Nature is full of pictures, and they are to be found in what appears to the uninitiated the most unlikely places. ON A SUNNY JUNE MORNING in 1903, Lily White ventured beyond the comfort of her new houseboat, the Raysark, anchored in a snug harbor on the Columbia River near Lyle, Washington.1 With stray hairs blowing about her face, she sped away in a small gasoline-powered launch for the ten-mile crossing to The Dalles, on the Oregon side of the river, in search of a boat mechanic. Refitting the pipe joints this time with greater difficulty in the dark, and replacing the needle valve, I tried to start the engine. WHILE THE FAMILY STORIES of Lily White and Sarah Ladd have little in common, their lives intertwined in a friendship that lasted throughout their adult years. WHEN THE FIFTH ANNUAL Oregon Camera Club exhibit opened on October 30, 1899, at the club's rooms on the second floor of the Oregonian building, three hundred photographs a€” arranged alphabetically and lit by electric lights a€” hung on a background of green burlap, surrounded by wood ferns, draperies, and banners of the stars and stripes. Art, love of the beautiful, ambitions to excel has raised the standard of the Camera Club's work high among amateurs. Included in Ladd's six displayed prints were A Japanese Phantasy, Silent the Phantom Wood by Waters Deep, a bucolic forest scene, and Youth and Old Age, an image portraying a butterfly amid the opened seedpods of an aging plant. TOWARD THE END of the nineteenth century, photographic salons, where a rigorous jurying process approved only the most artistic work, appeared in Europe and the United States.
IN THE SPRING OF 1903, White's custom-built houseboat, the Raysark, was towed up the Columbia River rapids by the steamer Regulator, and White and her friends were now free to explore the bays and inlets of the upper river.
White and Ladd intended to photograph their surroundings and develop and print the results in the Raysark's darkroom. BEGINNING IN JANUARY 1905, as entrepreneurs focused on promoting Oregon and the Lewis and Clark Exposition in Portland, Ladd's and White's photographs of the Columbia River Gorge began appearing in the Pacific Monthly, a magazine owned and published by Ladd's husband Charles. Ladd's images included a cloud-shrouded Mount Hood and photographs titled Celilo Falls, Morning Mists, St.
It was a romantic, visual tour to entice people to experience the basalt ledges and peaks of the Gorge and the serenity of the river. FEW ARTISTIC PHOTOGRAPHERS of this era were able to devote themselves fulltime to making photographs. Sarah Ladd, A Fish Wheel is Shown at the right Extending from an Island near the Middle of the river. SARAH LADD WAS FIFTY-EIGHT years old when her husband died on March 20, 1920, at age sixty-three.
I wish to thank Terry Toedtemeier for introducing me to the work of Lily White and Sarah Ladd and also Wayne Travillion, Lily White's grandnephew, for his generosity in providing information about White's family background.
Content in the History Cooperative database is intended for personal, noncommercial use only. Our story for this Buck family begins with the marriage of Davida€™s parents, Thomas Buck and Elizabeth Scott, on 4 May 1738 in Glastonbury, Connecticut [see Glastonbury Vital Records by Barbour, available on the Internet.] The record of this marriage does not provide any additional information about the ancestry of Thomas Buck, but it does tell us that Elizabeth was the daughter of Thomas Scott.
We know that these were the parents of our David Buck as his daughter, Elizabeth Buck Garlick (who we will frequently refer to as a€?EBGa€?) left a record in 1841 (in Nauvoo, Illinois) and again in 1872 (in Salt Lake City in the Endowment House). Following their wedding in 1738, Thomas and Elizabeth Buck completely disappear from the local records. Fortunately their grand-daughter, Elizabeth Buck Garlick (EBG), lived long enough to be listed in the 1880 US Federal census for Springville, Utah.
The birth-dates are unknown for several of these children, but since there was such a large gap between Thomas, Jr. There was also a John Buck and a Joseph Buck who were closely associated with this family in Bedford County, but we have no document that establishes their relationship to the rest of this family.
With all of the above as foundation for our story we will now present the documented history for our David Buck, Sr. The very first item we can find for our Bucks in Bedford County is in the 1775 tax list where a Thomas Buck was listed as paying 7 pounds, 6, as a resident of Colerain Township in Bedford Co., PA. In the next yeara€™s tax recorda€”1776, we again find Thomas Buck, along with Jonathan Buck listed in Colerain Township of Bedford County.
We have no tax records for 1777 & 1778, but in 1779 there was no Thomas Buck in Colerain Township. In 1780 we still find David Buck and John Buck paying taxes in Colerain Twp., and Davida€™s brother, Thomas Buck, Jr. The 6th Company, 1st Battalion of the PA militia was formed from the men of Providence Township in 1781, with George Enslow as Captain. We do not know any details about Davida€™s military service but we do know there were many British inspired Indian-attacks within the county where settlers were killed and their homes burned. By 1784 both David and Jonathan were located in Providence Township in Bedford Co., PA, and their brother Thomas was still in Hopewell, just a few miles north of Providence. In 1789 Jonathan Buck sold his land in Providence Township and moved to the western side of the County, and from there (in 1793) he moved to Tennessee.
Note that most of the purchases above naming Thomas Buck were surely for the Captain Thomas Buck of Hopewell Twp., the brother of our David, Sr. David Buck, land deeded to him by Benjamin Ferguson and Zilah, his wife, for 45 pounds, that tract of land called Oxford Situate on the waters of Brush Creek also running by the land of Thomas Buck, Esq. Thomas Buck and wife Margaret, sold to George Myers, land in Providence Twp being rented by William Conners for $2,400., on Brush Creek joining John Allisona€™s survey and running by David Bucka€™s property. This is a very interesting entry as we know that the Captain, Thomas Buck (brother of our David Sr.) was the man who was married to Mrs.
Before we continue with the Buck family, we need to take a sideways step to briefly discuss the Cashman family, as that brings in the wife of David Buck, Sr. This family lived for many years in Berks County, PA, and then in York Co., PA, before moving to Washington County, Maryland in 1777. We should mention here that by this time the old Germanic family name had seen a number of changes that show up in many of the documents. Martina€™s oldest daughter, Catherine grew up in Pennsylvania and moved with her parents to Maryland when she was about 25 years old.
David returned to his farm in Bedford County, PA with a new wife and four little step-children. While we are talking about close family members showing up in the temple records, there is one more that we should discuss at this point. The 1800 federal census is also a bit bewildering (but then census records are not known for their accuracy). This entry make sense if there was only one Bumgardner boy still living in Davida€™s home and if he was between the ages of 10-16a€”which would be about right.
In 1808 there was another tax list which shows David with 247 acres in Providence Twp, with 1 horse and 2 cows. His oldest son, Thomas, was already married and had been out of the house for about seven years before his father died. We dona€™t know how long Catherine Cashman Buck lived after the death of her husband but it appears she was still alive during the 1820 census as discussed above.
The oldest child of our David Buck and Catherine Cashman (after her Bumgardner children) was Thomas Buck. Very nearby lived the family of Michael Blue, who had a daughter, Elizabeth Blue, born 30 March 1788, in Providence Twp, making her just about two years older than Thomas. Shortly after the birth of their youngest child the family moved to Van Buren, Pulaski Co., Indiana, where they were living in the 1860 census, and where Thomas died on 27 Feb.
A number of local residents joined the Church at that same time which resulted in a backlash of hard feelings and persecution ensued, inducing many of them to sell their homes and move to Nauvoo, Illinois where the a€?Saintsa€? were gathering.
With the other Saints, the Garlicks were forced to evacuate Nauvoo in 1846 and make their way across the state of Iowa to Council Bluffs.
We are not sure when Susannah was born, but her fathera€™s will makes it clear that she was younger than Elizabeth (who was born in 1795a€”according to her own record) and older than Mary, who was born in 1800 (as found in several census records). 50 years old (making him about 12-13 years younger than Susannah, and his wife, a€?Susana€? was five years younger than Solomona€”born about 1815. Whether Susannah died young, or married and changed her last name, is unknown to us at this time.
With a large gap between the first two children there could, and probably were, other children unknown to us at this time. In the 1870 census we do find David Jr.a€™s daughter, Catherine Buck living in Providence with her Aunt Mary Buck (both of her parents had died prior to that year). After the birth of this last child the family moved to Columbus, Franklin Co., Ohio where we find them in the 1880 censusa€”except for their son, George, who would have been 13 in that census but does not appear with the family at that time. This Jonathan Buck remained close to his extended family and traveled back and forth between Pennsylvania and Ohio on various occasions. Note that this particular record does not say that Sarah was the daughter of Mary, but we learn that later on. In the Ancestral File (LDS FHC) Mary has been sealed numerous times to a man by the name of Amos Jones. In the 1860 census, we find Saraha€™s mother, Mary Buck, living with her son-in-law and his two little girlsa€”Marya€™s grand-daughters.
Within the next decade (per the 1870 census) Jacob Foore had remarried and begun an additional family, so Mary moved into a home of her own and also took in her niece, Catherine Buck, with her little daughter, Amanda, who we have discussed above. This concludes the presentation of the documented life of David Buck, Sr., his wife, Catherine Cashman, and their family.
Aunt Mary Buck is well, Catharine too, neather one of them lives with me now since last spring. Yours truly, write to me again and tell me all the news and I will give you all the news then. It is with pleasure that I drop you a few lines to inform you we are all well at the present time and hope and trust these few lines may find you the same. I must tell you where we live, we live near Gapsvill and I thought I would write a few lines to you all. Times is very dull here now all though there is plenty of everything but fruit, there is none at tale, only what is shipped here. I can't tell how Aunt or Catharine is gitting along for I have not had a letter from either one for five months or more, I can't tell why it is as I have written to both of them and got no answer.
One of my boys married a girl here and they have gone to keeping house here, so if my letter does not come to hand in time he can lift it and remail. I am boarding, I don't keep house anymore and I received your picture and I thought I had thanked you for it in my letter long ago, if not I am very much obliged to you for it. I did not see Dasey Garlick when I was East, she was away from home the day I went to see her and I had so many places t go I did not get around again. I seen Telitha (Catharine) Garlick two but only to speak to her as met her on the road one day she is married to Wesley Clark, one of Elias Clark's boys. It appears that there is going to be plenty work to do this summer, lots of large buildings to go up this summer. Temple there was completed, an Endowment House was erected in which sacred ordinances could be performed. The a€?Joseph Garlica€? listed as a€?heira€? and proxy for the males above, was EBGa€™s son. Abigail Jones 2nd cousin {Daughter of Capt. Thomas Buck nephew {EBGa€™s brother, Thomas, md. David Buck nephew {EBGa€™s brother, David, Jr. John Buck cousin {Son Thomas Buck & ELiz. If someone handed you a magic wand and said, a€?We have really failed in the way the government of the United States of America operates and we are now empowering you to make any changes you desire to make this government operate more efficiently and better,a€? what major changes, if any, would you make?
Historically people who climbed to the top have chosen two ways, basically, to govern others -- with some form of absolutism or constitutionalism.
However, the individual, although created to live individually and freely, is always subject to law, and true freedom is always exercised only as one lives obediently under law.
In the 17th century crisis and the need for rebuilding after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War led to the push for absolutism.
And so, after the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) religious identity and commitment led to a new sense of nationalism based upon a nationa€™s major religious beliefs. This was the case also in Germany, even though the Treaty of Westphalia had set back the formation of a unified state in Germany. Monarchies developed throughout Europe, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, over vast empires.
Obstacles to Nation Building: Building a centralized government in most a€?nationsa€? (the word was not yet coined nor widely comprehended) was faced with numerous obstacles, not the least of which was the fact that in most countries people spoke numerous dialects, making nation-wide communication very difficult. Absolute rulers overcame these obstacles by building armies, bureaucracies, and using the force of the army to mold the people into one body.
Frequent wars and the cost of maintaining large armies: Large armies were needed to impose the monarcha€™s will and to expand the borders.
Popular Uprisings: As food shortages and taxes increased, and frequent wars created havoc, poverty, and death, people began to revolt.
In attempting to deal with these problems, monarchs turned to either absolutism or constitutionalism to form effective governments.
Government functions are guided by the dictates of the ruler and his or her lieutenants and not by established law. The rules or laws are applied arbitrarily and seldom apply to those at the top, especially the monarch or emperor.
