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31.10.2014

Structurally, these muscle fibers appear non-striated (not striped) when magnified, have one nucleus per cell, and are usually short. Structurally, these muscle fibers appear striated when magnified, have more than one nuclei per cell, and are also branched in appearance.
How do muscles of any kind contract?  What makes the muscle cells work together to move?
Coroners can determine the time of death by knowing how the muscle reactions develop over time.
Initially, stiffening of muscles begins in the upper body and continues through the lower body.
The new year is just around the corner and everyone is excited about it, we all love new things after all.
If the current list of more than 800 emojis just isna€™t enough for you, an app will let you create your own using any image you can find.
THE RISE OF EMOJIA study in April found that the top trending word of the year, so far, is emoji. After signing up for an account, users can click the plus sign and choose a photo from a library. Emoji (selection pictured) were originally popular in Japan, and widely used online, however, in recent years they have become hugely popular elsewhere.
The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline. The question how to Write a Debt Negotiation Letter has been asked 1068 times by our users. Bill Cosby Lessons: Teaching Children Finance (HILARIOUS)" Gives A Reality Check That Still Holds True Today! If you are receiving late notices or a debt collector calls for don't believe owe, should send letter to verify that the is actually yours.
A debt collection final notice letter will come with stronger demands for payments than a reminder or subsequent letters.
Related How To QuestionsHow to the best debt consolidation companies, debt settlement attorney fees, debt settlement agreement letter samples?
This is a€?Business Writing in Actiona€?, chapter 9 from the book Communication for Business Success (v. This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. PDF copies of this book were generated using Prince, a great tool for making PDFs out of HTML and CSS. For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page.
DonorsChoose.org helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators. Review the different kinds of common business communication writing covered by the main headings in this chapter. Conduct an online search for job descriptions associated with your chosen career and think about what tasks are accomplished in a typical day or week. Text messages and e-mails are part of our communication landscape, and skilled business communicators consider them a valuable tool to connect. Whatever digital device you use, written communication in the form of brief messages, or textingWritten communication in the form of brief messages using a digital device., has become a common way to connect. It is often said that you can tell how old someone is by how he or she inputs a phone number on a cell phone. Electronic mail, usually called e-mailElectronic mail., is quite familiar to most students and workers. Many businesses use automated e-mails to acknowledge communications from the public, or to remind associates that periodic reports or payments are due. E-mails may be informal in personal contexts, but business communication requires attention to detail, awareness that your e-mail reflects you and your company, and a professional tone so that it may be forwarded to any third party if needed.
Proper salutations should demonstrate respect and avoid mix-ups in case a message is accidentally sent to the wrong recipient.
E-mail ahead of time if you are going to attach large files (audio and visual files are often quite large) to prevent exceeding the recipienta€™s mailbox limit or triggering the spam filter. We create personal pages, post messages, and interact via mediated technologies as a normal part of our careers, but how we conduct ourselves can leave a lasting image, literally. Her rules speak for themselves and remind us that the golden rule (treat others as you would like to be treated) is relevant wherever there is human interaction. Social customs that exist in traditional, live, human interaction also influence the rules and customs by which we interact with each other in the online environment.
Choose at least three e-mails you have sent or received that are good examples of business communication. Find a a€?flame war,a€? or heated discussion in an online forum and note how it is handled.
A memoAn abbreviation for memorandum; normally used for communicating policies, procedures, or related official business within an organization. A memoa€™s purpose is often to inform, but it occasionally includes an element of persuasion or a call to action. One effective way to address informal, unofficial speculation is to spell out clearly for all employees what is going on with a particular issue.
While memos do not normally include a call to action that requires personal spending, they often represent the business or organizationa€™s interests. A memo has a header that clearly indicates who sent it and who the intended recipients are. In a standard writing format, we might expect to see an introduction, a body, and a conclusion.
Memos are often announcements, and the person sending the memo speaks for a part or all of the organization. Some written business communication allows for a choice between direct and indirect formats, but memorandums are always direct. Memos are a place for just the facts, and should have an objective tone without personal bias, preference, or interest on display.
