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The last part of the IPv4 Address (17) is the host address and hosts, from our previous reading, are typically defined inside a zone file so we will ignore it and only use the Class C address base. Finally, we construct a zone file to describe all the hosts (nodes) in the Reverse Mapped zone using PTR Records.
We must use qualified names ending with a dot (in fact they are Fully Qualified Domain Names - FQDNs) with the PTR target (left-hand) name in reverse mapped zone files because if we did not our $ORIGIN directive would lead to some strange results. If a reverse-map file is not included in our DNS configuration then, as normal, the query will pass to the DNS hierarchy. Classless Reverse Map Delegation is defined by RFC 2317 which has Best Current Practice status and should be regarded as a definitive reference. The technique defined in RFC 2317 provides for such delegation to take place using CNAME Resource Records (rather than the more normal PTR Resource Records) in an expanded IN-ADDR.ARPA name space.
The IPv4 Reverse Map Generator can be used to generate all the necessary RRs or even just let you experiment with various delegation scenarios. Note: RFC 2317 uses the CNAME RR to implement the solution as shown in the following zone file fragments.
Now you have to change your reverse map zone names in the named.conf file to reflect the above change. The above configuration, prior to full delegation from the parent or is test mode, cannot use the normal dig command. Instead it will continue to show the result prior to the configuration change because the dig is following the official .arpa delegation route.
Unlike IPv4, where reverse mapping is frequently not delegated to the end user, IPv6 allows and encourages delegated reverse mapping. Use the IPv6 Calculator to expand IPv6 addresses and automatically generate the reverse zone name. IPv6 reverse zone names (and skeleton reverse zone files) may be generated using the IPv6 address tool. The DNAME RR may have a limited role to play in reducing files sizes in IPv6 reverse name mapping. Note: Any address not defined in either of the above zone files will, as normal, generate an NXDOMAIN (name error) response.
In the case of an IPv6 end-user delegation, the normal expectation of IPv6 is that any address that is forward mapped using an AAAA (colloquially a Quad A) RR is also reverse mapped using a PTR RR. In many cases IPv6 addresses are configured using SLAAC (StateLess Address Auto Configuration) or DHCPv6 and therefore may not be known other than by manual inspection.
Note: While it is possible to use a DNS wildcard to at least provide some generic answer to the reverse-mapping problem the equivalent wildcard forward-mapping possibility does not exist. This tool uses local javascript to perform some simple manipulation of IPv4 and IPv6 prefix (or slash) notation addresses, reverse addresses, skeleton reverse map zone file generation, and a reverse map delegation zone file (as described here). The IPv4 Reverse Zone Generator can also be used to generate a delegated reverse map zone file and the corresponding CNAME or DNAME RRs for the delegater's reverse file (the reverse file at the ISP or whatever organization is delegating the reverse map). Validation or other errors will appear in Reverse Zone or IPv4 Netmask: in neither case for very good reasons. Reverse zone files can get very big, very quickly, however, to prevent unintentional errors the calculator always prompts when more than 4096 entries will appear in the reverse zone. To create a zone file, simply copy the contents of Reverse File: to the clipboard and paste into any suitable text editor, make any required changes (you may want to review the $TTL value and the SOA serial number) and save to an appropriately named file.
Where a trailing dot is essential for an FQDN (Domain Label:)the calculator will silently add it, if required, to ensure a viable zone is created. Validation or other errors will appear in Reverse Zone or IPv6 Netmask: in neither case for very good reasons. Reverse zone files can get very big, very quickly, however, to prevent unintentional errors the calculator always prompts when more than 4096 entries will appear in the reverse zone and will flat out refuse to generate zone files with more that 65536 entries in order to save your PC, your browser and your life - in that order of importance.
Managing your reverse DNS (rDNS) is now possible since this new feature has just been added to your Control Center. For customers unfamiliar with reverse DNS, Reverse DNS works by starting with an IP address, and checking records to see if it points towards a domain.
You will be able to add, delete or view the reverse DNS for all IPs that you have on each of your servers.