Problem solving is by issuing edicts and pronouncements, by creating more administrators, creating a larger bureaucracy, and levying heavier taxes on the people to pay for the expenses of the absolute ruler(s). Those governed have little participation in government, little input into law-making (unless through protests and demonstrations), and have to simply yield and be satisfied with what is handed to them from the absolute ruler and the top.
Constitutionalism or Peoplea€™s Law is a form of government that acknowledges that certain inalienable rights are possessed by both those who govern and by those who are governed. Peoplea€™s Law was introduced into England by Alfred the Great in the late 9th century A.D. In Peoplea€™s Law or Constitutionalism all power is contained within the Constitution, a written contract that all people agree to embrace and to live cooperatively under, either in a monarchy or in a republic. All functions of government are from the people upward through their elected representatives. Government control is exercised through written laws which have their basis in the written constitution.
Government functions as a process guided by established law, which reflects the will of the people and applies to everyone, even to those who govern.
Transferring power is carried out by either heredity (in a monarchy or empire) or by popular vote (in a republic), with a peaceful transition from one ruler or set of elected representatives to another.
The people are viewed as the foundation of the government, those with the power to elect to office the representatives of their choosing and if in a monarchy the ruler remains enthroned at the will of the people. All citizens have the right to participate in voting, no matter their social and economic class (although admittedly it took some nations a long time to grant suffrage to all adults, whether male or female, and whether property owners or not!).
The land is viewed as the property of the people collectively, who exercise their inalienable right to own personal property and to use their personal property as they see fit.
The processes of government are for the most part carried out by the representatives who have been chosen by the people to represent their best interests and to preserve and uphold the Constitution.
Problem solving is carried out by elected representatives and officials appointed by those elected representatives. When a problem occurs or a major issue must be decided, the will of the people is protected by a Constitution and requires that they be allowed to express that will through special votes or referendums.
Those governed are given every opportunity for upward mobility through personal initiative and hard work. Another major issue that separates absolutism from constitutionalism is this: are individual rights a€?awardeda€? by a ruler or are they possessed innately as a person created in Goda€™s image? Under Absolutism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as a€?rewardsa€? that the ruler gives out to whomever he or she arbitrarily selects.
Under Constitutionalism individual rights and freedoms are viewed as innate possessions of all people. After the religious wars in France, which pitted Catholics against Huguenots, Henry IV (1553-1610) took the French throne after the death of Henry III, and demonstrated to the French that a strong central government offered many advantages.
In 1572, as Duke of Navarre, Henry married a Catholic princess, Margaret of Valois, daughter of King Francis I and Catherine de Medici. When Margareta€™s brother, King Henry III, was assassinated in 1589, Henry, now king of Navarre, was by heredity next in line to become king of France. Henry IV was the first in the line of the Bourbon kings of France, which included Louis XIII, Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI, Louis XVIII (wea€™ll find out in a later unit what happened to Louis XVII), and Charles X. With the ascension to the throne of Louis XIII upon the death of Henry IV in 1610, the Bourbon kings practiced an absolutism balanced with a precarious arrangement with the French nobility. Now as king of France, Henry IV, with strong Calvinist ties through his mother, Jeanne, Queen of Navarre, took the important step of proclaiming the Edict of Nantes in 1598, almost as a statement, a€?Ia€™ve become a Catholic in order to rule as king but Ia€™ll grant freedom to my Huguenot friends, now that I have the power to do so.a€? The Edict of Nantes granted religious liberty to the Huguenots. Richelieu championed the concept of absolutism in government and is known as the Father of Absolutism. Using new and expanded powers under the regency of Richelieu the central government took the eyes of the people off of problems at home (hunger, inflation, an unresponsive and a€?distanta€? government) by expanding war against the Habsburgs in Austria and Germany, foes who Cardinal Richelieu hated.
Later, when Louis XIV attempted to bypass the unwritten agreement and impose taxes on the nobility to support his many war efforts, the nobility rose up in protest, maintained their traditional right to not be taxed, and forced the king to back down. Louis XIV held firm to a belief in the doctrine of the divine rights of kings, as did his father, Louis XIII. He also ended religious toleration and in 1685 revoked his grandfather Henrya€™s Edict of Nantes. His rationale for revoking the Edict was the earlier agreement reached at the Peace of Augsburg in 1530 which established that the religion of the ruler would be the religion of the state.
The wars of Louis XIV were based upon his belief that in order to increase Francea€™s sovereignty he needed to expand its borders, especially in areas where the people were French by language and culture. Wars were fought by the French with other European nations for more than 50% of Louis XIVa€™s reign. Louis XIV was also known as a€?the Sun Kinga€? because during his reign French culture, French dress, French architecture, and the French language enjoyed a hegemony in Europe. Colbert (1619-1683) was the Controller General of Finance under Louis XIV and believed strongly that the wealth of the state should fund the central government. Colbert believed this was crucially important to financially maintain Francea€™s military power and its European hegemony (the dominance of French language and culture throughout Europe).
In French mercantilism, the principle was also established that through a controlled economy the nation would base its financial stability on the accumulation of gold.
Under King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, Spain developed an absolute monarchy after the struggle to expel the Muslim Moors from Spain was completed in 1492. Furthermore, a strong military was necessary to preserve Spaina€™s presence in the New World, opened initially by the Spanish-sponsored journey of Christopher Columbus in 1492.
The development of their colonies and the new wealth in gold and silver in the New World further aided the absolutism in Spain.
By the beginning of the 18th century Spain was a weakened nation and never recovered to its 16th century glory. England traditionally attempted to maintain a between the power of government and the rights and participation of the people. Against this notion was the long tradition introduced by Alfred the Great at the end of the 9th century which continued to loom in the thinking of the nobility and later the House of Commons. Hence, the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism in England began after the conquest by William of Normandy, continued during the reign of his descendants, and erupted in armed conflict at a confrontation at Runnymede in 1215 when the English nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta. Elizabeth also was able to use her commitment to the Protestant faith as a national rallying point against the Catholic mainland (France, Spain, the Habsburgs). Conrad Russell points out that on several occasions the House of Commons used petitions of grace to express their ideas about very important matters. James was angered by the petition, accusing the House of Commons of getting involved in matters than were reserved only for the king -- foreign policy and marriage of the king. Finally, Jamesa€™ response, due to the inability to reach an agreement, was to dismiss Parliament. Each of his three Stuart successors used the same tactic -- if Parliament digs in their heels on an important matter, just dismiss Parliament!
These incidents are cited here simply to show how Parliament and the English monarchy interrelated.
The Stuart line created great furor in England because of their 1) increased commitment to the divine rights of kings, and 2) insistence upon absolutism.
Henry maneuvered Parliament to declare the English Church free from Rome through the Act of Supremacy of 1534. Son of Henrya€™s third wife, Jane Seymour, raised a Calvinist, aided the reformation in England, and maintained order during his brief reign.
With the coronation of James I, the Tudor line of monarchs ended and the Stuart line began.
James was totally committed to the idea of the divine right of kings and to the system of absolute rule. When James was crowned King of England, the Puritan Reformers in England thought that at last they would be given new credibility and freedom in England.
Charles succeeded his father, James, as king in 1625 and soon after married Princess Henrietta Maria, a daughter of King Henry IV of France and his wife Maria de Medici. After Parliament was called again into session in 1640, Charles was so angered on one occasion that he stormed into Parliament and attempted to arrest five members (they escaped out a back door!). By 1646 Charles knew that he would lose the war, and, rather than submitting to the English Parliament, fled to Scotland where he hoped they would provide him safety since he was the son of the former king of Scotland.
In 1648 he was tried for treason by a High Court of Justice composed of 135 judges, with a quorum for any meeting set at 20 because of the difficulty of travel.
A main charge that was after a lull in the civil war and a prospect for peace, Charles renewed the conflict which ultimately, per Geoffrey Robertson, resulted in the death of one out of every ten English citizens. In the final address given by the lead prosecutor, it was emphasized that no king is above the law, that English law proceeds from Parliament and not the king, and that he had broken the covenant with the people he governed by declaring traitorous war on them. With that act, Parliament abolished the British monarchy and under Oliver Cromwella€™s leadership, created a republic, the Commonwealth of England. Cromwella€™s contributions during his ten years of leadership in Englanda€™s only experiment with a republic, the Commonwealth, also known as the Interregnum, were (1) by military action to wrap Ireland into a three kingdom Britain, together with Scotland and England, (2) impose (unsuccessfully) the Puritan and Presbyterian ethic, held by Cromwell and the majority of Parliament, on all England (try that one in your community and see what happens!), which included, among other things, banning gambling and bawdy theater performances, (3) granting religious freedom to a new Jewish population that had entered England, and (4) raising the level of creative arts, especially opera, to new heights. After the death of Oliver Cromwell and the disintegration of the Commonwealth, Parliament restored the monarchy in 1660 and, because they were still locked into the pattern of hereditary succession, placed the son of Charles I on the throne, the dissolute and perhaps least capable and worthy man in England to serve as king, Charles II.
After the death of his father and loss of a battle against Cromwell, Charles II fled to France and remained in Europe for 9 years until the death of Cromwell. He also proclaimed a Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 granting religious freedom to Catholics and to Protestant dissenters (English Presbyterians, Baptists, and Independents who refused to practice Anglican worship).
His short four-year reign was filled with struggle and conflict with Parliament, who, looking with great anxiety at the other absolute monarchies being established in Europe, determined that such would not be the case in England. Their fears also led to the passing of the Test Act of 1673 in which all military and government officials were required to take an oath in which they renounced the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation (see Unit 17), use of relics, and to participate in the Lorda€™s Supper conducted by Anglican clergy. When James refused to take the vow, it became publicly known that while in France during the Interregnum he and his first wife had converted to Catholicism. He further angered Parliament when he created a professional standing army, against English tradition to not maintain an army except in wartime, and when he exempted the soldiers from taking the vow of the Test Act. James opened many leadership positions to Catholics in government, issued an edict condemning Presbyterians to death in Scotland, and generally favoring Catholics in England. When Parliament opposed him in 1685, like his Stuart predecessors, he simply dissolved Parliament.
With that, a group of English nobles approached William III of Orange in 1688 to invade England and overthrow James.
The Revolution was complete, no blood was shed, absolutism was at last defeated, and the last Catholic monarch of England was banished to France.
Within the next year, William III and his wife Mary II, eldest daughter of James, were crowned as co-monarchs of Britain. William III outlived his wife, Mary II, and after her death in 1692 ruled alone as king until his death in 1702. The House of Hanover (cousins of the Stuarts in Germany) succeeded the Stuarts on the throne.
In addition to abolishing absolute rule in England, the most important document that came out of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 was the English Bill of Rights. This was a revolutionary concept following centuries of feudalism and absolute rule, not only in Europe, but virtually everywhere on earth. The king could not suspend laws nor levy new or additional taxes without the consent of the Parliament.
Parliament was to convene regularly (it had not met for eleven years under Charles I had been and dissolved by all of the Stuarts through James II). The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for many of the principles that were included in the American Bill of Rights that were amended to the U.S. The struggle between Absolutism and Constitutionalism was at the heart of the American War for Independence, the French Revolution, the overthrow of Communism in Eastern Europe and Russia, and continues to rage today in Yemen, Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, and Syria.
The biblical concept views man as having been created in the image of God and has a right, therefore, to certain freedoms that no other person has a right to quench, whether a king or queen or any other authority. These God-given freedoms according to the American Bill of Rights include the freedom of speech, freedom to own property, the right to earn a living in whatever way a person deems best under law, and the right to spend that money in whatever way the individual chooses, under law; the right to vote, the right to a fair trial by a jury of onea€™s peers, the right to own and bear arms, the right to be eligible to be elected to office, the freedom to believe and worship as one chooses, the freedom of speech and assembly, and the freedom to petition. What does it mean for a person to live out freely their God-given rights, but always under Goda€™s law?
How could the concept of the divine rights of kings be interpreted and practiced in such a way as to lead to guaranteed personal freedoms? What basic biblical doctrine about who and what a king or queen is in their nature that would tend to lead to constitutionalism? What were several items that are missing from the English Bill of Rights that you would have thought would have been included? Why does the English Bill of Rights seem to have been slanted so heavily in favor of Protestants? What caution does this raise for us as we (1) interpret what has happened in history, (2) how we should interpret the actions of current governments, and (3) how this should influence how we behave individually today? What is the English tradition that resulted in New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island refusing to ratify the newly proposed U.