While e-mail and text messages may be used more frequently today, the effective business letter remains a common form of written communication. Letters may serve to introduce your skills and qualifications to prospective employers, deliver important or specific information, or serve as documentation of an event or decision. The date should be placed at the top, right or left justified, five lines from the top of the page or letterhead logo.
Like a subject line in an e-mail, this is where you indicate what the letter is in reference to, the subject or purpose of the document.
This is your opening paragraph, and may include an attention statement, a reference to the purpose of the document, or an introduction of the person or topic depending on the type of letter. If you have a list of points, a series of facts, or a number of questions, they belong in the body of your letter.
An emphatic closing mirrors your introduction with the added element of tying the main points together, clearly demonstrating their relationship.
Five lines after the close, you should type your name (required) and, on the line below it, your title (optional). If the letter was prepared, or word-processed, by someone other than the signatory (you), then inclusion of initials is common, as in MJD or abc. Just like an e-mail with an attachment, the letter sometimes has additional documents that are delivered with it.
A formal business letter normally includes a logo or contact information for the organization in the header (top of page) or footer (bottom of page).
Memos are brief business documents usually used internally to inform or persuade employees concerning business decisions on policy, procedure, or actions.
Letters are brief, print messages often used externally to inform or persuade customers, vendors, or the public. Find a business letter (for example, an offer you received from a credit card company or a solicitation for a donation) and share it with your classmates. Now that you have reviewed a sample letter, and learned about the five areas and fifteen basic parts of any business letter, write a business letter that informs a prospective client or customer of a new product or service. In order to be successful in business and industry, you should be familiar with the business proposal. You can be creative in many aspects of the business proposal, but follow the traditional categories. Title page with name, title, date, and specific reference to request for proposal if applicable. Like an abstract in a report, this is a one- or two-paragraph summary of the product or service and how it meets the requirements and exceeds expectations. What currently exists in the marketplace, including competing products or services, and how does your solution compare?
A clear presentation, often with visual aids, of the process, from start to finish, with specific, dated benchmarks noted.
Delivery is often the greatest challenge for Web-based servicesa€”how will people learn about you? What are the initial costs, when can revenue be anticipated, when will there be a return on investment (if applicable)? Ethos refers to credibility, pathos to passion and enthusiasm, and logos to logic or reason. In the same way, if you are not enthusiastic about the product or service, why should the potential client get excited? RFPs typically specify the product or service, guidelines for submission, and evaluation criteria. Click on this link to see a sample request for proposal from the American Institute of Public Accounts. Search for an RFP (request for proposal) or similar call to bid, and post it to your class. Choose a type of report by its function, and display the information in a vivid way that is easily understood. Reports come in all sizes, but are typically longer than a page and somewhat shorter than a book.
Table 9.3 "Types of Reports and Their Functions" includes common reports that, depending on the audience needs, may be informational or analytical. Pay attention to these essential elements when you consider your stakeholders, or those who have an interest in the report. Like the cover of a book, sometimes a picture, image, or logo is featured to introduce the topic to the reader. This report presents the current status of the X tarpit sands, the study of oil recoverability, and the findings of the study with specific recommendations. Oil sands recovery processes include ways to extract and separate the bitumen from the clay, sand, and water that make up the tar sands. Analysis and Recommendations: Analysis of the data and recommendations based on that analysis. This portion clearly indicates the main results and their relation to recommended action or outcome.
Write a report on a trend in business that youa€™ve observed, and highlight at least the main finding.
You need to list your education in reverse chronological order, with your most recent degree first. List in reverse chronological order your employment history, including the positions, companies, locations, dates, duties and skills demonstrated or acquired. Custom documents take additional time, preparation, analysis of the job announcement, and may not fit the established guidelines. Consider a brief section that lists common words associated with the position as a skills summary: customer service, business communication, sales, or terms and acronyms common to the business or industry.
Most people's interaction with the FICA tax consists of looking at their pay stub and seeing yet another tax being taken out of their gross pay. Living in Palo Alto and Boston I've crossed paths with many people in various stages of their medical training. For the readers who asked: - To make hearts similar to those pictured, check out this Martha Stewart Heart Crafts Punch . This process is known as the sliding filament model of muscle contraction because the actin filaments slide over the myosin filaments. A chemical, acetylcholine, is released when an impulse is sent which allows the myosin-actin bridge to form. Our muscular system relies on our nervous system for the impulses necessary to produce movement. These bones are arranged into two major divisions: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton.
