al., 2006).
Despite this well documented cellular observation, the KD has only recently been considered as a clinical treatment in the oncology field.
Experimental data described above attest to significant improvements in mitochondrial function, and many lines of evidence point to the rationale of therapeutically targeting mitochondrial bioenergetics for other disease states (Wallace et al., 2010), but is there any clinical evidence in patients with intrinsic mitochondrial disorders?
Further, the occurrence of epilepsy months to years following brain trauma adds to the morbidity of affected individuals, and speaks to the emergence of hyperexcitable neuronal circuits over time. Similarly, in the lithium - pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy, KD treatment prior to induction led to morphological neuroprotection in the hippocampus but did not affect latency to onset of spontaneous recurrent seizures (Linard et al., 2010). Now, limited clinical evidence raises the intriguing possibility that the KD might be helpful to alleviate some of the abnormal behaviors seen in children with autism spectrum disorders. Both disorders involve paroxysmal excitability changes in the brain, and there is considerable overlap in the array of pharmacological agents used to treat these conditions. Compliance might be better with the less restrictive modified Atkins diet, which has also shown promise for migraine treatment (Kossoff et al., 2010). How can a simple dietary change lead to improvement in disorders with such a huge span of pathophysiological mechanisms? Ketogenic diets: an historical antiepieptic therapy with promising potentialities for the aging brain. A ketogenic diet increases succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and recovers age-related decrease in numeric density of SDH-positive mitochondria in cerebellar Purkinje cells of late-adult rats.
Ketogenic diets cause opposing changes in synaptic morphology in CA1 hippocampus and dentate gyrus of late-adult rats.
Benefits of caloric restriction on brain aging and related pathological states: understanding mechanisms to devise novel therapies.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and the ketogenic diet.Epilepsia 49(Suppl. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? ligands as anti-cancer drugs targeting mitochondrial metabolism. This is a fancy term that means a person does not eat meat in any form but they do still eat dairy products and eggs.
Being vegan and pregnant is going to take a little more effort to make sure that every dietary need a Mum to be has is met but that is still perfectly possible.
Soy is almost perfect in this regard though as it is the only plant based food that contains all nine essential amino acids that meat protein does and in addition a simple veggie burger contains far more fiber than a meat version does, something that many women do not realize they are not getting enough of until digestive problems like constipation crop up to make their pregnancy that little bit harder!
Even vegans can keep up with their calcium intake thanks to things like soy milk, spinach, black beans and almonds. The difficulty is usually not getting enough iron but how well the body absorbs the iron that it does intake. There are higher levels of folic acid in leafy greens, whole grains and fortified cereals, all food items that often a veggie will eat more often than a non veggie anyway. If vegetarianism works for you then it will continue to work for you in pregnancy too, so follow the diet that you enjoy sensibly and learn to give a small dismissive smile to those meat fans who try to bring you back to “their side”! In a series of laboratory experiments-first in human cells in a dish and then in tissues taken from mice-the team monitored the biochemical changes that occur when beta'OHB is administered during a chronic calorie-restricted diet. Your muscles cannot generate enough ATP (“energy”) per minute from just fat to keep pace with demand.
But the fat loss that the athletes experienced on the low-carb diet was associated with a significant drop in performance.


But carbohydrates act as fuel for the body, so adding exercise to the mix may have drastically changed the outcome. When the consumption of carbohydrates is reduced, the body starts using the fat stored in the body for supply of energy. Another benefit of opting for low carb diet is that certain foods like streak and bacon that are forbidden in other diet plans are allowed in this diet plan. However, most treatments that are available in the market don’t work or work only for milder cases. People must also avoid eating dairy products as it not only increases weight but also promotes acne. The common nitric oxide supplements side effects are low blood pressure, nausea, diarrhea, headaches, vomiting and loss of balance. Ketones, which our body can produce during fasting or "starvation," is an alternative energy source for those who are insulin resistant. Yet, it is conceivable that alterations in certain dietary constituents could affect the course and impact the outcome of these brain disorders.
It is important to acknowledge that much of the data discussed here are preliminary and anecdotal, and hence need to be validated by well-controlled prospective studies.
Specifically, it has been shown that the medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) form of the KD may induce detrimental synaptic changes in CA1 stratum moleculare, but beneficial effects in the outer molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (Balietti et al., 2008). Therefore, there is a rationale for hypothesizing that the KD might have a beneficial role in patients with AD (Balietti et al., 2010a), in addition to the potential benefits to the aging process as noted above. This significant clinical improvement was considered to be secondary to improved mitochondrial function, since ketone bodies (specifically, beta-hydroxybutyrate or BHB) have been shown to protect against the toxic effects of ?-amyloid on neurons in culture (Kashiwaya et al., 2000).