Prior to 1549 each of the seventeen states had their own sets of law, their own judicial system, and otherwise made it difficult to administer them piecemeal.
This, and other administrative decisions made by the emperor, led to the Dutch revolt in 1568 against what they perceived to be political and religious tyranny. In 1571 the seventeen states formed the Union of Utrecht and in 1589 declared themselves to be independent of Spain. After several other attempts to move under the oversight of other European monarchs, including for a brief time, Elizabeth I of England, the Dutch proclaimed the independent Dutch Republic. The Republic endured until 1795 when the Netherlands was overrun by the French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte. The Republic provided the groundwork for the Golden Age of the Netherlands in the 16th century, when free enterprise enabled the Dutch to become the leading merchant fleet in Europe, to found and oversea a vast colonial network in North America, the Dutch West Indies, and the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). Absolutism is grasping all power within a nation -- politically, economically, militarily, religiously -- and placing it totally in the hands of a ruler or group of rulers. Constitutionalism is placing all power within a nation under a written constitution that sets limits and boundaries on the exercise of power. In a Constitutional Monarchy power is shared by the democratically elected parliament either with or without a monarch, with the greater power lying with the parliament. Mercantilism is a form of economics wherein the central government controls the national economy through regulating the rate and type of production, the price of goods, tariffs, and seeks to have exports always outperform imports. Empires developed as monarchs sought to control overseas colonies in order to (1) gain natural resources demanded by society and needed for industrialization, (2) gain greater agricultural areas to feed their populations, (3) obtain new areas to export a growing population of farmers, managers, and military to protect them, and (4) to bolster national prestige and pride. The diagram below attempts to depict the differences between the two major forms of government that arose, ABSOLUTISM and CONSTITUTIONALISM, the two contrasting methods of governing. The Ottoman Empire is discussed more fully in Unit 8, a€?Islam.a€? The Ottomans were ruled by an absolute ruler, the Sultan or Caliph. At various times there were several caliphs in existence at the same time, causing great rivalries to exist. The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) devastated so much of Germany, Hungary, and Poland, so depleted the economies of most nations in both West and East, and resulted in the loss of so many people, that central, authoritarian governments seemed to be the only hope for survival.
Serfdom: The existence of serfdom in Eastern Europe, as a remnant of centuries of feudalism, enabled the nobility to gain almost total control over the common people.
Results of the Thirty Years War: The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 brought an end to religious wars in Europe. Rise of Austria and Prussia: Absolutism took different forms in Austria and Prussia, but the existence of almost continual warfare in their territories enabled leaders in both countries to increase their power. Austrian Habsburgs in German territories: The Habsburg emperors worked hard to keep their multi-ethnic empire together, with preference and priority always given to those who were German speakers. Austrian Habsburgs in Hungary and Bohemia: The Habsburgs fought and defeated the Ottoman Turks for control of Hungary and by 1648 controlled most of Hungary. Prussia: Prior to the Thirty Years War the noble land owners gained the dominant power in Prussia, but as a result of the war they lost holdings, wealth, and power. Prussia, the Sparta of Europe: Frederick William built the most professional army in Europe, introduced a military mentality throughout the three provinces, created a strong central bureaucracy, and controlled the nation by military might -- creating the Sparta of Europe. Russia: The Huns ran roughshod over Russia for several hundred years, leaving behind not only fear and disruption but many descendants. Peter Romanov (Peter the Great) opened the window and doors of Russia to the rest of Europe. The Ottoman Empire: By the middle of the 16th century the Ottomans controlled the worlda€™s largest empire in total geographic territory. By 1529 the Ottomans had conquered most of Hungary and viewed the Austrian Empire as a threat to their new territories in Eastern Europe. In 1683 the Ottomans laid siege a second time to Vienna, cutting off all supplies into the city for two months. After the defeat in 1683, the Ottomans began a long process of withdrawal from Eastern Europe because of inefficiency in government, and because of the frequent rebellions within its occupied countries. Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: In spite of the heavy taxation of Christians and Jews, the Ottomans allowed local leaders to govern their own locales.
1542 King James V of Scotland dies, 9 mos old daughter, Mary, becomes Queen Regnant, married to future king of France, Dauphin Francis, in 1558.
1588 -- Spanish Armada -- Philip determined to make Elizabeth and England pay for Henrya€™s offense against Catharine of Aragon, for treatment when husband of deceased Mary I, for Elizabetha€™s spurning of his marriage offer, and for her aiding the rebels in the Netherlands.
1685-1688 -- James II of England and VII of Scotland (1685-1688) (continued to claim the English and Scottish thrones after his deposition in 1688 until his death in 1701). The English Bill of Rights laid the foundation for the American Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In the 16th and 17th centuries the Protestant Reformation led to a deepened sense of nation and nationhood, often based upon religious commitment.
The Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) tore Europe apart, but it solidified the sense of nationhood and religious identity. Monarchies developed in most European regions, replacing feudal lords, some ruling over small domains, and others, like the Habsburgs, Tudors, and Bourbons, and the Spanish crown over vast empires. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 greatly hindered the rise of nationalism in Germany, resulting in a sectionalism containing up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler.
Due to the expanding size and complications that developed in managing their territories, most of the new rulers turned to absolutism as a means of governing. Cardinal Richelieu, regent for the young Louis XIII of France, is known as the Father of Absolutism. Absolutism led to heightened nationalism and this, in turn, to a quest to expand borders, usually into areas where the people spoke the same language and were members of the same culture.
France, Spain, Russia, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire developed absolute monarchies in the 16th and 17th centuries. In Great Britain the reign of the Tudors and Stuarts illustrate clearly the struggle between absolutism and constitutionalism, beginning with the Magna Carta of 1215, the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and the English Bill of Rights of 1688. The coronation of William of the Netherlands and his wife, Mary, as co-monarchs of England in 1689, England established a Parliamentary government that limited the powers of the monarchy in government. The Fathers of the new United States of America rejected a limited monarchy when framing the new Constitution and established a constitutional republic. List from memory the list of the Tudor and the Stuart kings and queens of England and identify (1) their governing philosophy, whether absolute or constitutional, and (2) their religious loyalty, whether Protestant or Roman Catholic. List from memory the list of the Bourbon line of kings and queens of France from Henry IV to Louis XVI and identify their unique contributions to the development of France.
Describe the causes and outcomes of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and the decisions of the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and its impact on shaping Europe. Compare and contrast the two styles of governing used in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries -- absolutism and constitutional republicanism.
Discuss in a written essay the history of individual freedom in England from Queen Elizabeth I to William and Mary.
Discuss in a written essay how the United States of America would be greatly different today if France had gained victory in Seven Yearsa€™ War between France and England in North America, based upon what you know about conditions in France and England in the 16th and 17th centuries. There is to be a thesis statement which you will a€?provea€? or a€?establisha€? in your essay. John Fulford held land patent for 520 acres on the Pamplico River adjoining Peter Wordin, a small pocosin, and James Hogg.
Bath County: Joseph Fulford witnessed the will of Francis Thoragood, planter (proved April 1716). Joseph Fuford was named a juror for the June term of the Carteret County Inferior Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions. John Fulford was called as a petit juror by the General Court of North Carolina but did not show up.
You might be interested that Joseph Fulford, husband of Hannah Ward, was thought to have been killed by a slave about 10 years after they were married. David Ward was appointed one of two administrators of Joseph Fulford's estate and filed an account of expenses associated with his administration for the period Nov.
An entry in the records at the Carteret County Courthouse in Beaufort, NC, shows the gift of land by Joseph Fulford and Elijah Pigott for the erection of a lighthouse on Cape Lookout.
On August 8, 1722, Carteret Precinct on Core Sound was made a separate precinct from Craven.
In 1745, the Assembly laid off the eastern half of the county into Straits Township, from North River to Core Sound, in which were the settlements of Straits and Clauster (Gloucester).
Marshallberg lies in a peninsula formed by Sleepy Creek and Core Sound at the southern end of the east shore.a€?It is the largest settlement in the former Straits Township.
Marshallberg lies in a peninsula formed by Sleepy Creek and Core Sound at the southern end of the east shore.It is the largest settlement in the former Straits Township.
Oriented with North at the top, the world map contains a wind rose with eight divisions, the center of which is situated on the western shores of the Mar Capara [Caspian Sea] the northern division is marked with a star and the eastern division is marked by a cross. While no color copy, or color photograph of this map has survived it is known that the map was produced in color with the seas left white, except for the Red Sea that is colored in vermillion. The continental landmass is surrounded by a large expanse of ocean which several times mentions Mari Oziano magno. The influence of the Genoan and Catalonian nautical maps is marked particularly by the detailed indications of the then recently discovered islands in the Atlantic, the Canaries and the Azores. In Asia, most of the regional notations are consistent with Mongolian domination, a crown with the notes Medru, Calcar, Monza sede di sedre [the Mangi of northern China], and Bogar Tartarorum [the Great Bulgarian or Golden Horde].
As for the calendar appended to the world map, it shows the figure of a child whose body parts correspond to the twelve signs of the Zodiac, a classic representation of a miniature Adam. This map contains areas of Asia with names used in the Mongol dynasty; some rivers and cities have similar names as those in a€?The Travels of Marco Poloa€?, and it shows that before the map was drawn the cartographer had referred to the maps made by Chinese Yuan scholars. What requires special notice is there can be seen a remark on the V-shaped land on the upper left of the de Virga map that says: a€?the known furthest extreme of the worlda€?. The latter de Virga world map has been missing since 1932, when its owner withdrew it just days before an auction to be held by Gilhofer & Ranschburg in Lucerne, Switzerland, according to the cartographic historian Albert DA?rst, who describes the map minutely in a 1996 article in the journal Cartographica Helvetica.


Thompson, a psychologist who serves as director of the Multicultural Discovery Project at the University of Hawaii, supposes that de Virga lacked precedents for expressing medieval European surveys of the Americas on a planisphere and thus depicted the New World in an odd configuration a€” to the north and west.
A sketch of the northern section of de Virgaa€™s world map reveals the legacy of a survey by Nicholas of Lynn, according to Gunnar Thompson. Thompson is not the first to argue that pre-Columbian American discovery by the Norse and others resulted in early cartographical representations of the Americas. Unlike the case of the so-called Vinland Map (#243), there was no reason to dispute the authenticity of de Virgaa€™s world map when it emerged from oblivion in 1912, and there is no reason to dispute it now. De Virgaa€™s African outline is startlingly advanced compared with the works of his contemporaries in Venice and elsewhere. Juxtaposing de Virgaa€™s world map with a 1511 Venetian edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (compiled by Bernardus Sylvanus with maps by Andreas Matheus Aquavivus) underscores the realism of the former.
Although the map also depicts a somewhat foreshortened coastline from the Algarve to Brittany, the coast is at least recognizable past the English Channel and beyond the Scheldt, up the west coast of Danish Jutland.
The Danish king exacted payments from ships on their way to and from the Baltic toward the Hanse cities (a medieval alliance of cities that controlled trade between the eastern and western sides of northern Europe). Although inaccurate by modem standards, de Virgaa€™s delineations of the Baltic Sea and Scandinavian Peninsula fairly represent contemporary Hanse knowledge. His map adequately depicts the western part of the Baltic with an arm dipping south, as well as the eastward-tending inner Baltic with the Finnish Bay and a north coast comprised of Finland and southeast Sweden combined with Danish Scania.
Nevertheless, many Hanse would have heard about or experienced a part of this cold arm reaching north into the unfamiliar regions just a little past the Scanian peninsula.
Logically, the land mass in the mapa€™s northwest corner, featuring a crown and the name Norveca (repeated in three more places, probably to indicate the three major Norwegian towns) would then represent his concept of southwest Sweden detached from Danish Scania and of southern Norway from its join with Sweden at least as far north and west as Bergen. Showing the rather wide southern end of Norway in this manner would also be in keeping with Hanse information.