Called Imoji, the free tool lets you crop, trim and edit photos you find on the web, or those in your phonea€™s gallery. Backgrounds or certain sections can also be removed using the scissor button.To send an imoji, drag the sticker into the centre of the on-screen circle to open the messaging app, choose recipients and send. There is also a library of imojis created by other users that includes images of celebrities and cartoon characters (pictured left). See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms.
However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Make a note of which kinds of documents you have produced in the past and which you have not. It is useful for short exchanges, and is a convenient way to stay connected with others when talking on the phone would be cumbersome. If the person uses his or her thumb while holding the digital device, that person may have been raised on video games and be adept at one-handed interfaces.
Research shows that the likelihood of an accident increases dramatically if the driver is texting behind the wheel.Houston Chronicle. You may also be assigned to a€?populatea€? a form e-mail in which standard paragraphs are used but you choose from a menu of sentences to make the wording suitable for a particular transaction. Identify yourself by creating a signature block that automatically contains your name and business contact information.
An e-mail is not a text message, and the audience may not find your wit cause to ROTFLOL (roll on the floor laughing out loud). Include line breaks between sentences or divide your message into brief paragraphs for ease of reading.
Catch and correct spelling and grammar mistakes before you press a€?send.a€? It will take more time and effort to undo the problems caused by a hasty, poorly written e-mail than to get it right the first time. Watch out for an emotional responsea€”never reply in angera€”but make a habit of replying to all e-mails within twenty-four hours, even if only to say that you will provide the requested information in forty-eight or seventy-two hours. Do not send your reply to everyone who received the initial e-mail unless your message absolutely needs to be read by the entire group. Capital letters are used on the Internet to communicate emphatic emotion or yelling and are considered rude.
The photograph you posted on your MySpace page may have been seen by your potential employer, or that nasty remark in a post may come back to haunt you later.
The content and formatting of an e-mail message should reflect professionalism and follow the rules of netiquette.


If budget cuts are a concern, then it may be wise to send a memo explaining the changes that are imminent. They may also include statements that align business and employee interest, and underscore common ground and benefit.
An acronym or abbreviation that is known to management may not be known by all the employees of the organization, and if the memo is to be posted and distributed within the organization, the goal is clear and concise communication at all levels with no ambiguity. While it may contain a request for feedback, the announcement itself is linear, from the organization to the employees.
It can serve to introduce you to a potential employer, announce a product or service, or even serve to communicate feelings and emotions.
The audience or reader may have their own idea of what constitutes a specific type of letter, and your organization may have its own format and requirements. Regardless of the type of letter you need to write, it can contain up to fifteen elements in five areas. If your letter includes a letterhead with this information, either in the header (across the top of the page) or the footer (along the bottom of the page), you do not need to include it before the date.
This can make it clear to a third party that the letter was delivered via a specific method, such as certified mail (a legal requirement for some types of documents). An emphatic opening involves using the most significant or important element of the letter in the introduction. You may choose organizational devices to draw attention, such as a bullet list, or simply number them.
This line indicates what the reader can look for in terms of documents included with the letter, such as brochures, reports, or related business documents.
Just like a a€?CCa€? option in an e-mail, it indicates the relevant parties that will also receive a copy of the document.
Share it with your classmates, observing confidentiality by blocking out identifying details such as the name of the sender, recipient, and company. It features many of the common elements of a report, but its emphasis on persuasion guides the overall presentation.
Much like a report, with several common elements and persuasive speech, a business proposal makes the case for your product or service. While you may be able to present your normal product, service, or solution in an interesting way, you want your document and its solution to stand out against the background of competing proposals. Be clear, concise, specific, and provide a comprehensive list of immediate, short, and long-term benefits to the company.
