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Beginning here, this article series describes the properties of all types of plastic piping and tubing used in buildings for water supply, drainage, or gas or oil fuels, including ABS, CPVC, PB, PEX, PVC. Included is information about ABS, PB, Polybutylene, PEX, PVC polyvinyl chloride and other plastic piping materials. We also discuss ongoing or previous health & safety concerns raised for some plastic piping products. Plastic supply piping is popular because it is less expensive and easier to work with than copper. There are many types available including cross-linked polyethylene (PEX), polybutylene (PB), and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC).
As Carson Dunlop's sketch (above left) shows, plastic piping entered widespread use in North American beginning around 1965 and continues to the present. As our black ABS drain piping photo shows (above), some drain line leaks having nothing to do with product defects can occur in this system if the piping is not properly installed. Field investigations of leak stains (as in our photo) as well as investigations of sewer gas odors (SEWER GAS ODORS) have traced these problems to failure to properly clean, prime, and glue the pipe joints during construction.
However, "All Black -hit," defective black ABS plastic waste pipe manufactured in the mid 1980's failed by cracking, as Cranor's photo below illustrates. Apache ABS pipe failures: Apache Plastics defective piping was produced due to use of defective raw materials to make ABS DWV between January and May 1985.
Centaur ABS pipe: Centaur black ABS pipe was labeled with the company's name and was made between February and August 1985.
Gable ABS pipe failures: Gable plastics defective ABS piping was made during 1985 and 1986 and is very prone to cracking failures and leaks, again due to use of defective plastic raw materials.
ABS plastic drain and vent line failures are still being discovered, as John Cranor's photo from 2011 illustrates. This photo of cracked ABS is damage that I feel has to be related to the defective ABS that was reported years ago. I know there was once a lot of information out there about this issue but now I cannot find hardly anything. The seller of the property where I took this photo has some plumber saying there is nothing wrong and that he has never heard of a problem as I described. For houses built between 1985 and 1988, perhaps extending into 1993 or even later (to allow for use of in-stock older ABS piping), inspectors, building owners, and building buyers should be particularly alert for leaks in ABS black plastic drain, waste or vent piping. Look for visible damage, leaks, leak stains, or loose pipes or fittings that may be moving due to breaks or cracks in the DWV piping. Look for product dates & manufacturer's codes indicating the problem brands of ABS piping, listed above. Look for ABS drain line cracks at the glue-line joint in and look for mixed plastic types (white PVC, black ABS) on older buildings.
Pressure test drain, waste, vent piping systems: for a system that is in doubt or where a hidden leak is suspected (perhaps where there are undiagnosed sewer gas odors), consider pressure testing the DWV piping. The prior class action litigation involved five of the six ABS pipe manufacturer's brands listed above: Centaur, Phoenix, Polaris, Gable, and Apache. This work investigates ultraviolet (UV) degradation and its influence on fracture failure in acrylonitrilea€“butadienea€“styrene (ABS) resins.
Preliminary chemiluminescence assessment of coupon specimens indicates that degradation is restricted to the specimen surface, with a relatively rapid depletion of residual stabiliser compared to the bulk of the specimen. These changes in chemical structure are attributed to cross-linking and chain scission in the PB phase.
The effect of UV exposure in coupon specimens is compared to that of surface notching, and plane-strain fracture toughness tests are used to obtain an empirical relationship between exposure time and a€?equivalenta€? notch depth. An analysis of DN100 Class 15 ABSpipes predicts that a transition to brittle fracture failure occurs after 137 years. As part of an investigation into the performance of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) systems for water transportation, this paper presents a method for predicting the service lifetimes of buried pipes under in-service loading conditions. Failure criteria were determined using the time-dependent, quasistatic, plane strain fracture toughness of the ABS material, combined with empirical parameters that describe slow, steady crack growth.