Although he clearly did not know the shape of Norway, de Virga would have been aware of the countrya€™s existence. It is tempting to assume that medieval churchmen who had spent time in the Far North contributed to Romea€™s knowledge of this remote region and that this knowledge long had been diffused through various channels of culture and learning. Whereas modern scholars are able to fit topographical descriptions or information from travel accounts into an existing geographic image, such visual aids did not exist during the Middle Ages. Thompson and other writers support their claims about pre-Columbian European cartographic awareness of the Americas by calling into service the supposed 1360 voyage of Nicholas of Lynn, as well as an Arabic mention of Greater Ireland. Gunnar Thompsona€™s theory regarding the de Virga mapa€™s Norveca rests on his conviction that the cartographical record of American discovery reaches back through the Middle Ages. The map was re-discovered in a second-hand bookshop in 1911 in A ibenik, Croatia by Albert Figdor, an art collector. When Figdor died on 22 January 1927, his magnificent collections became the property of his niece Margarete Becker-Walz, the wife of a prominent Heidelberg lawyer. Father Fischer was the only scholar in Becker-Walza€™s part of Europe who combined a belief in medieval cartographic manifestations of the Norse discovery of America with sufficient scholarly stature to allow an approach to the map's owner.
That year brought an opportunity to revive his interest when he was asked to comment on a manuscript atlas about to be auctioned by Gilhofer & Ranschburg a€” an atlas he had been allowed to keep at Stella Matutina for the purposes of study. If Becker-Walz withdrew the map from the auction on Fischera€™s advice and withdraw it she did a€” neither of them would have had much opportunity to proceed further.
For Margarete Becker-Walz and her husband, as Jews living in Heidelberg, the situation would have turned ugly sooner. After Germanya€™s surrender in 1945, Nazi loot was found stored all over the former Third Reich in town offices, houses used as billets, officersa€™ clubs, and cattle barns.
This map by the Venetian cartographer, Albertin de Virga, shows Marco Poloa€™s a€?Southern Continenta€? southeast of Asia. Co-authored with my friend the late David Galerstein (a€?Bert Stephens,a€? BSI) of northern New Jersey (the region covered in it). One evening in 1936, a 42-year-old businessman sat down at home at 638 Prospect Street, Maplewood, New Jersey, for some leisure reading. Later that year, Smith wrote Morley on October 28th that he had a€?acquired a country hang-out . The Pips held their annual dinners at membersa€™ homes, but Smitha€™s plan to host the 1941 Pips dinner at Thorneycroft on December 12th was aborted by Pearl Harbor.
The Smiths had a year or so weekending at Thorneycroft, but wartime gasoline rationing made it difficult, Smith told Starrett in September 1942, and in May 1944 he sold it. Most of Smitha€™s Irregular business, though, was transacted at his office in the General Motors Building at 1775 Broadway, New York. Highcroft Cottage had one large room, 15x21, with a flagstone floor, four windows on two sides (one nearly nine feet in length), and a fireplace at one end. We walked down to the garden to that little wooden cabin, in size not unlike Black Petera€™s, which was veritably the 221B of Edgara€™s dreams. Smith was supposed to go to Europe on business in September 1960 when he died suddenly of a cerebral hemorrhage, a few days after Prestigea€™s visit. In 2000, Epstein permitted Irregulars Henry Boote, Ted Friedman, Irving Kamil, Warren Randall, George Sturm, and David Galerstein to visit the property. Epstein sold off eight acres in 1961, and the remainder will be developed now, for it lies in a very desirable part of Morristown. 1 See Glen Mirankera€™s chapter, a€?Prolegomenon to a History of The Pamphlet House,a€? in Irregular Records of the Early a€™Forties.
4 a€?Plaque for a€?Sherlock Holmesa€™ to Mark Erstwhile Headquarters of His Devotee,a€? Newark Evening News, September 8, 1963. A A A  Later that year, Smith wrote Morley on October 28th that he had a€?acquired a country hang-out . A A A  The Pips held their annual dinners at membersa€™ homes, but Smitha€™s plan to host the 1941 Pips dinner at Thorneycroft on December 12th was aborted by Pearl Harbor. A A A  The Smiths had a year or so weekending at Thorneycroft, but wartime gasoline rationing made it difficult, Smith told Starrett in September 1942, and in May 1944 he sold it.
A A A  Most of Smitha€™s Irregular business, though, was transacted at his office in the General Motors Building at 1775 Broadway, New York.
A A A  Highcroft Cottage had one large room, 15x21, with a flagstone floor, four windows on two sides (one nearly nine feet in length), and a fireplace at one end. A A A  When Smith built Holmcroft, the post office agreed to his request to number the house 221.
A A A  Smith was supposed to go to Europe on business in September 1960 when he died suddenly of a cerebral hemorrhage, a few days after Prestigea€™s visit. A A A  In 2000, Epstein permitted Irregulars Henry Boote, Ted Friedman, Irving Kamil, Warren Randall, George Sturm, and David Galerstein to visit the property. A A A  Epstein sold off eight acres in 1961, and the remainder will be developed now, for it lies in a very desirable part of Morristown. Let the honest student then choose some district with which he is in sympathy, and let him go there quietly and spend a few months, or even weeks if he cannot spare months, and let him day and night study the effects of nature, and try to produce one picture of his own, which shall show an honest attempt to probe the mysteries of nature and art, one picture which shall show the author has something to say and knows how to say it, as perhaps no other living person could say it; that is something to have accomplished. All day the mechanics cut, turned, and fitted, making many trips to and from the workshop, until without rest or food they finished the repairs just as the sun was sinking from view. Through their work, the Raysark became legendary, providing the two women and their friends congenial summer memories and a source of their most enduring photographs. Profiting from civic expansion projects, real estate, farming, and the burgeoning river transportation business, the Ladds became wealthy Portland bankers. The movement nurtured amateur photographers who created artistic images purely for personal pleasure as opposed to commercial photographers who mass-produced studio portraits for profit.
Judd of Pendleton donated a trophy a€” a large three-handled silver loving cup with gold lining a€” to be awarded each year for best general exhibit by an individual amateur photographer. The twenty-eight-page exhibition catalogue highlighted the club's studio in the tower of the Oregonian Building, furnished with an enlarging camera, a lantern slide-reducing camera, a stereopticon, and developing rooms.
In early 1901, San Francisco opened its first photographic salon at the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art with nearly five hundred photographs, including numerous works by Sarah Ladd and Lily White's A Soul Looked In and Rest. Stieglitz could single-handedly influence a photographer's future by accepting or rejecting his or her work in exhibitions, by publishing it in Camera Notesa€” the journal of the Camera Club of New York, which he edited a€” or by returning it with his deflating comments about work being technically perfect but pictorially deficient.
White confessed to creating that setting by damming a stream and letting part of it run wild in Fulton Park, an area between Portland and the Ladd estate. Camera Craft judged Ladd's Eyes of the Earth to be the best of her five carbon prints and reproduced it with their review.
Included were Ladd's A Decorative Panel, three flower studies presented as carbon prints on celluloid.37 In May 1902, the Camera Club of New York hung Ladd's work, and in July Stieglitz added Sarah Ladd to his list of photographers invited to represent the United States in the Turin International Exhibition at the Exposition of Decorative Arts in Turin, Italy. The events connected photographers from across the United States and Europe, especially when their work was reviewed and published in journals and exhibition catalogues. Each active member contributed one print a month to a portfolio that traveled to cities where the club had members. In its regional announcement, Camera Craft emphasized the inclusion of the Secession's western members a€” Anne Brigman from California and Sarah Ladd, Lily White, and Myra Wiggins from Oregon.48 Considering the distance from New York City and the relative isolation of western states from the New York City photographic hub, the accomplishments of these women are notable.
The Columbia River became her home for creating pictures at any time of day, with rock formations, clouds, water, trees, and light creating the soft moodiness that was indicative of the photographic style of the time.
The periodical, with a circulation of six thousand by 1900 and distributed throughout the Pacific Northwest, published western fiction, humor, travelogues, literary installments, and articles about economic progress and development in the Pacific Northwest and California.
Like so many photographers of flowers, Ladd created images that reflect the view that all art originates in nature and defies the complicated technical requirements to leave an impression of natural simplicity. While these photos possessed the atmospheric content that asked viewers to contemplate the natural world a€” a popular theme of the era a€” they were reproduced to attract leisure-class tourists and potential new residents to the region. Sarah Ladd's social obligations often required her attention, and those appearances increased when her husband Charles became involved with the 1905 Lewis and Clark Exposition, which provided an opportunity to glorify Portland's business and society and served as the culmination of personal ambitions for many of the city's elite. About a dozen subscribers to The Nautilus have discontinued the magazine on becoming Christian Scientists.
On June 9, 1908, while living in Oswego and already a member of the First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Portland, she joined The Mother Church, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston.67 A year later, she was living with Sarah and Charles Ladd at Cedarhurst and working as a Christian Science practitioner at 616 Beck Building.
Accustomed to moving on her own path, she set in motion a new course, and in July 1921 she was elected a member of the Christian Science Society in McMinnville. Ladd was noted for her beauty and during her married life in Portland won more than local recognition because of her interest in flowers and gardening, an interest she maintained throughout her life. White fit the archetype of the strong independent western female, while Ladd had been part of Portland's high society.
I am also grateful to the staff of the Oregon Historical Society Research Library for their assistance. Lily White probably taught photography to Fred and Oscar Kiser who, in 1903, created the Kiser Photographic Company, specializing in scenic photography. Catalogue, Sixth Annual Print Exhibition (Portland: Oregon Camera Club, October 29a€“November 3, 1900). Constitution, Oregon Camera Club [1895], Research Library, Oregon Historical Society, Portland [hereafter OHS Research Library].
In 1899, the Oregon Industrial Exposition featured a photography exhibition judged by Ida Rae Myrick, W.
Minutes of the Oregon Camera Club, December 15, 1894a€“June 10, 1902, 57 OHS Research Library [hereafter OCC Minutes].
I maintain that many photographs attributed to Lily White were actually made by Sarah Ladd.
Judith Huenneke, The Mary Baker Library, e-mail correspondence with the author, July 2, 2004.
David Nartonis, Assistant for Administration, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, Boston, Massachusetts, letter to the author, June 13, 1988.
You may not reproduce, publish, distribute, transmit, participate in the transfer or sale of, modify, create derivative works from, display, or in any way exploit the History Cooperative database in whole or in part without the written permission of the copyright holder. 1787 a€“ Thomas Buck applied for 400 acres including an improvement (house or barn) on the south side of Raystown Branch of the Juniata River on both sides of Brush Creek, adjoining Alisona€™s Survey, in Providence.
1789 a€“ Thomas Buck applied for 100 acres on the southeast side of Warrior Ridge, adjoining a survey of James Hunter on the north and by a survey of Barnard Dougherty esq.
And since the times have got so hard in the West I am glad I did not go, but I will come and see you all yet if all goes right but I can't say when. John Buck told me I could write a piece in his letter and I am very thankful to write with him as we have not your address. I would have answered before now but was still thinking of being closer to you before this time but am about fixing to move back again to the old home place in Pennsylvania. I have had work all winter in a wholesale house where it is heated with gas, as warm as wood care.
Countries were were emerging from feudalism, some had been impacted by the Black Plague, others had also experienced the Renaissance.
This was the case with the early monarchies that arose in Europe in the 14th-16th centuries in Europe. Princes in Germany drew up their territorial boundaries because much was at stake, as provided for in the Peace of Augsburg (1530) and the Treaty of Westphalia (1648). The treaty resulted in a sectionalism that produced up to 132 independent states, each led by an independent ruler.
In addition, poor roads, poor transportation, and a zeal to hold on to traditional local power and local culture worked against unifying the people of several regions into a nation. In many cities they resorted to armed uprisings and it was not until the late 17th century that the central governments were strong enough to deal effectively with the frequent uprisings among the populace.
In response, people often reacted against absolutism by resorting to a€?No Law,a€? or Anarchy.
It makes possible the free expression and free exercise of those innate inalienable rights. He was a student of biblical law and understood well the form of government given by God to Moses. The Constitution usually has a provision by which amendments can be added by a vote of the people. Where a person is born, with regard to poverty or social class, is not where they are forced to remain.
They cannot be given out nor taken away by the ruler or the government because they are given by the Creator and not the king or emperor. He restored peace and order by personal example through his conversion from Calvinism to Catholicism. The nobility and the clergy in northern France, including Paris, strongly opposed the idea of a Protestant king.