If you are bidding on a gross lot of food service supplies, this may not apply to you, but if an audience is required for success, you will need a marketing plan. Again, the proposal may involve a one-time fixed cost, but if the product or service is to be delivered more than once, and extended financial plan noting costs across time is required. All three elements are integral parts of your business proposal that require your attention. It is not enough to make baseless claims about your product or servicea€”you have to show why the claims you make are true, relevant, and support your central assertion that your product or service is right for this client. The solicitation may come in the form of a direct verbal or written request, but normally solicitations are indirect, open-bid to the public, and formally published for everyone to see. Follow the guidelines provided in the sample letter for CPA services on the American Institute of Public Accountants Web site. List three companies that you would like to sell your product or service to and learn more about them. Within your organization, there may be employer-specific expectations that need to be addressed to meet audience expectations. An informational report informs or instructs and presents details of events, activities, individuals, or conditions without analysis.
An analytical report presents information with a comprehensive analysis to solve problems, demonstrate relationships, or make recommendations.
You need to be flexible and adjust to the needs of the audience while respecting customs and guidelines. That may include the person(s) the report is about, whom it is for, and the larger audience of the business, organization, or industry. For example, from the rising cost of textbooks to the Unnamed Publisher approach to course content, textbooks are a significant issue for students. People network, link, and connect in new ways via online profiles or professional sites like LinkedIn. Your objective should reflect the audiencea€™s need to quickly understand how you will help the organization achieve its goals. You know that when given a class assignment, you are expected to follow directions; similarly, the employer is looking for specific skills and experience.
So let's take a look at a fancy pay stub I made up in PowerPoint because I love you all so much.
It stands for the Federal Insurance Contributions Act, and this tax is separate from the income tax that you file your return for on April 15. For 2013, the Social Security portion applies only to the first $113, 700 of your gross wages (so maybe that is everything for you). Using energy from cellular metabolic processes, the bridge changes shape and pulls at the thin actin molecule. The muscle cells remain in contraction until the release of acetylcholine stops and an enzyme destroys the remaining chemical. Our muscles must be connected to the skeletal system (bones) to allow for strength and movement and our circulatory system must transfer the chemicals necessary (by way of the digestive system) for the processes that provide biological energy. Through exercise, such as weight lifting, the cells enlarge but the number of cells does not increase. These imojis can then be shared with other users of the app, and sent to friends over text or iMessage. All imojis are set to either private, or public, and those set to public can be seen by other users of the app.
To send an imoji, drag the sticker into the centre of the on-screen circle (pictured) to open the messaging app. You may also download a PDF copy of this book (6 MB) or just this chapter (934 KB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). Writing in an online environment requires tact and skill, and an awareness that what you write may be there forever. Texting is not useful for long or complicated messages, and careful consideration should be given to the audience.
If he holds the digital device with one hand and inputs the number with the other, he may be over thirty, or may be less comfortable with some technological devices.
Given the complexity of communication, and the useful but limited tool of texting, be aware of its limitation and prevent misinterpretation with brief messages.
Do you feel lost or a€?out of ita€? if you dona€™t have your cell phone and cannot connect to people, even for fifteen minutes? In business, it has largely replaced print hard copy letters for external (outside the company) correspondence, as well as taking the place of memos for internal (within the company) communication.Guffey, M.
Although e-mail may have an informal feel, remember that when used for business, it needs to convey professionalism and respect. Spam filters may have intercepted your message, so your recipient may never have received it.
Some fifteen years ago, when the Internet was a new phenomenon, Virginia Shea laid out a series of ground rules for communication online that continue to serve us today. It is often written from a one-to-all perspective (like mass communication), broadcasting a message to an audience, rather than a one-on-one, interpersonal communication. The unofficial, informal communication network within an organization is often called the grapevineThe unofficial, informal communication network within an organization, often characterized by rumor, gossip, and innuendo., and it is often characterized by rumor, gossip, and innuendo. Date and subject lines are also present, followed by a message that contains a declaration, a discussion, and a summary.
The memo may have legal standing as it often reflects policies or procedures, and may reference an existing or new policy in the employee manual, for example. Wea€™ll examine the basic outline of a letter and then focus on specific products or writing assignments.
This chapter outlines common elements across letters, and attention should be directed to the expectations associated with your particular writing assignment. While you may not use all the elements in every case or context, they are listed in Table 9.1 "Elements of a Business Letter". A comma after the salutation is correct for personal letters, but a colon should be used in business. Readers tend to pay attention to openings, and it makes sense to outline the expectations for the reader up front. Readers may skip over information in the body of your letter, so make sure you emphasize the key points clearly. If your organization is going to expand and needs to construct a new wing, it will probably be put out to bid. Business proposalsDocument designed to make a persuasive appeal to the audience to achieve a defined outcome, often proposing a solution to a problem.