In mean time authoritative server will give the answer to TLD and TLD will pass to root server and root will provide the info to browser, hence the browser will cache the DNS request for future use. For this article, I’m using 3 machines, 2 for server setup (master and slave) and 1 for client. First, verify the IP address, Hostname and Distribution version of Master DNS Server, before moving forward for setup.
Once, you confirm that the above settings are correct, its time to move forward to install required packages.

Slave DNS – Define your Slave DNS, which is used to sync our zone information to resolve the hosts from Master. We use sample configuration files for creating forward zone files, for this we’ve to copy the sample configuration files.
Once, you’ve copied configuration files, now edit these zones files using vim editor.
Before defining our host information in forward zone file, first have a quick look at the sample zone file. This is my forward zone configuration, append the below entry and make changes as per your need. Before defining our host information in reverse zone file, have a quick look of sample reverse lookup file as shown below. This is my reverse zone configuration, append the below entry and make changes as your need. Check the group ownership of forward look-up & reverse look-up files, before checking for any errors in configuration. By default iptables was running and our DNS server is restricted to localhost, if client wants to resolve name from our DNS Server, then we have to allow the inbound request, for that we need to add iptables inbound rule for the port 53. Finally, test the configured Master DNS zone files (forward and reverse), using dig & nslookup tools.
In Slave machine, also we need to install same bind packages as shown in Master, so let’s install them using following command. After restarting the bind service, we don’t have to define the zone information individually, as our allow-transfer will replicate the zone information from master server as shown in the image below. Status – Status was NO ERROR, that means which query request sent by us was successful without any ERROR. Finally, setup completed, here we have configured both Primary (Master) and Slave (Seconday) DNS server successfully, hope everyone have setup-ed without any issue, feel free to drop a comment if you face any issue while setup. I'm Working as a System Administrator for last 10 year's with 4 years experience with Linux Distributions, fall in love with text based operating systems.
We write a normal domain name LEFT to RIGHT but the hierarchical structure is RIGHT to LEFT. In this case the most important part (the highest node in the address hierarchy) is on the LEFT (192) not the RIGHT.
In the case where local IP addreses are globally routable (increasingly rare) an ISP or service provider may be responsible for maintaining the reverse map in which case such reverse-map queries must access the DNS hierarchy. Classless routing allows allocation of sub-nets on non-octet boundaries, that is, less that 256 addresses from a Class C address may be allocated and routed.
This process is independent of the ISP or other authority that allocated the IP name space.
If changes are not made at the ISP or issuing Authority, or have not yet propagated, then this configuration will generate 'nslookup' and 'dig' errors or incorrect results. IPv6 reverse mapping uses the normal principle of reversing the address and placing the result, in the case of IPv6, under the domain IP6.ARPA. The constructed domain name, however, does not have to reflect the address segmentation between the global routing prefix and the end-user part of the address as shown in the preceding example. In the case of IPv6 reverse-mapping (and forward-mapping) may not be a simple process as discussed in the next section. Methods involving DHCPv6 may be configured to provide Dynamic DNS (DDNS) updates to the forward and reverse-mapped zones though in the case of very large networks even this can be problematic due to the potentially large number of hosts involved. These changes can only be mapped using DDNS since they are by nature both dynamic and transient. It is worth noting however, that as with the equivalent IPv4 addresses, the only current applications which are known to use reverse mapping consistently are mail systems. The first part is essentially a simple IPv4 calculator and is invoked using the IPv4 Info button.
BIND is completely agnostic about line ends (CR+LF or LF) so notepad on windows, for example, will generate a useable zone file. The first part is essentially a simple IPv6 calculator and is invoked using the IPv6 Info button. The default initial sequence number is 0 appended to the Host Label: however, this value may be changed by adding a value in Host No. Unlike the regular DNS system which will allow multiple domains to be served from a single domain, the rDNS system only allows one IP per domain. It is important to note that this feature is available for Smart Servers, Classic and Cloud customers. Master DNS servers (Primary Server) are the original zone data handlers and Slave DNS server (Secondary Server) are just a backup servers which is used to copy the same zone information’s from the master servers.