The nobles promised their continued support of the throne if the throne continued to hold them free from taxation. His Catholic wife, Marie de Medici, a princess of Austria, appointed a regent, Catholic Cardinal Richelieu, to serve as regent for her young son, Louis XIII. Richelieu promoted the idea of limiting the strength of the nobility and expanding and strengthening the role of the bureaucracy (officials hired to do professional government work).
But, in a compromise measure, the nobles left in place a strong monarchy -- just so long as it did not tax the nobility! To increase his central power, Louis XIV centralized his government (1) by appointing intendants to govern for him in the various districts of France, (2) he kept the nobility powerless in government by refusing to call into session the Estates General (the parliament of France), and (3) he developed a widespread secret police by which he spread terror and fear. He became known as a€?the War King.a€? His war efforts plunged France into debt, required more and more taxation to pay the debt, and increased the poverty of the lower classes. The a€?suna€? of the French hegemony seemed to extend from east to west, wherever the sun rose and set. His major successes included 1) development of New World French colonies, 2) building up the French merchant fleet, 3) developing government-controlled industry, and 4) improving the process of tax collection.
Only a strong central government with a large, professional army could preserve the new freedom from Islam.
His journey was not primarily a trip to find new lands, but to discover a westward route to the Spice Islands in the Pacific.
The problem that continually checked the growth of constitutionalism in England was the concept held by the Tudor and Stuart dynasties was the divine right of kings. The nobility and common people continually had recall to days when a just legal system prevailed and the ideas and opinions of all the people mattered. Concerning the execution of Mary, for example, she was twice petitioned to sign a death warrant for Mary.
She added the Dutch in their 80 year war for independence from Spain, and the failed Spanish Armada of 1588 simply rallied the people behind their queen.
To illustrate, consider how the House of Commons was expected to bring their requests and ideas to the attention of the king or queen. Sir Edward Coke, member of Parliament, is quoted as having commented to King James I, a€?I hope that everyone who saith, our Father, which are in heaven, does not prescribe God Almighty what he should do so do we speak of these things as petitioners to his Majesty, and not as prescribers, etc.a€? (Conrad Russell, Unrevolutionary England, 1603-1642, Continuum International Publishing Group, 1990, p. These were issued with more a tone of, a€?We are the House of Commons and this is what we think you should do. In 1586 both the House of Lords and House of Commons petitioned Queen Elizabeth to sign the order for the execution of her cousin, Mary, Queen of Scotland for her reported involvement in plans to assassinate Elizabeth. He seemed to carry a chip on his shoulder, always alert to any hints of the Parliament moving into his kingly rights. Allow him to impose current taxes and tariffs to take care of current debt but no more in the future. Constitutionalism was certainly not at work in England during the Tudor dynasty and through the reigns of James I and Charles I. Today the queen of England is officially head of the Church of England and head of Great Britain, but her powers are very limited. In 1455 a series of wars were fought between two rival branches of the dynasty, the House of York (symbolized by a white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose).
Elizabeth allowed a high degree of religious freedom in England during her reign, even though she was aware of the constant attempts by Catholic monarchs in Europe to have her deposed and Cathholicism re established in England. James became infant King James VI of Scotland after his mother, Mary, Queen of Scotland, was banished from Presbyterian Scotland for her Catholic faith and the intrigue resulting from the death of her husband.
Their oldest daughter, Mary, was married at 9 to the Prince of Orange in the Netherlands, and subsequently became mother of William III, Prince of Orange who became King of England following the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
The High Court was composed of member of the House of Commons, without the consent of the House of Lords. As Goda€™s appointed absolute king, he refused to acknowledge their authority over him and concluded his comments with, a€?. In 1660 he was invited by Parliament to return to England and they composed all documents to make it appear that Charles had succeeded his father in 1649, as though the republican Commonwealth had never existed! He conducted war against the Netherlands and entered into a secret treaty with his first cousin, King Louis XIV of France.
Parliament forced him to rescind the Declaration, viewing it as a Roman plot to return England to Catholicism. With that, Charles dissolved Parliament and for four years until his death in 1685 ruled England alone as absolute king.
He was (1) pro-French, (2) pro-Catholic, (3) was himself a Catholic, and (4) his announced plans to establish an absolute monarchy.
He created the army to protect him from rebellions after having to put down two rebellions in Scotland and southern England. In 1687 he unilaterally issued the Declaration for the Liberty of Conscience, which called for religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant nonconformists. The wife of William was Jamesa€™ oldest daughter, Mary, a staunch Calvinist, as was William.
The basic premise of the Bill of Rights was the following: everyone, from the poorest beggar in the street to the richest merchant, from a child in school to members of nobility, lords, military officers, judges, monarchs, all have certain basic rights that are guaranteed.
But this freedom is limited in the sense that the freedom of the individual is always to be carried out while living under the law of God. In 1549 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which solidified the Empirea€™s control over the seventeen states comprising the Netherlands.
From the viewpoint of the seventeen states, however, this was the imposition of a level of control that threatened their independence.
The major causes for the revolt also included persecution of the Calvinist majority as heretics by the Catholic Phillip II, removal of institutions of governance practiced by the states for generations, and the imposition of high taxes.
A chief ally of William was Elizabeth I of England who supplied men, weapons, and financing to the Calvinist cause. In 1582 they took the strange, but politically astute move of inviting Francis, duke of Anjou in France, son of King Henry II of France.
Each province was managed by its own representative assembly and each province elected representatives to sit in the general assembly of the united provinces. While the monarch ruled supreme, there were certain limitations placed upon his or her exercise of power, but this was a limited curtailment.
In the French version of mercantilism, it was also believed that a nations stockpile of gold was the basis for economic health.
The one thwarts, squashes, and denies the inalienable rights of people and the other fosters, promotes, and grants those rights. It produced a new more crushing in serfdom in Russia and the eastern portions of the Habsburg Empire, and the Ottoman Empire, and resulted in severe restrictions on travel, relocation, private ownership of land, and produced heavy taxation. It weakened the power of the Habsburg Empire in Vienna so that (1) it had to remain a confederation of multi-ethnic, multi-cultural states, (2) it gave former Habsburg territories to France and Sweden at the expense of Austria, and (3) made Calvinism a legal choice alongside Catholicism and Lutheranism throughout Europe, at least on paper if not always in fact. The Kaiser (Prussia) and the Emperor (Austria) gave almost total control over the peasants to the nobility in exchange for total loyalty of the nobles to the monarchy and their granting Kaiser and Emperor almost total freedom to raise taxes, raise professional armies, and conduct foreign affairs. They kept the empire together by a program of rewarding the nobility (with land, control over peasants, expanded trade rights) and imposing Catholicism on everyone in the southern German states where they still retained power. The nobility in Hungary proved a real problem because they resisted Austrian control, rebelled whenever possible, and as Calvinists resisted the attempts to impose Catholicism on them.
The head of the Hohenzollern family (a traditional royal Prussian family), Frederick William (Wilhelm), came to power, took away the traditional representative rights of the nobility, and gained control over the three Prussian provinces in northern Germany. He controlled the nobility (a€?Junkersa€?) by placing in their hands the officer corps of the giant military machine. Ivan the Terrible (not given that title because he was a nice guy!) was able to recapture Russian dominance away from the Huns, but was ruthless in his actions to gain absolute control.
Beginning with their capture of Constantinople in 1453, which was both a strategic victory -- opening eastern Europe to their campaigns and occupation -- as well as a victory giving to them great prestige. This created a level of interaction between Muslims, Jews, and Christians not often experienced by Catholics and Protestants in the rest of Europe. Religious commitment gave weight to a new sense of nationalism based upon a state or nationa€™s major religious beliefs. Economic Minister Colbert who served under Louis XIV, is known as the Father of Mercantilism. England fought an ongoing struggle between the absolutist Stuarts and the non-absolutist Parliament. Fulford once again failed to answer the summons to appear in higher court to the suit of Wm. John's Parrish in Beaufort as a part of an "An Act, for incorporating the Seaport in Beaufort .
The last class to graduate from the school won the county-wide commencement singing competition in 1923.
The legal center of the township at that time was centered near the head of creek, first known as Fulford's Creek, and later became known as Chadwick's Creek.a€?By order of the Assembly, Straits Chapel of the Anglican faith was built in 1750, within the settlement of Fulford's Creek . In early days before it gave much evidence of becoming a village, it was known as Deep Hole Point. The legal center of the township at that time was centered near the head of creek, first known as Fulford's Creek, and later became known as Chadwick's Creek.By order of the Assembly, Straits Chapel of the Anglican faith was built in 1750, within the settlement of Fulford's Creek . The landmasses are colored in yellow, although the islands are in a variety of colors; the mountains are in a greenish-brown, the lakes in blue, and the rivers are colored brown.
The Holy Land, marked with the names of Jordan and Gorlan [Jerusalem], does not, as with many previous medieval maps, exactly occupy the center of the map.
Africa is decorated with the common representation of the Atlas Mountains, which spread over the northern part of Africa like a serpent, and by the Mountains of the Moon towards the south which surrounds twice the region where the Ylon [the river Nile] and several other rivers flow.
There is also a plan for fortifications marked simply M[on]gol [Caracorum, in Greater Asia]. On the left is a table of 100 letters, alternating black and red, which allows the reader to calculate the date of Easter as either 2 April 1301 or 18 April 1400. It is known that he is also the author of a nautical map of the Mediterranean Sea, of the classical type, which has flowery ornamentation similar to this world map and signed in the same way: A. According to some scholars this remark could not possibly be written by a European, because if one looks at the map it is easy to see the furthest part from Europe is not the V-shaped land, but China, so obviously this remark is originally from the ancient Chinese.
The Venetian cartographer Albertin de Virga does not loom large in medieval map literature: all we know of him is what we can learn from two of his maps. DA?rst notes renewed interest in the map after a recent claim by a researcher at the University of Hawaii, Gunnar Thompson, that de Virga indicated large parts of North and South America in the upper left section of the map, but DA?rst does not comment on Thompsona€™s theory.
He contends that the continent labeled Norveca represents Americaa€™s east coast from Labrador to Florida, that the land northeast of Norway is Venezuela and Brazil, and that the island situated southeast of Asia delineates the coast of Peru.
Nor is he the first to claim that an elusive medieval travel account of the Arctic, called Inventio Fortunatae (circa 1360), was written by Friar Nicholas of Lynn, who, according to Thompson, not only crossed to North America but also surveyed the lands well enough to later provide cartographical evidence. On the contrary, there are very good reasons to wonder why we should disregard the mapmakera€™s own nomenclature, particularly given the evident care with which de Virga executed the task he had set himself.
De Virga appears to have had an unusual ability to calculate shapes and distances on the basis of second-hand information provided to him, most likely by sailors probing the African coasts and from reports by merchants familiar with the trans-Saharan gold route.
Although the 1511 maps incorporate American discoveries, they indicate little knowledge of the Far North and are otherwise regressive, considering what de Virga knew a century earlier.
Trouble comes after the Skaw (northernmost Jutland), where in order to enter the Baltic Sea a ship had to head south in the Kattegat (a strait separating Sweden and Denmark) before passing through a narrow sound separating the island of SjA¦lland from the Scanlan.
The Scania herring trade was so important that this extra piece of Denmark would have been known to Venetian merchants, who flocked to the Flanders markets in order to trade with the Hanse bringing their cargo south.
Such information would have been available to de Virga either from Hanse merchants or through Venetian merchants returning from trips to the North to buy salted herring, stockfish (wind-dried cod), and other commodities. The entire northern arm (now called the Bothnian Bay), beginning at about 60 degrees North, lay outside the Hanse merchantsa€™ scope, as it was devoid of significant trading centers. Perhaps de Virga, after hearing a description of this assumed northward passage into the unknown (rather than a closed bay), decided it must lie just to the west of Scania, rather than to the east where the waters were much more familiar to the Hanse. That the land mass called Norveca has nothing to do with either Greenland or North America should be abundantly clear from the nomenclature alone; it also is firmly connected to the world Albertin de Virga and his contemporaries already knew.
As the center of the stockfish trade, Bergen had served as the chief Hanseatic port in Norway throughout the Middle Ages, and any Hanse skipper worth his salt would have known the route there. Anyone living in Venice around 1415 who had commercial ties or who was curious about geography would have known that Norway lay far to the north, that it dominated the stockfish trade, and that the country was mountainous and probably very large.