Each aspect of your proposal has its place and it is to your advantage to respect that tradition and use the categories effectively to highlight your product or service.
There should be no errors in spelling or grammar, and all information should be concise, accurate, and clearly referenced when appropriate. Few decision-makers can ever afford to read more than one page when deciding if they are interested in a deal or not. A request for proposal (RFP), request for quotation (RFQ), and invitation for bid (IFB) are common ways to solicit business proposals for business, industry, and the government. IRBs are often job-specific in that they encompass a project that requires a timeline, labor, and materials. They can, however, be tailored to specific businesses with time and effort, and the demonstrated knowledge of specific needs or requirement can transform an otherwise generic, brochure-like proposal into an effective sales message. Reports are part of any business or organization; from credit reports to police reports, they serve to document specific information for specific audiences, goals, or functions.
The function of the report is its essential purpose, often indicated in the thesis or purpose statement. This chapter discusses reports in general terms, focusing on common elements and points of distinction, but reference to similar documents where you work or additional examination of specific sample reports may serve you well as you prepare your own report.
An example of this report may be a field report by a Center for Disease Control (CDC) physician from the site of an outbreak of the H1N1 virus, noting symptoms, disease progression, steps taken to arrest the spread of the disease, and to make recommendations on the treatment and quarantine of subjects. Ask yourself who the key decision makers are who will read your report, who the experts or technicians will be, and how executives and workers may interpret your words and images. Draw from your experience as you bring together sources of information to illustrate a trend.
If there is a difference between the GPA in your major courses and your overall GPA, you may want to list them separately to demonstrate your success in your chosen field. Emphasize responsibilities that involved budgets, teamwork, supervision, and customer service when applying for positions in business and industry, but dona€™t let emphasis become exaggeration. By mirroring the employera€™s language and submitting your application documents in accord with their instructions, you convey a spirit of cooperation and an understanding of how to follow instructions.
Choose a sans serif (without serif, or decorative end) font like Arial or Tahoma that wona€™t be misread. Federal withholding and state withholding I get, thanks to this post (See "When do you pay your taxes"). These 21 fused bones are separate in children to allow the skull and brain to grow, but fuse to give added strength and protection as an adult. There is also a library of imojis created by other users, including images of celebrities, cartoon characters and everyday objects.
From memos to letters, from business proposals to press releases, your written business communication represents you and your company: your goal is to make it clear, concise, and professional. Of course, there is no actual correlation between input and age, but it is a useful example to use when considering who your audience is when writing a text message.
Sometimes being unavailable for a time can be healthya€”everything in moderation, including texting.
Deadly distraction: Texting while driving, twice as risky as drunk driving, should be banned. Never write or send anything that you wouldna€™t want read in public or in front of your company president. It may also be used to update a team on activities for a given project, or to inform a specific group within a company of an event, action, or observance. On the grapevine, one person may hear that someone else is going to be laid off and start passing the news around. For example, on February 13, 2009, upper management at the Panasonic Corporation issued a declaration that all employees should buy at least $1,600 worth of Panasonic products. The discussion elaborates or lists major points associated with the topic, and the conclusion serves as a summary. There are many types of letters, and many adaptations in terms of form and content, but in this chapter, we discuss the fifteen elements of a traditional block-style letter. The salutation a€?To whom it may concerna€? is appropriate for letters of recommendation or other letters that are intended to be read by any and all individuals.
Just as you would preview your topic in a speech, the clear opening in your introductions establishes context and facilitates comprehension. If your letter requests or implies action, the conclusion needs to make clear what you expect to happen. Everything from office furniture to bedpans could potentially be put out to bid, specifying a quantity, quality, and time of delivery required.