Idealized stress intensity factors associated with mode-I crack opening under each of these components were determined using a finite element analysis and superposed to describe the general case in service. Predicted failure times compared well with an experimental model of expected operating conditions, which combined hydrostatic pressure and parallel-plate deflection loading of an internally notched pipe. It was proposed that, in practice, these variations are governed by opposing changes in visco-elasticity. PEX and PB plastic pipe are used for water supply in buildings use mechanical fittings (crimp and compression type) and we have found some installers using PEX tubing in low temperature heating applications (see below).
PEX piping is used in both hot and cold water applications (see the blue and red colors below). Generally you will find PEX piping or tubing marked with the nominal pipe size, wall thickness, and pressure rating and other information (see the illustration just below).
When installing PEX piping, care must be taken that the pipe does not contact heating ducts.
Watch out: PEX plastic water piping should not be installed outdoors or exposed to sunlight for long periods.
Watch out: do not use plastic piping nor any other type of piping in applications for which it was not intended, or the result could be dangerous. Watch out: a variety of patented PEX tubing push-fit and clamp connecting fittings (at least six types) and connector crimping tools are on the market.
See PEX BRASS CONNECTOR LEAKS for an update on field reports of de-zincification corrosion and leaks at brass PEX pipe connectors, elbows & tees. Clamp type PEX fittings (photo at left) using a brass connector and stainless steel clamp-rings (e.g. Note in our PEX photo at left that on the cold water (blue) Tee fitting one of the clamp fittings remains to be completed. Crimp type PEX fittings (photo at left - Crimp type PEX fittings in a Haddonfield New Jersey home) (e.g.
Compression type PEX fittings (photo at left) (radiant heating and other applications) uses three parts (connector, compression ring or ferrule, threaded nut) to connect PEX tubing to a radiant heating manifold.
Threaded nut and ferrule are used with an insert to prepare the tubing for connection to the manifold. No special tools are needed and compression type PEX fittings work with standard and Pex tubing.
Expander type PEX fittings (photo at left, Expander type PEX fittings in a Tivoli NY home), e.g. Our PEX tubing photo (left) illustrates three PEX installation details: use of expander-type PEX fittings, and at the photo bottom (blue cold water piping) a protective sleeve or bushing at the floor joist penetration, and a steel nail plate to protect the tubing from puncture by ceiling drywall (to be installed).
Note: in best construction practices all holes drilled through structural floor joists (shown at left) would be made in the center of the joist, not near the bottom as in our photo.
The Viega press PEX fittings are sold separately from the required stainless steel press PEX rings OR you can buy Viega pex press fittings that include the crimp ring already combined with the fitting.
When using the Viega method with the integrated fitting and crimp ring you'll need to look closely to assure that you have inserted the fitting fully into the tubing before crimping the sleeve using the Viega tool. SharkBite PEX push-fit fittings (photo at left) - push-in fittings (also work with copper and CPVC). The following standards and building codes list at least some elements of PEX plumbing systems. PB or Polybutylene pipe material (photo at left, center horizontal piping) is gray plastic water supply piping that racked, leaked, and its early use resulted in a class action and settlement.
Owners who purchased a house, mobile home, or other structure in the United States after August 21, 1995, provided that the structure contained polybutylene piping with plastic or metal insert fittings when they purchased it, are included in the class. By 2010 it would be uncommon to find problematic plastic piping in buildings as we expect that where leaks were a problem, they have in many if not most installations, been discovered and repaired by now. However home inspectors and home buyers as well as building maintenance staff need to be alert for discovery of older problematic or leaky plastic piping in buildings. When we see several types (colors) of plastic piping mixed together, especially on older renovation or handyman plumbing jobs we worry that amateur work may have omitted use of the proper pipe glues and sealants. For at least some of the extensive plastic pipe failure claims, an important factor in the PBS pipe failure mechanism included water that contained significant levels of chlorine. Connections for PB or polybutylene water piping can be made without soldering, and the pipe is easy to work with, as Carson Dunlop's illustration (left) shows.