In reality, information flowed primarily in the opposite direction from the 11th century onward. Medieval readers must for themselves conceptualize distances and exotic locations, and as a result, their inventions wandered all over the map, both literally and figuratively. In addition to the regular Ireland associated with the British Isles, the Arabic geographer Abu-Abd-Allah Mohammed al-Idrisi, 1099-1180, (#219) noted a Greater Ireland in the northwest Atlantic, supposedly a reference to known land on the American side.
Others have expressed a similar belief, including those who believe the Vinland Map at Yale University is a genuine mid-15th century expression of Norse discovery in America. At first, the Austrian authorities refused to allow the collections out of the country, but after much legal wrangling and string-pulling, the well-connected Frau Becker-Walz managed to auction off the bulk of Figdora€™s art works and furniture in 1930.
Why Margarete Becker-Walz withdrew the map at the last minute from such a distinguished antiquarian auction house is a matter of speculation.
In 1932, besides being at the height of his reputation as a cartographic historian, he was no longer in von Wiesera€™s shadow. Given his close relations with the auction house at the time the de Virga map was being offered for sale, it is highly likely he would have seen Auction Catalog Number 8 with its photograph of the map.
Arrests, boycotts of Jewish businesses, and dismissals from academic and other public positions began almost immediately after the Nazis came to power. Some of these stolen articles are slowly finding their way into the antiquarian market, and with luck we may again see de Virgaa€™s world map. The island-continent is called a€?Ca-paru or Great India.a€? The map was made between 1410 and 1414. Starrett was then on the other side of the world, but returned in 1937 and sent Smith a reply that began a cordial correspondence lasting twenty-three years.
In his notice, Smith had given the location as a€?Madisonville Road, corner North Maple Avenuea€? in Basking Ridge, with explicit directions: a€?turn off at Morristown center (around square) into Route 32 (Bernardsville).
There he had the secretarial resources to be the BSIa€™s Buttons and to edit works like Profile by Gaslight and, beginning in late 1945, the Baker Street Journal. He had started to look for a retirement site after the war, and in 1950 had bought sixteen acres of wooded land a couple of miles west of pleasant and historic Morristown. The papers mention a€?quasi-Victoriana€? chairs and a sofa, and a portrait of Sherlock Holmes by Smitha€™s son Edgar P.
Here we looked over the wonderful library, the editions of the Canon, the variant illustrations, the Beetona€™s, the volumes of higher criticism, the collections of essays, the correspondence with President Roosevelt, and all those other gems of Sherlockian learning that made Edgar W.
He remained active as a management and international trade consultant, and traveled a good deal, for pleasure as well as business: to Europe repeatedly, to Egypt once, to Hawaii, and no doubt elsewhere a€” usually by ocean liner, in that final decade of elegant travel.
They inspected the cottage (then used to store swimming-pool equipment), and were permitted to remove the plaque placed there 40 years before. Smitha€™s cottage is demolished, the plaque commemorating its role will remain in our hands. Remember that your photograph is a rough index of your mind; it is a sort of rough confession on paper.
She must make her own landing and arrive on the high deck of the wharf as best she could and under fire from a regiment of critical eyes. Early amateur photographers such as White and Ladd, who had leisure time and economic freedom, undertook their work not for money, but for creative adventure.
Ayer a€” a Portland bookseller, stationer, and printer a€” and lived in her grandfather's home at 348 Fourth Street.
Amateurs often printed their work on paper coated with light-sensitive platinum rather than ordinary silver coatings, and making carbon prints became popular with Camera Club enthusiasts in Portland. A photographer had to win the competition three times in order to keep the Judd Cup and have his or her name inscribed on it.
Beach, general manager of the Interchange, each camera club must prepare 50 to 125 slides, each 3A? inches by 4 inches. Her Bridge of Hope, taken from her houseboat near Castle Rock that summer, recorded a rainbow, which was considered an unusual achievement for a photographer.32 White also exhibited several photographs of Native Americans, including A Shadow of the Past, which depicted a mother and her baby. After each member wrote comments about the prints, they were sent to the next city until eventually they returned to the owners.
White and Ladd remained Photo-Secession members at least through 1905.49 Overall, the camera club structure and amateur movement created a symbiotic relationship, in this case a vertical one, scaled by Lily White and Sarah Ladd. Steamers from Portland conveyed guests to and from her boat, which was often anchored near Lyle, Washington, a busy shipping port for wheat and sheep eighty-two miles east of Portland. While White's darkroom-equipped houseboat was probably unique to Portland and the Columbia River Gorge, it was not an original idea.
With this latest technology, the two friends could wait for the clouds to form, the water to calm, and reflections to appear.
Telegraph poles peer below the looming cliff of White's Upper Cape Horn, Near Celilo Falls of the Columbia. Photographs in the Pacific Monthly appeared with the descriptive titles or local literary connections that were commonly used by photographers but were also likely to appeal to tourists. When making flower photographs, there were aesthetic considerations of composition and lighting along with the formal qualities connected to the photographers' intentions, from the desire to portray botanical specimens to romantic associations, emotions, or beauty.
Ladd and White had become successful, benefiting from the prestige associated with their work and maintaining their economic independence by making artistic photographs for commercial projects. The Ladds attended a banquet to honor the arrival of Vice President Charles Fairbanks, for example, and joined a thousand people at an opening reception of the American Inn, which Charles Ladd built on the fairgrounds.63 The festive activities offered quite a contrast to Sarah Ladd's life on the river.
Elizabeth Struble Towne, born in Portland in 1865 (one year before White), was a follower of Quimby's and the publisher of the Nautilus, an influential periodical associated with New Thought. On June 2, 1911, Ladd joined White as a member of the Mother Church of the First Church of Christ Scientist in Boston.69 In July, she and nine other women organized the Carlton Civic Improvement Association.
Together, they joined the local Christian Science Church, where they remained members until their deaths.
Each had a photographic and aesthetic vision that gave them the same status as the men who photographed the Columbia River at the same time, and both adopted a religion that allowed them to take prominent roles that were not permissible in traditional religions. The Kiser brothers grew up on the Columbia River opposite Beacon Rock, near Dodson, Oregon, where White would sometimes stop.
The lectures were available after the club renewed its membership with the American Lantern Slide interchange in 1901.
The slides most preferred by the Interchange board of managers were cloudy landscapes, figures studies, and genre subjects.
According to Penrose Annuals from this time period, Photoloid was introduced as a print material that would give a "true carbon [look] unattended with the great labor and care that the latter requires.
Given that Bell's intention was to organize the Salon Club as a challenge to Alfred Stieglitz and his Photo-Secession, it is interesting to note the inclusion of Sarah Ladd and the initial listing of Myra Wiggins, both Photo-Secession members.
Twenty-two-year-old Oscar Kiser disappeared on Saturday, November 4, 1905, from the Charles Ladd boathouse at Riverdale, where he worked as the caretaker. Ladd left $3,000 to the Christian Science Society of McMinnville for the maintenance of their grounds and set aside $1,500 for a drinking fountain in Carlton in memory of her husband. From 1930, Lily White lived on Scenic Drive between Martin Way and Carmel Point with Mabel Spicker. The reason is that the man that was to buy my farm, backed out and I had made sale on the 27th day of March and sold everything to come and then after that man backed out I was to sell to another man and his wife died just two days before the time was for us to start and that knocked me all wrong all that I had and the balance of the company before I could rent again. My wife has been sick nearly ever since we have been in Ohio and is not sadis ficte [sic satisfied] to go any farther west and she now has the agure [ague] and two of my children has got it and I have concluded to take them where the Agure seldom comes any more, that is in Pennsylvania where they was born.
The themometer was at one time 14 degrees below zero, that was perty cold, but they have had two feet of snow on the level back at our old home place this winter.
This was the case within the dynasties of China and with the tribal leadership in Meso-America, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. But it also gives a clear pattern for how the monarchy is to operate: (1) there must be law with justice, (2) the just law must apply to everyone, and (3) everyone, because created in the image of God, has certain God-given inalienable rights that no one is to seek to block or take away. These inalienable rights are guaranteed in a written constitution under which all people live. He codified that system of law in his work Liber ex lege Moise (a€?The Book of the Law of Mosesa€?) c. Bartholomewa€™s Massacre, he was forced to quickly convert to Catholicism in order to save his life.
They promoted his uncle, Charles, but after the death of Charles delayed finding a replacement.
The marriage was subsequently annulled by the pope in 1599 after Henry IV conveniently converted to Catholicism in 1593 (confiding at the time to a friend, a€?Paris is worth a massa€?). He even brought France into the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648) on the side of the Protestants in an attempt to deal a death blow to fellow Catholics, the Austrian Habsburgs! The French kings never were able to rule with a€?absolute absolutism.a€? A peace of sorts was delicately maintained by an agreement -- the nobility would support the monarch if the monarch did not levy taxes them. It is interesting how a peace treaty intended to settle religious conflict in Germany was used by Louis 150 years later to maintain absolutism in France and to crush the Huguenots! Further, the other European nations, tired of Louisa€™ bullying tactics, built alliances pitted against France and did much to isolate France from the rest of Europe, negatively impacting Francea€™s economy and trade. The traditional routes from Spain to Asia were now jeopardized by Islamic navies in the Mediterranean.
If God set a king on the throne, then the common people, if they feared God, would do as the king commands -- or so the thinking went. His daughter, Mary, controlled a predominantly Protestant Parliament with the same tactics and over 400 persons, mainly Protestant ministers and leaders, were executed under her reign. Each time Elizabeth could not get herself to execute someone whom God had placed on a throne. Then the Catholics in England could be dealt with quietly with without causing a ruckus at home.


A code of law was was established and a history of court decisions recorded, yet there was no one written document that could be call a legitimate constitution.
His marriage to Catherine of Aragon and struggles for an annulment are discussed in Unit 17. Catherine was given funding and housing for life after her marriage to Henry was annulled by Pope Clement VII. In that treaty Louis promised military support to Charles, and to pay him a pension, and in return, Charles promised to convert to Roman Catholicism. Further fear in this regard broke out when it was discovered the Charlesa€™ brother James (and next in line as heir to become king!) was a Catholic!
When the Dutch forces landed in 1688 James succumbed to fear and did not oppose them, although his own army was superior in numbers.
James chose the later, fled to Paris in 1688, and was given a pension for life and security by his cousin, Louis XIV. King George V changed the family name during World War I from Hanover to Windsor to avoid the reminder of their German ancestry.
Its independence was formally recognized by all of Europe in the Treaty of Westphalia of 1648.
Basically, it merged all seventeen states, for the purpose of administration, into one entity, and established that in the future, all seventeen would pass as a unit to the next emperor.
Through the terms of the Treaty of Westphalia four more bordering provinces were added to the original seven, bringing the total to eleven. Chart #2 reviews the history of the monarchy in England as it progressed from Absolutism to the passage of the English Bill of Rights and the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The nobility (landowners) weakened the economic power of merchants (former serfs) in towns and cities by selling their agricultural goods directly to merchants in other countries, by-passing the local merchants.
The emperor used his professional army to keep control in the southern German speaking areas.
Charles VI arranged the acceptance of the Pragmatic Sanction which eliminated the traditional Salic Law in the empire and thus allowed his daughter, Maria Theresa, his only heir, who was to become, perhaps, the dominant female ruler of the era, to gain the throne in 1740.
Surrounded by Russia to the north and the frequent invasions into Prussia by the Tartars (descendants of the Huns in Russia), Austria to the East, and France to the South, Frederick Wilhelm did not have to do much convincing of the population to show the necessity for a strong, absolutist monarchy. After his death, Michael Romanov rose to power as the first hereditary ruler in Russia, establishing the Romanov family line that lasted on the Russian throne until 1918.
After suffering a humiliating defeat at the hands of Sweden in the early stages of the Great Northern War, Peter Romanov strengthened the economy, the army, and the central government. Building a new capitol city from ground zero, he used the blood and sweat of serfs and forced cooperation by the nobles to build the city. The Ottomans continued their movement westward into Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Albania, and even as far westward as Hungary. The city was defended by farmers, merchants, and other citizens, and by German and Spanish troops sent by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. The parliament of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth valued highly the trade relations they enjoyed with the Ottoman Empire and wanted nothing to harm that relationship. The first known keeper of the light was James Fulford, who was appointed Jun 2, 1812, and served 16 years. During the building of Fort Macon at the east end of Bogue Banks, from 1828 to 1834, when heavy earth was required for the ramparts to cover the casemates and the interior parade grounds, suitable soil was found along the east shore of Sleepy Creek.a€?Vast loads were carried away by scows, leaving an immense deep hole that led to the naming of the Point.