Every category is an opportunity to sell, and should reinforce your credibility, your passion, and the reason why your solution is simply the best. Your credibility may be unknown to the potential client and it is your job to reference previous clients, demonstrate order fulfillment, and clearly show that your product or service is offered by a credible organization. Information that pertains to credibility should be easy to find and clearly relevant, including contact information. This is even more true for people of a different culture or language,a€? said Adnan Khashoggi, a successful multibillionaire.Riley, P. For example, if a local school district announces the construction of a new elementary school, they normally have the architect and engineering plans on file, but need a licensed contractor to build it. Getting your tailored message to your target audience, however, is often a significant challenge if it has not been directly or indirectly solicited.
Just as the example has employees named after colors, your (imaginary) company should have contact information that does not directly link to real businesses or you as an individual. The type of report is often identified by its primary purpose or function, as in an accident report, a laboratory report, a sales report, or even a book report. The function will also influence the types of visual content or visual aids, representing words, numbers, and their relationships to the central purpose in graphic, representational ways that are easy for the reader to understand. The report will note the time, date, place, contributing factors like weather, and identification information for the drivers involved in an automobile accident. While there is no universal format for a report, there is a common order to the information.
Your MySpace and Facebook pages are also often accessible to the public, so never post anything you wouldna€™t want your employer (current or future) to read, see, or hear. There will plenty of time later to clarify what you prefer to be called, but all your application documents, including those that relate to payroll, your social security number, drug screenings, background checks, fingerprint records, transcripts, certificates or degrees, should feature your legal name.
This document represents you in your absence, and if information is false, at a minimum you could lose your job.


Use the one-page format to put your best foot forward, remembering that you may never get a second chance to make a good first impression. Simple, clear fonts that demonstrate no points at which letters may appear to overlap will increase the probability of the computer getting it right the first time. If you are self-employed, however, you will have to pay both halves yourself, since you are essentially both employer and employee. The mandible remains as a movable jaw bone and forms the only movable joint in the skull with the temporal bone. If the person is a one-hander, and knows all the abbreviations common to texting, you may be able to use similar codes to communicate effectively. Rumors change and transform as they are passed from person to person, and before you know it, the word is that they are shutting down your entire department. The company president noted that if everyone supported the company with purchases, it would benefit all.Lewis, L.
If this is not the case with your letter, but you are unsure of how to address your recipient, make every effort to find out to whom the letter should be specifically addressed. It is usually courteous to conclude by thanking the recipient for his or her attention, and to invite them to contact you if you can be of help or if they have questions.
Janitorial services may also be bid on each year, as well as food services, and even maintenance.
By association, if your organization is credible the product or service is often thought to be more credible.
Unsolicited proposals are often regarded as marketing materials, intended more to stimulate interest for a follow-up contact than make direct sales.
The function may also contribute to parameters like report length (page or word count) or word choice and readability. Each element supports the main purpose or function in its own way, playing an important role in the representation and transmission of information.
In order for the computer to do this, you have to consider your audiencea€”a computer program that will not be able to interpret your unusual font or odd word choice. The bones of the superior portion of the skull are known as the cranium and protect the brain from damage.
They are often printed on letterhead paper, and represent the business or organization in one or two pages. For many, there is no sweeter sound than that of their name, and to spell it incorrectly runs the risk of alienating the reader before your letter has even been read. This paragraph reiterates the main points and their relationship to each other, reinforcing the main point or purpose. Using the power of bidding to lower contract costs for goods and services is common practice.
If the purchase decision is made solely on price, it may leave you little room to underscore the value of service, but the sale follow-through has value. Your thorough understanding, and your demonstration of that understanding, communicates dedication and interest.
If the document is submitted in an electronic form, it should be in a file format that presents your document as you intended. Sue Baugh and Robert Hamper encourage you to resist the temptation to a€?shoot at every target and hope you hit at least one.a€?Baugh, L. Sometimes they simply a€?report the factsa€? with no analysis at all, but still need to communicate the information in a clear and concise format. A font size of eleven or twelve is easier to read for most people, and while the computer doesna€™t care about font size, the smaller your font, the more likely the computer is to make the error of combining adjacent letters.
The bones of the inferior and anterior portion of the skull are known as facial bones and support the eyes, nose, and mouth. Texting can be a great tool for connecting while on the go, but consider your audience and your company, and choose words, terms, or abbreviations that will deliver your message. E-mail can be very useful for messages that have slightly more content than a text message, but it is still best used for fairly brief messages. Shorter messages may include e-mails or memos, either hard copy or electronic, while reports tend to be three or more pages in length. Avoid the use of impersonal salutations like a€?Dear Prospective Customer,a€? as the lack of personalization can alienate a future client.