Our photo (below) shows hot and cold water piping using these materials and fittings in a new building.
In this article (below) we include links to information about PB piping failures, claims, and litigation.
Our photograph of a broken white Schedule 40 PVC sewer line in a crawl area (left) illustrates what can happen to this material if a sewer line is blocked and exposed to freezing. If plastic water piping is installed, such as polybutylene water supply piping, it should be at least 18" from the water heater. Industry associations, including the Polybutylene Product Line Committee of the Plastic Pipe & Fittings Association have made recommendations for successful installation of polybutylene piping systems, including those listed below. Each PB crimp connection should be checked with a GO-NOGO gauge and any fitting that does not pass should be cut out and replaced.
Test pressure for PB piping systems should be at least equal to normal system working pressure but also must be not less than 40psi nor more than 225 psi.
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipe is not as flexible as PB or PEX and the fittings are solvent welded (glued) rather than press-on.

Our photo (left) illustrates Royal brand PVC sewer piping being installed at a New York Home. See WATER HEATER DEBRIS FLUSH for an example of a deteriorated plastic water heater dip tube debris that clogged the building water supply piping, faucets, fixtures.
We recommend blotting a clean, dry towel with Oatey Clear Cleaner to attempt to remove the stain. You may want to try the cleaner on an inconspicuous spot before using on the stained area. PVC is Poly(Vinyl) Chloride, CPVC is Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl) Chloride and ABS is Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene. You should not bury plastic sewer piping in sharp rocks but rather it should be bedded in sand and located 18" below the ground surface or deeper to reduce chances of damage from rocks or from vehicles passing overhead. Many plumbers prefer to work with copper and, although plastic pipe is less expensive than copper, the fittings are expensive. Polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are only suitable for waste, underground water service pipes or cold water piping systems. Our photographs of plastic water supply piping connections show a new water main (below left) and building supply pipe being connected to copper piping entering a building (below right) in San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato, Mexico in 2010. This might seem a strange question but we have blue plastic used for the connection from our gas tanks to our cooker.
Since we have never had a problem with vermin and the blue tubing a€“ I was wondering how true this is and why do the vermin not like the yellow tubing. We have indeed had reports of rodents chewing on plastic piping of various types, colors, brands, and application (water piping and gas piping for example). You didn't say exactly what kind of plastic piping you are using nor its brand - that information would let us check with the manufacturer for recommendations about rodent proofing the piping. I am doubtful that changing from one color piping to another would make much difference in rodent resistance if the piping brand and material is the same; but if the color change includes a change of material, the new material might be more rodent resistance.
In a New York installation I have seen yellow plastic-covered flexible copper tubing used for both gas piping (not through walls and ceilings or hidden locations) and heating oil piping. Question: my daughter is doing extensive renovations on her house and the question has come up whether to use PEX or copper in the plumbing.
We will continue to monitor the PEX health and contamination question and will update here. Each plumbing pipe material has its own vulnerabilities as well as advantages & disadvantages. If all of the supply or drain piping in a building are continuous metal, then grounding the piping system increases electrical safety - a toaster dropped into a sink should blow a fuse or trip a breaker. More than plastic water supply piping, copper piping is more vulnerable to leaks caused by aggressive water chemistry, or by an electrical ground mistake as well as leaks due to galvanic corrosion if piping is mixed with steel in an older home (unless you use proper dielectric fittings at those joints). An amateur installation during copper fitting sweating (soldering) sometimes pushes too much copper into the joint leading to a very hard-to-find flow restriction. PEX (cross-linked polyethylene piping) is a general term for a type of plastic piping used in water supply, heating, and other applications.
Kitec® is a specific brand of PEX tubing that was subject of a class action settlement with an end-date for filing claims of 31 March 2012.
There you'll see how to tell the difference between Kitec and other PEX piping brands by color and markings that may be on the tubing. Continue reading at ABS PLASTIC PIPE or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below. Check over your insurance policy with an attorney or an insurance adjuster to be sure you are being treats fairly. If piping is to be buried where it may be driven-over by vehicles or heavy equipment, you might even consider Schedule 80 pipe for that location or pipe run.