During the building of Fort Macon at the east end of Bogue Banks, from 1828 to 1834, when heavy earth was required for the ramparts to cover the casemates and the interior parade grounds, suitable soil was found along the east shore of Sleepy Creek.Vast loads were carried away by scows, leaving an immense deep hole that led to the naming of the Point. The remaining part, the extension or neck, is occupied by a calendar and two tables with inscriptions relating to the calendar. The names of various locations are written in either red or black ink, always on the inside of a small box or cartouche. The three known continents, Europa, Africa, and Axia, underlined on the map for emphasis, are harmoniously placed (in part) around the Mediterranean Sea, drawn tolerably with exactness like the European portolan [nautical] charts, and (on the other hand) around the Indian Ocean, which is decorated with multi-colored archipelagos similar to the Arab maps.
A large gulf that opens into the ocean carries the notation Dara Four Asiner close to some islands.
On the shores of the Indian Ocean there are the kingdoms of Mimdar and Madar [Malabar?], along with many islands with the following note which, without a doubt, relates to Sri Lanka: Ysola d alegro suczimcas magna.
This suggests that when making the de Virga map, the mapmaker copied a Chinese map and left this remark unchanged. The first, a 1409 sea chart, shows the Mediterranean and Black Seas as well as the eastern Atlantic shores up to the southern Baltic region, incorporating the British Isles.
Medieval European cartographers knew the world was round and would have known how to represent areas that a€?spilled overa€? to the west or east. We also need to ask why a cartographer would fail to name a poorly known region if, indeed, he was familiar with it. However, de Virgaa€™s depiction of the Atlantic coast suggests that even this cartographera€™s ability to conceptualize coastlines could not entirely transcend gaps in the information available to him. Nevertheless, it would have been difficult for de Virga to visualize the intricacies of the Baltic entrance solely from descriptions of the rounding of the Skaw, the route south along the east coast of SjA¦lland taken to pass through the sound, and the passage east (actually, east followed by northeast) into the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, Bothnian Bay freezes over so early in the winter and is so often bedeviled by heavy fogs that few sailed those waters in the early 15th century. Repeated trade restrictions prevented trading farther up the coast, however, at least legally. Nobody could describe its shape and extent, but on several maps of the early 15th century Norway appears as a rectangle framed and bisected by mountains. Adam of Bremena€™s writing about the North depended more on the European accounts available to him than on the information brought to him by the Danes, and medieval Norse literature demonstrates greater awareness of Adama€™s writing, as well as other European geographical and cosmographical works, than of information derived directly from their own northern background. No published author has been more fervently convinced of a cartographical record of Norse transatlantic sailings than the German Ptolemaic scholar Father Josef Fischer, S.J. The map was analyzed by Doctor Professor Franz von Wieser, of the University of Vienna, a well-known Austrian cartographical scholar. We can discount a sudden discovery that the map was fake, for no one doubts its authenticity. He may have found the time ripe to rebut his former mentora€™s criticism of his views on Norse cartography.
Father Fischer was still at the Jesuit college of Stella Matutina in Feldkirch and would soon have felt both the worsening relations between Germany and Austria and the anti-Catholicism of the Nazis. It would have made little difference to Becker-Walz in the long run if she had converted to Christianity, as Figdor in his time had done.
Those wishing to hasten the process might start by looking into the fate of Margarete Becker-Walz and her husband Ernst Walz, an important Jewish citizen of Heidelberg and a defiant supporter of the Weimar Republic to the republica€™s bitter end.
It was not until more than a century later that Francisco Pizarro, a Spaniard, finally reached Peru. It was The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes by Vincent Starrett, and the reader was Edgar W.
He told Smith about the BSI, and put him in touch with Christopher Morley, though it was two years before Morley called another BSI dinner that Smith could attend. Of the three houses at the corner of Madisonville and Maple today, planning board records indicate that Thorneycroft is 173 Madisonville Road, a a€?Second Empirea€? house built around 1885. His secretary a€?Deea€? Alexander, who worked for him from 1946 through 1948, reported that Smith dictated most of his BSI correspondence to her, while occasionally bring-ing handwritten drafts from home to be typed. 221B Baker Street, Morristown, until Smitha€™s death in 1960, was the headquarters of the BSI. The property was sold to an elderly couple whose heirs soon resold it to Herbert Epstein, the owner of the local independent department store, who lived there until his recent death. Remembering William Gillettea€™s concern for his Connecticut castle, the idea has been floated to move it to some local park and preserve it, as a€?The Knothole,a€? Morleya€™s writing shack from the grounds of his Roslyn, Long Island, home, has been. When a woman will step into the world of action and do a few vigorous things for herself, she may do all the resta€”ahem!
And here it was, during the time which followed, that I learned the real meaning of stillness. In Portland, privileged men and women chartered riverboats for moonlight excursions on the Willamette and Columbia rivers and enjoyed the new sport of golf a€” and they documented their leisure activities by taking photographs.
Her mother, Nancy Hoffman White, had crossed the plains from Illinois at age eleven with her parents and twelve brothers and sisters. Ladd's son, Charles Elliot, graduated from Amherst College in 1881 and brought his bride Sarah L. Lily White taught Oregon Camera Club members the latest photography and darkroom techniques, using ready-to-expose, emulsion-coated glass plate negatives and platinum paper for image-making. Favored for its permanence and ability to produce colored prints at a time when color photography was rare, carbon printing involved exposing a negative against pigmented tissue sensitized with potassium bichromate.
To select the winner, the club chose three judges a€” a professional photographer, an artist, and an amateur who was not a club member a€” to evaluate each personal grouping of photographs (at least six but not more than ten pictures mounted, with framing optional). Individual slides had to be as technically perfect as possible, without areas too dense or too clear, matted and labeled, and without too much soot.
Stieglitz's pronouncements signaled a new era, but Ladd and White's adventures on the river had already begun.
White had supervised the boat's construction, and the Raysark was built to accommodate her personal needs. They might move closer to or farther away from Castle Rock (now Beacon Rock) or stand on a sandy beach. In a change from her typical landscapes, White also captured the work of fish seining on the Columbia with her photographs of horses and men grappling with the nets spread by boats.57 The exhilaration of the two women's work and the pleasures of life on the river, away from the pace of city life, contributed to a series of photographs that many believe is unmatched by other photographers. There were also many decisions to make concerning plate development, paper selection, and mounting techniques. Their first project involved working with the city council to purchase trash cans for the streets.70 Unlike White, Ladd continued to exhibit her photographs despite the changes in her life. Living near the ocean in a creative, invigorating community of writers and artists would have supported and nurtured their interests, but their life together was not to last long.
Their work as artists influenced the Oregon Camera Club, which depended on photographers whose photographs reflected their lifestyle, the artistic genre of their era, and the landscapes they cherished. Photoloid consists of a colloid emulsion placed upon a cellulose base, from which combination the name evolved. The same author then discussed the formation of a Western Division of the Salon Club, a group organized by photographer Curtis Bell. In 1904, Charles Ladd bought it from Jay Cooke, a railroad financier, and then sold it to Henry J. Holman, a lawyer and amateur rose grower, suggested that every Portland home should plant roses the following spring so the plants would have three years' growth by the time the Lewis and Clark Centennial opened. A bronze medallion of Charles Ladd, Chinese vases, and Greek glass bowls were left to the Portland Art Museum. Buck a visit now, so must bring these few lines to a close by asking you to please write soon as this reaches you. Now the question arose, a€?How should we govern ourselves?a€? or to be more accurate, asked the question, a€?Now that we have fought our way to the top, how will we govern this country?a€? They had no patterns or role models to follow. The excitement of the discoveries in the Renaissance and explorations in the New World began to fade. If you lived two feet on the other side of the state line your were compelled to be a Catholic. Full time, professional armies led to the frequent wars for expansion that characterized this period. His marriage with Margaret was not a successful marriage, with both Henry and Margaret often separating and engaging in infidelity. Henry took that opportunity to wage war against the Catholic north in order to secure the crown.
In 1600 Henry then married Marie de Medici, daughter of the Duke of Tuscany (Florence, Italy) and a devout Catholic.
At the time most people simply identified themselves by the region or town in which they lived. Mercantilism looked good on paper, but if no one in Europe will trade with France, the economy suffers greatly.
Mercantilism is the philosophy and practice of a national economy that is controlled almost entirely by the central government. Spain needed new income to replenish a bankrupt treasurer emptied by the struggle to defeat the Moors. But she used the strength of her personality and popular support among the people to wield great power over Parliament.
But on the third occasion, the petition from Parliament was so strong and the rationale so convincing, the Elizabeth finally relented and issued the death warrant for Mary.
The issue also involved the kinga€™s right to levy taxes and tariffs to fund his expenses apart from Parliamenta€™s consent. If they gave one inch they would compromise their authority to control the funding of the monarchy. Parliament continued to exercise some degree of power because it possessed the purse strings.
As a sop, thrown in their direction with a view to pacifying them, but with an ulterior motive, James permitted them to publish a new English translation of the Bible.
His frequent conflicts with Parliament resulted in his dissolving Parliament on three separate occasions when they did not yield to his wishes.
This greatly threatened the privileged position of the Church of England and furthered the resentment and opposition to his rule. However, the move notified Spain that any attempts to overthrow the move for independence would result in French involvement. Michael built a strong central government, opened relations with other European countries, expanded Russiaa€™s territory, developed a government bureaucracy, and created Russiaa€™s first professional army. The many ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups made the centralization of government difficult.
For instance, Jews and Christians were not permitted to ride horses, could not walk on the same side of the street as Muslims, were frequently forced to yield their 12-year old sons and daughters as slaves, and were generally treated as lower class people.
This cause having been tried by a special court called for the purpose, and the jury not finding the slave guilty of the charge, is called up before this court to decide who shall pay the costs. 15, 1730, by Ebenezer Harker from the heirs of Thomas Pollock for 400 pounds and a twenty-foot boat with oars and mast. These are sometimes capped by a crown or by a picture of a castle, which indicates the principle countries or kingdoms. According to its principle commentator Franz Von Wieser, the de Virga map presents itself in some ways a€?like a compromise between the classical medieval world maps and the map of seaportsa€?. In the southeast, out in the middle of the Indian Ocean, is a large island provided with the note: Caparu sive Java magna, which includes in only one piece of land the distinct geographic features of Zipangu [Japan] and of Java, gathered from Marco Polo. This entire portion of the parchment, separate from the map proper, seems to have been copied from part of some astronomical tables dating from the beginning of the 14th century.
The second, a world map, dates from sometime between 1411 and 1414 (a fold of the parchment at the narrow strip between the zodiacal calendar and the map obscures the last digit(s) of the date). The Inventio Fortunatae, though lost, appears to have been real enough, but it is highly unlikely that it was written by Nicholas of Lynn. De Virgaa€™s fellow Venetian cartographers, Andrea Bianco (#241) and Fra Mauro (#249), accorded Norway plenty of space in 1436 and 1459, respectively.
The Book of Roger, which accompanied al-Idrisia€™s maps, says that Ireland, which lies west of the a€?deserted islanda€? of Scotland, is a very large island.
Gilhofer & Ranschburg announced an auction to be held on June 14-15, in Lucerne, featuring many rare items from the Russian Tsara€™s library at Zarskoje-Selo as well as the de Virga world map, a large photograph of which introduced the catalog.
Nor would Becker-Walz have decided that she or someone close to her needed it for cartographical study, for there was no such scholar in her family.
By April of 1934 Stella Matutinaa€™s large contingent of German students had to transfer to Saint Blaise in Switzerland because the Austrian Jesuit school could no longer grant them valid diplomas.
He arrived at the shores of a southern mainland that was already named a€?Peru.a€? And it was already included on Chinese, Venetian, and Portuguese maps. The photograph shows it during the 40-year occupancy of the original owner, the secretary-treasurer of the Childs Restaurant chain.
In 1953 he built his retirement home with a swimming pool there, but this was preceded on the property in 1951 by Highcroft Cottage.