Word processing files may have their formatting changed or adjusted based on factors you cannot controla€”like screen sizea€”and information can shift out of place, making it difficult to understand. Instead, you would see a€?Driver failed sobriety tests and breathalyzer test and was transported to the station for a blood sample.a€? The police officer is not a trained medical doctor and is therefore not licensed to make definitive diagnoses, but can collect and present relevant information that may contribute to that diagnosis.
Hyoid and Auditory OssiclesThe hyoid is a small, U-shaped bone found just inferior to the mandible. In this case, a portable document format (PDF)a€”a format for electronic documentsa€”may be used to preserve content location and avoid any inadvertent format changes when it is displayed.
While a report may have conclusions, propositions, or even a call to action, the demonstration of the analysis is the primary function.
You dona€™t want to be represented by spelling or grammatical errors, as they may raise questions about your education and attention to detail. The hyoid is the only bone in the body that does not form a joint with any other bone—it is a floating bone. In addition, your proposal may focus on a common product where you can anticipate several vendors at similar prices. The hyoid’s function is to help hold the trachea open and to form a bony connection for the tongue muscles. How can you differentiate yourself from the rest by underscoring long-term relationships, demonstrated ability to deliver, or the ability to anticipate the companya€™s needs?
Clear and concise proposals serve the audience well and limit the range of information to prevent confusion. It is, however, supposed to report sales to date, and may forecast future sales based on previous trends.
Found in a small cavity inside of the temporal bone, they serve to transmit and amplify sound from the eardrum to the inner ear. A targeted proposal is your most effective approach, but recognize the importance of gaining company, service, or brand awareness as well as its limitations.
For example, the most superior thoracic vertebra is called T1 and the most inferior is called T12. Ribs and SternumThe sternum, or breastbone, is a thin, knife-shaped bone located along the midline of the anterior side of the thoracic region of the skeleton. There are 12 pairs of ribs that together with the sternum form the ribcage of the thoracic region. Pectoral Girdle and Upper LimbThe pectoral girdle connects the upper limb (arm) bones to the axial skeleton and consists of the left and right clavicles and left and right scapulae. It forms the ball and socket joint of the shoulder with the scapula and forms the elbow joint with the lower arm bones. The ulna is on the medial side of the forearm and forms a hinge joint with the humerus at the elbow. The lower arm bones form the wrist joint with the carpals, a group of eight small bones that give added flexibility to the wrist.
The carpals are connected to the five metacarpals that form the bones of the hand and connect to each of the fingers. Each finger has three bones known as phalanges, except for the thumb, which only has two phalanges. Pelvic Girdle and Lower LimbFormed by the left and right hip bones, the pelvic girdle connects the lower limb (leg) bones to the axial skeleton.
The femur forms the ball and socket hip joint with the hip bone and forms the knee joint with the tibia and patella. Commonly called the kneecap, the patella is special because it is one of the few bones that are not present at birth. Irregular bones have a shape that does not fit the pattern of the long, short, or flat bones.
Sesamoid bones grow to protect the tendon from stresses and strains at the joint and can help to give a mechanical advantage to muscles pulling on the tendon. The patella and the pisiform bone of the carpals are the only sesamoid bones that are counted as part of the 206 bones of the body. Other sesamoid bones can form in the joints of the hands and feet, but are not present in all people. Parts of BonesThe long bones of the body contain many distinct regions due to the way in which they develop.
At birth, each long bone is made of three individual bones separated by hyaline cartilage. Each end bone is called an epiphysis (epi = on; physis = to grow) while the middle bone is called a diaphysis (dia = passing through).
The region of growth and eventual fusion in between the epiphysis and diaphysis is called the metaphysis (meta = after). Once the long bone parts have fused together, the only hyaline cartilage left in the bone is found as articular cartilage on the ends of the bone that form joints with other bones. The articular cartilage acts as a shock absorber and gliding surface between the bones to facilitate movement at the joint. Looking at a bone in cross section, there are several distinct layered regions that make up a bone. The outside of a bone is covered in a thin layer of dense irregular connective tissue called the periosteum. The periosteum contains many strong collagen fibers that are used to firmly anchor tendons and muscles to the bone for movement.