John Cranor is an ASHI member and a home inspector (The House Whisperer) is located in Glen Allen, VA 23060.
The Motion for Preliminary Approval of Class Action Settlement was heard on January 12, 2012. Volume 14, Issue 4, 2008, Abstract:Plastic pipes used to convey hot and cold drinking water are synthetic polymers containing numerous additives that enhance durability, impact strength, and toughness, and resist material degradation. Vertex42's free work order forms are professional, simple, easy to use, and fully customizable spreadsheet templates. Vertex42's free Work Order Form Template is an Excel file that contains two separate work order forms (as separate worksheet tabs). Each work order is fully customizable and geared mainly towards service, repair and maintenance work.
The basic work order form template shown above is great for smaller jobs or putting together a work estimate or quote. Any value within [brackets] is meant to be replaced with your company or customer's information.
Qty (Quantity): This column can be used to enter the number of hours or amount of parts or materials used for the job. Taxed: The basic work order form includes a column for indicating (by entering an "x") which line items are taxable.
Taxable: The basic work order template calculates the sum of the amounts that are taxable using a SUMIF formula. Other: The last field before the total can be used for including a discount or other types of charges. The free work order templates can be easily modified to be used internally as an IT work order or a maintenance work order. Although it is common to use work orders for internal use, then bill or invoice your customer using a different form, a work order can often be used to directly invoice your customers. If a customer preferred to be billed later, the work order could be converted into an invoice by simply changing the "Work Order" label to "Invoice" and adding an Invoice # field. Our free work order forms are great for companies and departments that only process a few work orders per day. There are numerous work order software packages on the market, many of them tailored to specific markets such as Maintenance work orders, IT work orders, Repair work orders and service dispatch work orders.
If you are already running QuickBooks, you can create work orders directly from sales orders. Disclaimer: This content is for informational and educational purposes only, and not to construed as legal, tax, or financial advice.
We include information about failures and problems with some generations of plastic pipes (ABS, polybutylene) and we describe good building practice installation details where plastic piping is being installed.
We discuss problems and class action claims for plastic pipe product failures including both the piping itself and its connectors or fittings for each of these materials where trouble has been found.
The articles at this website will answer most questions about plastic building water supply and building drain piping products, failures, and claims as well as many other building plumbing system inspection or defect topics. The result was litigation and some damage settlements, but currently it is unlikely that a homeowner will find legal relief for newly-discovered ABS drain waste vent piping cracks and failures. Not all Apache ABS DWV suffers the cracking failure problem, and less Apache ABS pipe defects are found than among the other manufacturers listed below. Not all Polaris ABS piping made during this interval suffers the cracking failure, depending on variation in batches of purchased raw material.
Cranor's photo (above), or in some areas where piping is exposed (photo at left) there may not be ready access for visual inspection of all surfaces of all of the plastic ABS drain lines in a building. As we noted above, for buildings constructed outside of this time window drain lines may have other leaks and defects, regardless of faulty materials themselves. Remember to include inspection of the vent piping system, from on-roof, in the attic, and in other accessible areas.
Experts report defective ABS piping products based on manufacturer's product codes and dates even if no leaks are observed at the time of inspection. Pressure testing can also detect improper pipe joints such as failure to glue the joints properly. Fourier transform infra-red spectral analysis indicates that this surface-specific degradation forms photoproducts with the distortion of absorbance bands (corresponding to the trans Ci—»C unsaturation (vinyl) in polybutadiene (PB), and the 1,2-butadiene terminal vinyl Ca€“H band), indicating bond unsaturation.