The cottage, and the house that followed (dubbed Holmcroft), were the only dwellings on the private quarter-mile drive Smith cut from the countya€™s Lake Road bordering the property. There were Smitha€™s Irregular papers, his Sherlock Holmes collection, and, in the kitchen turned into a storeroom, his stock of BSJ back issues and other BSI publications.
For some time he continued to receive mail addressed to 221B Baker Street, which he forwarded to Edgar W.a€™s son Edgar P.
Camera clubs across the country were giving amateur photographers the opportunity to socialize, obtain darkroom assistance, share ideas and information, and go on organized outings on bicycles, trains, or river steamers.
Despite the death of Nancy's father on the Snake River, the family arrived in Oregon in 1852. Several moonlight scenes bring forth the latent beauties of pale lights and dark backgrounds. On another day, they might hike inland for a view of Upper Cape Horn, near Celilo Falls, catch the rays of sun reaching through the clouds after a storm, or capture the early morning mists.
The Panamaa€“Pacific International Exposition opened in San Francisco in 1915, and Ladd exhibited fourteen photographs in the Art Room of the Oregon Building. White's Camera Club demonstrations encouraged countless photographers to progress in style and technique.
The emulsion is a fairly rapid one to be developed in approximately the usual way like developing paper. During the following days, the Oregonian and Oregon Daily Journal reported he had fled the city, been shanghaied, met foul play, and been murdered. Twenty-three practitioners are listed in the city 1909 directory, fifteen of whom worked in the Beck Building.
1843, David Garlick also passed away at the age of 63 and was buried in the old Pioneer Cemetery on the SE corner of that city. Corn up here, the folks that has corn is just pulling the ears off leaving the foder so that stops the work from off the farms hands so there is no work to do.
William is clerking in a grocery store and drives a delivery wagon for the store part of his time. Maybe you can mind old Peter Weaverling that used to live east of my father, it is one of his boys she married, sister to Daisy Garlick. Imagine yourself to be the head of the XYZ Family who through warfare and intrigue just gained control over the country of Bakonia. Central governments attempted to deal with the increasing problems of stagnation and decline by (1) building larger armies, (2) forming larger bureaucracies, (3) raising greater taxes to pay for the armies and bureaucrats, and (4) generally creating a stronger central sovereignty by also controlling the military, economy, production, the court system, and in most cases, religion. This second marriage produced six children, including Henrya€™s heir to the throne, Louis XIII. The central government determines the prices of goods, controls export and import quotas, determines the numbers established for industrial production, and sets as its goal a controlled market where exports outnumber imports.
They in turn kept her in check because she needed their approval for funding to keep her court afloat. The rationale given was that so long as Mary was alive, the Catholic monarch on the continent and the pope in Rome will not cease their attempts to overthrow Elizabeth in order to set Catholic Mary on the throne and thereby recapture England for Rome.
The debate was taken to the judicial officers of England who finally ruled that the king could not. The House of Lancaster won the battle in 1485, and then reconciled the two family lines through marriage. After failing to produce a surviving male heir was accused of adultery and executed, leaving behind young daughter, Elizabeth. Since the Tudors produced no heirs, James, a cousin to Elizabeth, became also King of England as James I. Because James authorized its publication, it became known as the Authorized Version of the King James Bible (1611).
James also appointed numerous Catholics to faculty positions at Cambridge and Oxford, began to purge Parliament of all his dissenters, began a screening process to allow only his supporters to run for Parliament if he should again call it into session, and of greatest concern, his wife gave birth to a first son.
The people were unified by nationalism and generally given freedom to practice private ownership of property, freedom of movement, freedom of religion, and freedom to practice their vocations. The vastness of the empire, poor communication, and poor transportation further hindered Russiaa€™s development. Therefore, they forbad Jan III, the king of Poland, who was in command of the commonwealtha€™s army, to go to the rescue of the Austrians against the Ottomans. And after argument, ordered that the prosecutor pay the witnesses attendance in behalf of the State and that William Jones pay his witnesses and the clerks and sheriffs fees, the execution issue for them respectively and that jurymen services are not to be charged. Teachers were employed to teach one year at Straits and one year at Shepard's Neck (now Morehead City).a€?It was at Gloucester that the first Masonic Lodge in the county was formed.
Teachers were employed to teach one year at Straits and one year at Shepard's Neck (now Morehead City).It was at Gloucester that the first Masonic Lodge in the county was formed. The omission of this island by any name also demonstrates, as does the rest of the map, that de Virga did not base his work on the Ptolemaic concepts that had barely begun to enter European thought at the time. Nevertheless, reports written by the Venetian nobleman Piero Querini and two of his crew about their enforced 1431 sojourn in the Norwegian Lofoten islands make it clear that Norway was as exotic to 15th century Italians as the Brazilian jungles were to 19th century European explorers. As Father Fischera€™s mentor, von Wieser kindled the young scholara€™s interest in cartographical and historical material pertaining to the Norse discovery of America. The mapa€™s reserve price was set at 9,000 Swiss francs, and its connection with Figdor and von Wieser was noted. Most likely, someone gave her reason to believe the map would fetch a higher price if written up in a new study of hitherto unsuspected features in de Virgaa€™s work.
All Jews at the university, including honorary professors like her husband, had to resign their positions by the end of that year. Western historians have given Pizarro credit for discovering Perua€”even though it was already discovered and mapped by somebody else. So far had Smith come that it contained his biographical dictionary of the Canon, Appointment in Baker Street, published the year before by Smitha€™s own a€?Pamphlet Housea€? imprint. It is large for a a€?country hang-out,a€? but the Smiths were numerous, with a son from Mrs. As the drive ran entirely inside his property, he persuaded Morris Townshipa€™s supervisors to let him name it Baker Street, with a street sign at his expense. How many visitors there were in its six years of Irregular occupancy is unknown, but the 1958 dinner of The Five Orange Pips took place there, and other pilgrimages as well. Also in the works were red-covered incunabula reprinted by the BSI, Inc., and collections like Introducing Mr. In Portland, White and Ladd dedicated themselves to the Oregon Camera Club and the nascent photographic movement in the city. They were easily transported and could be exposed and developed whenever it was convenient rather than on location, as wet-plate negatives required.
Prints could result in tints of yellow, green, red, or violet by varying the toning or amount of light and carbon tissue paper used.18 Experimentation with photographic printing techniques and materials was indicative of the true craftsmanship of amateur photographers who thought of themselves as artists. That year, 28 slides by 12 members of the Oregon Camera Club were accepted by the board of managers. For scale, they sometimes added a human figure or their houseboat as a reminder of their location and how they lived. The two friends' boundless physical and creative energy shaped an image of the Pacific Northwest seen by thousands of people. His body was found December 25, 1905, in the Willamette River downriver from the Ladd boathouse. In the same way the dividing line between Anglican England and Presbyterian Scotland also took on importance, as did the line separating Protestant Switzerland from Catholic France and Catholic Austria. It is also Peoplea€™s Law -- the people agree concerning how they will be governed, who will govern them, and, in turn, they vow to live cooperatively under the law. His ulterior motive was to rid England of the Geneva Bible, an earlier English translation that was published in Geneva. Now his Protestant daughters were not in line to ascend the throne, it would be a Catholic heir.
Nevertheless, by reducing the common people to serfdom, requiring them to give summer months to government projects, and compelling the nobility to serve in a new military-civilian bureaucracy, Peter gained the controlling upper hand. Petersburg (notice his humility in naming the city for himself!) following the best in European architecture and culture -- but as a capitol city of a population in which 90% of the people were serfs. Defying the Commonwealtha€™s parliament, the Jan III marched his troops south to Vienna where they came to the rescue of the outnumbered troops of the Holy Roman Empire. The boys were castrated and then trained as personal body guards and shock troopers for the Caliph or Sultan. Swann the aforesaid Summe of Twenty Three pounds Four Shilling and Eleven pence with Costs alias Execution.
Albertin diuirga me fecit in vinexia, the last number of the date having been erased by a fold in the parchment. The Garden of Eden is depicted at the southernmost tip of Africa with the symbol of two concentric rings, from which emerge the four rivers mentioned in Genesis. This statement leaves no room for alternative interpretations of another a€?islanda€? that was supposedly North America.
But in his 1912 published treatise on the de Virga map, von Wieser referred to Fischera€™s work only in a footnote, in which he refuted Fishera€™s conviction that the Danish cartographer Claudius Clavus had brought North America, as well as Greenland, into European cartography.
If so, a strong probability exists that those features had to do with the landmass in the northwest corner labeled Norveca. Smith did not neglect Sherlock Holmes on weekends; for example, it was from there that Smith wrote to President Franklin Roosevelt on July 27, 1942, offering him membership honoris causa in the BSI (which FDR accepted). Smitha€™s first marriage a€” she was a young French war widow when they met around 1919 a€” and three of their own. Both women understood the power of photography to record their own ways of seeing a landscape. Portraits were never better and afford new studies that would appeal to the eye of an artist. While Ladd's photographs received more attention than those of Lily White, both locally through the Pacific Monthly and on the East Coast, it was White's sense of adventure and the opportunities she created on the Raysark that set the tone for their posterity. Maud Ainsworth was awarded first prize of ten dollars in the Architecture and Interiors Division for Melrose Abbey. White and sister of Milton White), Lily White may have thought of Maud Ainsworth as her cousin.
In an interesting twist, White is listed on the April 1910 United States census twice a€” once boarding with the Ladds in Portland and working as a Christian Science physician and again living in her family residence on Fourth Street working as an artist with a studio. The Polish-Lithuanian army arrived the very night before the Ottomans played to complete their tunnels under the walls of Vienna! That notwithstanding, the parchment is generally in good condition with some folds and tears that inhibit its readability. Those who remained after the infamous Kristallnacht (9a€“10 November 1938) were moved into a€?Jewish Housesa€? the following year.
Scion societies also grew in number, with letters (as Morley had once complained) that had to be answered. During those years, they also cultivated opportunities for personal promotion that intersected with Portland's rise in regional and national status. Sarah established a formal garden there with imported plants, a bowling green, a tennis court, a barn, stables, and a caretaker's home. The Expo, which was open for four weeks, featured music, art, trapeze artists, bands, cakewalks, a photography show, and military, mining, and agricultural, displays. Garlick was then baptized for John and Jacob Bumgardner and the record calls him a a€?half nephewa€? of those two men. And we have to remove them from society by locking them away because they willingly choose to not live by the law of the land.
This opened the door for the long-enduring caliphate that was formed in Istanbul which existed from the fall of Constantinople in 1453 A.D. He later sold one-half or 1200 acres to John Stevens of Boston, Mass., for 300 lbs, but placed so many restrictions on the purchase that Stevens sold the one-half back to Harker for 150 lbs. THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE.
The right side carries some tears that indicate that the map was nailed on this side to a wooden piece around which it was evidently rolled. Bjornbo, as well as on personal correspondence with him, which ceased just before Bjornbo acknowledged that he had been wrong about Clavus. After 1940 most were deported to the Gurs concentration camp in the Pyrenees and to extermination camps in Germany. Smitha€™s 221B Baker Street was a beehive of activity, at a time when he could no longer draw upon the secretarial support he had enjoyed at GM. She filled her home with mahogany furniture, china and silver serving pieces, and imported statues and vases of bronze and porcelain. Thus, the King James Bible was authorized but the notes from the Geneva Bible were not allowed to be included in the Authorized Version of 1611. Estate records state that Joseph Fulford's widow, "Hannah intermarried with Joseph Corbet Bell, whereby said Joseph C.
The whole map is framed with a double line and the laced corners between the figures are adorned with oriental-style decoration. It is unlikely that any of these Heidelberg Jews escaped the confiscation of their homes and property by the National Socialists that became the lot of almost every Austrian Jew after the Anschluss in 1938. Cruikshank examined the minutes of the membership meetings in 1902a€“1922 and the early membership list.
Marriage was never really consummated because Henry was displeased with her almost immediately after the wedding.
The president, and senators, and generals in the army, and all the people in major positions all have to obey the same law. If the president ever robbed a bank he would go to jail just like a homeless person would if he robbed a bank.
The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH!
Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments.
The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr.
Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley.
We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines.
If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant. We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society.
In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia. They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories.
The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity. However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results. One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed. However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure.
One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility. Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach.
Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour.
Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close. Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with.
There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing. In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments.
Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects.
Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery.
He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime.
We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit. The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months. Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.



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