The periosteum also contains nervous tissue and many nerve endings to give bone its sensitivity to pain when injured. Deep to the periosteum is the compact bone that makes up the hard, mineralized portion of the bone. Compact bone is made of a matrix of hard mineral salts reinforced with tough collagen fibers. Many tiny cells called osteocytes live in small spaces in the matrix and help to maintain the strength and integrity of the compact bone. Deep to the compact bone layer is a region of spongy bone where the bone tissue grows in thin columns called trabeculae with spaces for red bone marrow in between. The trabeculae grow in a specific pattern to resist outside stresses with the least amount of mass possible, keeping bones light but strong. Long bones have a spongy bone on their ends but have a hollow medullary cavity in the middle of the diaphysis.
The medullary cavity contains red bone marrow during childhood, eventually turning into yellow bone marrow after puberty. ArticulationsAn articulation, or joint, is a point of contact between bones, between a bone and cartilage, or between a bone and a tooth. Synovial joints are the most common type of articulation and feature a small gap between the bones.
This gap allows a free range of motion and space for synovial fluid to lubricate the joint. Fibrous joints exist where bones are very tightly joined and offer little to no movement between the bones.
Finally, cartilaginous joints are formed where bone meets cartilage or where there is a layer of cartilage between two bones. These joints provide a small amount of flexibility in the joint due to the gel-like consistency of cartilage.
Skeletal System Physiology Support and ProtectionThe skeletal system’s primary function is to form a solid framework that supports and protects the body's organs and anchors the skeletal muscles.
The bones of the appendicular skeleton provide support and flexibility at the joints and anchor the muscles that move the limbs.
MovementThe bones of the skeletal system act as attachment points for the skeletal muscles of the body. Almost every skeletal muscle works by pulling two or more bones either closer together or further apart. The regions of each bone where muscles attach to the bone grow larger and stronger to support the additional force of the muscle. The amount of red bone marrow drops off at the end of puberty, replaced by yellow bone marrow. StorageThe skeletal system stores many different types of essential substances to facilitate growth and repair of the body. The skeletal system’s cell matrix acts as our calcium bank by storing and releasing calcium ions into the blood as needed. Proper levels of calcium ions in the blood are essential to the proper function of the nervous and muscular systems. Bone cells also release osteocalcin, a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar and fat deposition. The yellow bone marrow inside of our hollow long bones is used to store energy in the form of lipids. Finally, red bone marrow stores some iron in the form of the molecule ferritin and uses this iron to form hemoglobin in red blood cells.
Growth and DevelopmentThe skeleton begins to form early in fetal development as a flexible skeleton made of hyaline cartilage and dense irregular fibrous connective tissue.
These tissues act as a soft, growing framework and placeholder for the bony skeleton that will replace them.
As development progresses, blood vessels begin to grow into the soft fetal skeleton, bringing stem cells and nutrients for bone growth. Osseous tissue slowly replaces the cartilage and fibrous tissue in a process called calcification.
The calcified areas spread out from their blood vessels replacing the old tissues until they reach the border of another bony area.
At birth, the skeleton of a newborn has more than 300 bones; as a person ages, these bones grow together and fuse into larger bones, leaving adults with only 206 bones. Flat bones follow the process of intramembranous ossification where the young bones grow from a primary ossification center in fibrous membranes and leave a small region of fibrous tissue in between each other. In the skull these soft spots are known as fontanels, and give the skull flexibility and room for the bones to grow. Bone slowly replaces the fontanels until the individual bones of the skull fuse together to form a rigid adult skull.
Long bones follow the process of endochondral ossification where the diaphysis grows inside of cartilage from a primary ossification center until it forms most of the bone. As we grow through childhood, the growth plates grow under the influence of growth and sex hormones, slowly separating the bones. This process continues until the end of puberty, when the growth plate stops growing and the bones fuse permanently into a single bone.
The vast difference in height and limb length between birth and adulthood are mainly the result of endochondral ossification in the long bones.



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