It is proposed that surface degradation after UV exposure promotes brittle behaviour and may therefore influence the failure mechanism of ABS pressure pipes under static loading. However, it is recommended that the influence of pipe wall thickness on degradation kinetics be quantified. A linear fracture mechanics approach was used to analyze brittle failure initiating from adventitious flaws located at the bore surface of pipe. The expected operating conditions of a buried pipe were then separated into static loading contributions from internal pressure, diametrical deflection and residual stress. The computed nett stress intensity factor was then combined with the previously determined fracture toughness and slow crack growth data in an algorithm to simulate incremental radial crack growth from the pipe bore. The prediction method was also used to identify the factors that control the lifetime of a pipe in service. The effect of changing diametrical deflection and residual stress distribution were also simulated, allowing recommendations on pipe manufacture and installation conditions to be made. The red and blue PEX piping shown below (right) were delivering hot and cold water in a newly-constructed home.
You may not obtain a proper and secure PEX connection if you mix tubing connector fittings and crimping tools improperly. ProPEX brass connecting fittings and the ProPEX expander tool from Uponor (formerly Wirsbo PEX fittings).

The fittings avoided having to drain piping and solder end caps onto pipes that were later to be further cut back, excavated, and permanently capped below the slab. District Court for the District of Minnesota court-ordered homeowner notification program was scheduled to begin.
Copper Water Supply Piping - health & other questions found below in the FAQs section of this article.
Shell Oil Company, provided relief for damage due to leaks in Polybutylene plumbing (PB Plumbing) within certain age constraints.
These individuals may have been entitled to free replacement of their plumbing if it leaked previously or in the future. Homeowners whose structures still contain problematic versions of PB plumbing may nevertheless find that their building or mobile home is damaged by leaks and needs repairs. South, for example trailers and double-wides throughout Florida that were piped with this material - per M Cramer.
Frankly by 2010 we were never seeing PB installations in buildings at which all of the recommendations below were followed and OPINION it may be that industry experts no longer consider all of the 1990 recommendations necessary. NOTE that some plastic piping is marked with other maximum pressure ratings that must be respected when testing too. Note that a light pressure drop in two hours is normal (due to slight expansion of the piping, not due to leaks).
Depending on the type of material stained, its porosity and the length of time the stain has set, it may be possible to remove or lighten the stain. It is important to choose the correct solvent cement or pipe glue based on the type of plastic pipe being used.
Certainly we don't want a rodent-chewed hole in any piping but in gas piping it would be particularly dangerous.
A mouse that chewed the outer plastic cover would most likely not get through the copper, but you'd lose the protective coating at that spot.
COPPER article above lists propertie of copper water supply pipes when used in buildings and compares copper pipe performance with that of plastic. But when I ask my buddy Eric Galow, who is a full time builder, he's a PEX man all the way. We have orangeburd pipe that is starting to squish into an oval pipe and the tree roots are begining to penetrate. Cramer is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors and is a Florida home inspector and home inspection educator.
It originally manufactured a patented backwater valve, and it now manufactures and distributes one of the largest plumbing products packages in the world! Although some research studies have been conducted to evaluate the type and levels of chemical substances migrating from polymeric materials into drinking water, the potential adverse health effects associated with these compounds in potable water have not been described. Work order forms are usually customized to include more details than a basic purchase order. It includes a place for pre-approval and separate areas for labor and materials that can be taxed separately.
This information is usually tied to a specific Customer ID, while the Ship To field may be different. You should indicate on your work order form that all correspondence should include the WO #.
The advanced work order template lets you set a different tax rate for labor and materials.
You should change the label to "Discount" or something that describes what the charge is for.
In a service or maintenance company, a work order would often be generated internally (following a phone call or an online form submission).
But, even at that volume, it can get difficult to keep track of the status of each work order. Many MRP (materials requirements planning), ERP (enterprise resource planning), CMM (computerized maintenance management) and CAFM (computer aided facility management) systems automatically generate work orders or job tickets based on sales orders, maintenance schedules, etc.
Phoenix used the same production codes (but the year will indicate it's Phoenix not Centaur).