In animal models of PD produced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), BHB administration ameliorated the mitochondrial respiratory chain damage that ordinarily results from that toxin (Kashiwaya et al., 2000). One group found that the KD reduces ROS production in malignant glioma cells, and gene microarray expression profiling demonstrated that the KD induces an overall reversion to patterns seen in non-tumor specimens and a reduction in the expression of genes encoding signal transduction pathways and growth factors known to be involved in glioma growth (Stafford et al., 2010).
Hence, in light of the clinical problem of post-traumatic epileptogenesis and the fact that the KD can reduce seizure activity, the notion has emerged that dietary therapy might ameliorate brain injury and possibly, long-term consequences such as epilepsy. Later, they showed that cognitive and motor functioning was also improved with KD treatment (Appelberg et al., 2009).
Using a KD variant consisting of MCT, 10 of 18 autistic children demonstrated moderate or significant behavioral improvement (by a blinded rater) after a 6-month trial of providing the diet for 4weeks of KD diet treatment alternating with 2weeks of normal diet, in 6-week cycles (Evangeliou et al., 2003). Although it might seem unlikely that an individual with migraine would undertake such a complicated dietary regimen as the KD, in light of suboptimal alternatives, this choice is worthy of consideration, particularly in the medically refractory population (Maggioni et al., 2011).
A lacto vegetarian is someone who has a very similar diet but they have cut out the eggs as well. The researchers found that calorie restriction spurs beta'OHB production, which blocked the activity of a class of enzymes called histone deacetylases, or HDACs. This discovery not only identifies a novel signaling role for beta'OHB, but it could also represent a way to slow the detrimental effects of aging in all cells of the body. On the balanced diet, the subjects managed 257 watts at lactate threshold intensity and 362 watts during a 15-minute maximal effort.
You can consult a nutritionist if you are unable to decide which diet plan is best for you.
Here are a few tips that have worked for me for other events that can apply to Thanksgiving dinner as well. It is still official government dietary policy today, due to the influence of the vegetable oil industry which produces their products from the highly subsidized corn and soy bean crops.
So with no side effects from a natural diet, it is highly unlikely that any pharmaceutical products will see the same success the Ketogenic Diet is seeing today. Further, it is possible that a final common neurometabolic pathway might be influenced by a variety of dietary interventions.
Along similar lines of improved bioenergetics, the KD has been shown to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis, resulting in stabilized synaptic function (Bough et al., 2006). The KD has now become an integral part of the armamentarium of most major epilepsy centers throughout the world (Kossoff and McGrogan, 2005). In MCT-fed aged rats compared to aged rats receiving a normal diet, mitochondrial density and function in cerebellar Purkinje cells were significantly increased, suggesting that the KD can rescue age-related mitochondrial dysfunction (Balietti et al., 2010b). Alternatively, the KD may actually decrease amounts of ?-amyloid deposition (VanderAuwera et al., 2005). Additional evidence supporting the potential benefits of ketone bodies in PD is provided by in vitro experiments demonstrating the protective effects of these substrates against mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction induced exogenously by complex I and II inhibitors rotenone and 3-nitropropionic acid, respectively (Kim do et al., 2010), and even anti-inflammatory actions of the KD on MPTP-induced neurotoxicity (Yang and Cheng, 2010). Administration of a KD to these mutant mice led to both histological (higher motor neuron counts) and functional improvements (preserved motor function on the rotorod test) compared to non-KD fed animals (Zhao et al., 2006). It is also interesting to note that PPAR?-activated by nutrients such as fatty acids - is now a target for developing anti-cancer drugs that target mitochondrial metabolism (Grabacka et al., 2010). This study was carried out on the island of Crete, where the frequency of autism is high but the possibility of genetic inbreeding is also significant. Notwithstanding this limitation, laboratory investigations have found that both short-term and long-term treatment with either MCT or long-chain triglyceride forms of the KD resulted in a significant reduction in the velocity of cortical spreading depression (CSD) velocity in immature rats (de Almeida Rabello Oliveira et al., 2008). Just don’t go overboard with the pita chips or the buttery croissants once you have a few bites. You don’t want to completely limit yourself as that is the fastest way to end a healthy diet quickly. The most notable example of a dietary treatment with proven efficacy against a neurological condition is the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) used in patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Thus, the potential for interesting and novel applications of the KD and related dietary therapies is almost limitless (Stafstrom, 2004).
These observations imply certain risks, but also potential benefits of the KD for the aging brain. Interestingly, other diets such as the Mediterranean diet are showing some promise in AD (Gu et al., 2010), possibly through a reduction in systemic inflammation and improved metabolic profiles.
Further, in a pilot trial of the KD in 16 patients with advanced metastatic tumors, six individuals reported improved emotional functioning and less insomnia, indicating that in some instances, the KD may lead to improved quality of life (Schmidt et al., 2011). Other researchers have hypothesized that the neuroprotective properties of ketone bodies might be related to up-regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1-?) which is important in angiogenesis and anti-apoptotic activity (Puchowicz et al., 2008). These authors observed that half of these patients became seizure-free on the KD, and only four patients failed to respond.