Here we need to create the zone files in the name of what we have define in the named.conf file as below. After editing the forward look-up, it looks like below, Use TAB to get a decent format in zone file. After editing the reverse look-up, it looks like below, Use TAB to get a decent format in zone file. Sometimes this is required for diagnostic purposes, more frequently these days it is used for security purposes to trace a hacker or spammer.
As with all things when we understand what is being done and why - all becomes as clear as mud. This is a tad awkward and would make it impossible to construct a sensible tree structure that could be searched in a single lifetime. If the addresses were to change then the owner of the domain that maps these addresses would be able to make the necessary changes directly with either the relevant registrar i.e. The key difference from the IPv4 IN-ADDR.ARPA domain (described previously) is that a nibble is the unit of delegation. However, RFC 4941 also notes that a DNS entry defeats the object of privacy and instead recommends to either not register in the forward or reverse map, or to used some randomized host name if forced to do so by operational needs (some security systems do a reverse DNS lookup and reject failures). Thus, steps should be taken to ensure that, at least, these hosts have a valid IPv6 reverse-map. The second part will generate a skeleton IPv4 reverse mapping file using the data supplied in the first part. In addition, the Delegation RRs (CNAME or DNAME) that should be added to the ISP's (or delegater's) reverse map file, as described in IPv4 Reverse Map Delegation, are generated in Delegation RRs:.
If the tester does not work for you we are very, very sad - but yell at your browser supplier not us. The second part will generate a skeleton IPv6 reverse map file using the data supplied in the first part. Master Server will resolve the names for every hosts which we defined in the zone database and use UDP protocol, because UDP protocols never use the acknowledgement process while tcp uses acknowledgement. Hmm that’s all we know, but the fact is, how pain DNS go through it, while querying for us. Indeed, most modern mailing systems use reverse mapping to provide simple, first-cut, authentication using a dual look-up process - IP to name and name to IP.
In such configurations it is imperative that a reverse-map covering the range of private IP addresses be included in the local DNS configuration.
Enter the name of the second NS server (a unqualified name or a FQDN) for this zone in NS 2: (for externally visible domains this is required, for private domains this is not essential, but is usually present through habit or for resilience). These RRs can be copied and pasted directly into the appropriate place in the reverse zone file and do not include any ancilliary RRs (such as SOA, NS etc.).
However, if you do think you have found an error, or want to suggest improvements, please take the time to email using the link at the foot of this page.
IPv4 reverse mapping is not mandatory though, as indicated by the mail example, it is essential for hosts that send mail, using either a Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) or a Mail User Agent (MUA). Failure to do so may cause local applications to fail or give strange results (none of them good) because the reverse-map request will be responded to by the DNS hierarchy where such private addresses are meaningless. Each byte (or octet) is comprised of 8 bits; a nibble is part of a byte and consists of 4 bits.
In the case of IPv6 reverse-mapping was originally mandatory but as part of the seemingly relentless move to relax the goals of the original specifications (doubtless for good operational reasons) it is no longer a mandatory requirement. In order to limit the negative effect of such mis-configuration BIND introduced the empty-zones-enable statement which defaults to a state that will minimise damage to the DNS hierarchy.
Edit the $ORIGIN statement in the resulting Reverse File: to reflect that defined in the appropriate DNAME RR. However, BIND's default option does not solve the problem for local applications which may depend upon correct local results from a reverse-map query.
Enter the name of the second NS server for this zone in NS 2: (for externally visible domains this is required, for private domains this is not essential, but is usually present through habit or for resilience). It is, and remains, a serious mis-configuration of DNS to not include a reverse-may for all local (RFC 1918) addresses.
Click the Generate IPv4 Reverse Zone to activate and the results will appear in Reverse Zone. Click the Generate IPv6 Reverse Zone to activate and the results will appear in Reverse Zone.

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