Keep in mind that if you find even one leak there is a high risk that there may be additional hidden leaks as well as future failures and leaks. Modern plastic pipe glues can handle and even joint both types of plastics, but at an older installation such as at the home above, where we see mixed plastics we pose the possibility that none of the mixed-type plastic pipe joints may be properly glued. The influence of material visco-elasticity was investigated by simulating variations in fracture toughness and slow crack growth resistance. Installing both building water supply piping and heating supply piping (and radiant heating) can be significantly faster using PEX tubing because of its ability to bend around turns, avoiding some elbows, 45's and other fittings. Also, most types of plastic water pipe tend to sag and should be well supported by hangers. We recommend choosing a specific connector type and crimping tool and using it consistently at a given plumbing installation. People who own or previously owned a building where Plumb-PEX plumbing components were installed are notified of a proposed class action settlement involving Radiant Technology, Inc. Some questions have been raised about the chemicals used in the adhesives used to join sections of piping, and the toxic gases given off from plastic piping during a fire.
At that same installation, we used threaded black pipe for gas piping where it runs through hidden locations such as ceilings and walls. This review evaluates the literature on the occurrence of regulated and unregulated substances in drinking water related to the use of plastic pipes, characterizes potential health hazards, and describes uncertainties associated with human health and exposure in need of further research. The work order template captures customer and job information and summarizes labor and materials used to complete the jobs. There are only a few cells that contain formulas that you should be careful not to mess up (such as the line totals, subtotals, tax calculation, and grand total). Then the service or maintenance person would receive a printed work order form to take to the site location. Admittedly, if you process a significant number of work orders each day, a template based system may not be ideal.
This is not a problem peculiar to defective ABS but the two conditions may be found together.
Totals and taxes are calculated automatically; all you have to enter are quantities, unit costs, tax rates and other charges.
Then, after completing the work, the customer would inspect the job, sign the completed work order, and pay with a check right there on the spot. Understanding this wide variation in types of cybercrime is important as different types of cybercrime require different approaches to improving your personal andA  network safety.A Symantec draws from the many definitions of cybercrime and defines it concisely as any crime that is committed using a computer or network, or hardware device. Galow specializes in residential construction including both new homes and repairs, renovations, and additions. Contaminants are measured in the distribution system, not at the tap where human exposure actually occurs. Continue reading below to see how you can use these work orders internally as IT job orders or maintenance work order forms. The computer or device may be the agent of the crime, the facilitator of the crime, or the target of the crime.
For example, the victim unknowingly downloads a Trojan horse which installs a keystroke logger on his or her machine. For example, the target is contacted in a chat room by someone who, over time, attempts to establish a relationship. Or, members of a terrorist cell or criminal organization may use hidden messages to communicate in a public forum to plan activities or discuss money laundering locations, for example.a€?A It is generally facilitated by programs that do not fit into under the classification crime ware. A The compact boxes, are essentially small cell phone towers that are as small as a standard cable modem. IM allows users to relay messages to each other in real time for a "conversation" between two or more people.
Because many IM systems have been slow to add security features, hackers have found IM a useful means of spreading viruses, spyware, phishing scams, and a wide variety of worms. This term refers to any "malicious software" created to damage or illegally access a computer or network. Often these messages will appear to be from a friend, a bank or other legitimate source asking for personal information such as names, passwords, Social Security numbers or credit card information. These messages might also direct users to phony Web sites to trick users into providing personal information. When slipped into a drink, a dye in these new pills makes clear liquids turn bright blue and dark drinks turn cloudy.
But this color change might be hard to see in a dark drink, like cola or dark beer, or in a dark room.
A file virus executes when an infected file is accessed.A A Worm Similar to how a worm burrows through an orchard apple making it inedible, a computer worm is a program built to reproduce itself and spread across a network, rendering it ineffective. Family Violence Prevention and Health Practice, 3, 1-5.A CYBER SAFE WOMENWHAT IS CYBER STALKING?

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