Thus, at this juncture, there is no consensus regarding whether the KD is anti-epileptogenic following a variety of traumatic insults and manipulations.
Therefore, these findings need to be interpreted cautiously and larger longitudinal studies are needed. Another intriguing aspect of this study was the observation that triheptanoin - an anaplerotic substrate that enhances tricarboxylic acid cycle function - had a notable effect in retarding CSD, consistent with a later report that triheptanoin supplementation raised pentylenetetrazol tonic seizure threshold and delayed the development of corneal kindled seizures (Willis et al., 2010). Ultimately, the details of how that altered metabolism reduces neuronal excitability, abrogates ongoing neurodegeneration, or mitigates functional disability remain unknown. The effects of a ketogenic diet on behavioral outcome after controlled cortical impact injury in the juvenile and adult rat. Ketogenic diet prevents alterations in brain metabolism in young but not adult rats after traumatic brain injury. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose reduces epilepsy progression by NRSF-CtBP-dependent metabolic regulation of chromatin structure.
Caloric restriction inhibits seizure susceptibility in epileptic EL mice by reducing blood glucose.
What’s more, high intensity exercise actually suppresses fat breakdown (lipolysis), making exercise feel much harder. According to the study authors, the cause of the decline on the low-carb diet was impairment of the muscles’ ability to burn carbs, which is critical to performance at higher intensities. While the mechanisms through which the KD works remain unclear, there is now compelling evidence that its efficacy is likely related to the normalization of aberrant energy metabolism.
However, the fact that the KD reduces oxidative stress and its downstream consequences provides a reasonable rationale for considering this type of treatment to retard the adverse consequences during aging (Freemantle et al., 2009).
Mitochondria from these mutant mice demonstrated increased ATP synthesis, countering the inhibition of complex I of the electron transport chain. In contrast, a retrospective examination of five patients with tuberous sclerosis complex treated with the KD indicated either a lack of tumor suppression or further tumor growth (Chu-Shore et al., 2010). In that study, pre-treatment with BHB (via intraventricular infusion, followed by middle cerebral artery occlusion) led to significant increases in brain succinate content, as well as elevations in HIF1-? and Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein. Hence, these preliminary data suggest that the KD is not necessarily contraindicated in patients with mitochondrial respiratory chain abnormalities.
Consistent with these observations, it was found that fasting - which shares the key feature of ketosis with the KD - led to significant tissue sparing in brain following CCI injury, and that again ketosis (with improved mitochondrial functioning) rather than the relative hypoglycemia seen with fasting was the important determinant of neuroprotection (Davis et al., 2008). The potential involvement of adenosine, an endogenous neuromodulator and anticonvulsant, in ameliorating autistic behaviors raises the possibility of overlap with KD mechanisms (Masino et al., 2011). Herein lay rich opportunities for further investigation, in both the laboratory and the clinic, in the broad realm of translational neurosciences. In other words, high-intensity training on a LCHF diet feels an awful lot harder than training on a higher carb intake. The concept that many neurological conditions are linked pathophysiologically to energy dysregulation could well provide a common research and experimental therapeutics platform, from which the course of several neurological diseases could be favorably influenced by dietary means. As an example, T-maze and object recognition performance were improved in aged rats by KD administration, suggesting a potential functional benefit in cognition (Xu et al., 2010). It is important to note that approximately 20% of the familial cases of ALS have SOD1 mutations, and hence the possibility arises that the KD may be of benefit to patients with ALS. Thus, it may be that distinct tumor types within different organ systems may respond differently to the KD or other dietary treatments and that such differences may reflect variations in the metabolic vulnerability of specific tumor types, perhaps through intrinsic differences in the expression of metabolism-related genes (Stafford et al., 2010). To be clinically meaningful, of course, a positive effect must be demonstrable after, and not before, an ischemic event.
As a caveat, many children with autism poorly tolerate changes in dietary and other routines, which could impact implementation of dietary therapies, which require strict adherence.
When you spread out the month or so of festivities, three of those days are what matter most (Thanksgiving, Christmas, New Year’s Eve).
Here we provide an overview of studies using the KD in a wide panoply of neurologic disorders in which neuroprotection is an essential component.
Finally, it should be noted that because of its similarities to calorie restriction (as noted above), the KD is likely to involve other neuroprotective mechanisms that could ameliorate pathological aging - especially when occurring in the context of neurodegeneration (Contestabile, 2009). Nevertheless, such studies imply that biochemical alterations that favor energy metabolism would be protective against acute forms of severe brain injury. Thus, it is critical to determine the specific mitochondrial defect when considering treatment with the KD, to avert clinical deterioration.



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