A large body of experimental data now exists for (e,2e) differential cross section (DCS) ionisation studies in which the scattered and ejected electrons are detected with the same energy and at the 'same' asymptotic scattering angles with respect to the incident electron direction. A detection plane spanned by the scattered and ejected electron momenta ka and kb is initially defined. The energy region from around 3eV to 100eV excess energy is defined here as the 'intermediate energy' region. Studies at lower energies are considered to lie in the threshold region where correlation effects between outgoing electrons dominate the reaction.
Differential cross section studies at energies in excess of 100eV are predominantly governed by single binary collisions between the incident and ejected electrons, the core playing a decreasing role in the reaction as this energy increases. Common to all these models is the importance of correlations between the outgoing electrons brought about through electrostatic coupling as they emerge from the reaction zone (see figure 2). As the excess energy above ionisation decreases, the outgoing electrons have more time to mutually interact and so the probability that they will emerge asymptotically at a mutual angle of p radians increases, whereas their 'memory' of the incident electron direction correspondingly decreases. In this page a model-independent parameterisation of the ionisation differential cross section is discussed.
The parameterisation is in terms of a complete orthogonal set of irreducible tensorial angular functions which define correlation between any three vectors in space.
This parameterisation was first proposed for the (e,2e) process by Klar and Fehr (1992), and has a long and distinguished history in the field of nuclear particle interactions proceeding through sharply defined states, where the analysis gives information about the angular momenta carried into and out of the reaction. By contrast, in the (e,2e) reaction the intermediate state is not normally sharply defined, and so the parameters do not directly reveal the angular momenta associated with the reaction, but rather indicate the degree of correlation between ingoing and outgoing electrons. The (e,2e) differential cross section is parameterised as a coherent superposition of partial waves up to L = 2 defining scattering in the reaction zone which is modulated by a Gaussian function modelling correlations between the outgoing electrons.
There is no evidence of the complex structure discussed above for the intermediate energy regime. Comprehensive experimental data exists for ionisation of helium in the intermediate energy region over a very wide range of scattering geometries. In these results the DCS is assumed to be zero when x = 0 and x = p since the probability of detection of two electrons of equal energy emerging in the same direction is very small. At 1eV excess energy a single structure is observed due to strong outgoing electron correlation, as previously noted. At 3eV and 5eV above ionisation both a forward and a backward structure start evolving from the central peak at low incident electron angles y, whereas at higher angles y the DCS is still approximately Gaussian. Backward scattering, probably dominated by elastic scattering of the incoming electron from the atom into the backward direction in the detection plane followed by a binary collision with a valence electron, is the dominant contribution to the overall DCS structure. At the higher excess energy (30 - 50eV) forward scattering starts to dominate, reflecting the importance of single binary collisions.
Only the central peak is attainable through a single collision process and there will additionally be significant contributions to this peak through outgoing electron correlations at the lower energies. Indistinguishability of the outgoing electrons requires the DCS at (y,x) to be equated to that at (y, 2mp-x) where m is an integer. Reflection symmetry is necessary in the detection plane since no preferred direction is defined with respect to this plane, and hence s(y,x) = s(-y,x). When electron spin is not considered the (e,2e) differential cross section is a function only of the momenta of the ingoing and outgoing electrons. The choice of angular functions Ilalbl0 required to characterise the (e,2e) DCS is restricted by the symmetries inherent in the ionisation process.
Here the set for which la = lb when l0 is even and (la,A l0)A < lb when l0 is odd is chosen. It is clear that plotting the absolute magnitude of the I110 function as a radial vector when scanning over all possible values of theta and phi produces a 3-D surface which represents the function.
Since the magnitude can be positive as well as negative, it is important to represent this facet when describing the function in this way. It is necessary to consider the magnitude and sign of the functions as the (e,2e) Differential Cross Section is parameterised as a linear sum of the angular functions (see equation 6), and so for various values of theta and phi the functions can cancel each other to allow zeroes in the cross section. The complete set of 3-D images of the 44 Angular Functions Ila,lb,l0 required to parameterise the symmetric (e,2e) Differential Cross Section over the energy range from 1eV to 50eV above the Helium ionisation threshold have been generated. The summation is over the experimental data points i each with an associated weight wi evaluated from the uncertainty in the data.
This linear fitting was fast and reliable, yielding excellent starting parameters for the second non-linear fitting method. A Simplex method was used to minimise the c2 function by adjusting the Blalbl0 parameters (see figure 7).
Any trial for which the fitting function did not obey the assumptions was rejected and the Simplex routine was reset to explore alternative regions of the c2 surface.
This method converges far more slowly than the linear fitting method but requires no inferred data. The maximum significant values of la, lb and l0 were established using a statistical F-test. At 1eV excess energy only l0 = 0 to 4 contribute, and the la and lb terms are all of the same sign, reinforcing each other in each l0 manifold. The relative magnitudes of the terms in each manifold combine to produce the lobe structure at the mutual angle of p radians. As the energy increases this regular pattern quickly disappears as the forward and backward lobes evolve from the central 'Gaussian' profile. Higher order l0 correlation terms become significant as the intermediate energy region is entered, indicating an increasing contribution of higher order partial waves to the DCS. Additionally the la and lb terms start to compete in magnitude and sign to produce the more complex structures observed.
At excess energies above about 30eV the parameters tend to stabilise in sign and vary smoothly with energy. The maximum significant number of la and lb terms in each l0 manifold also decreases as the energy increases, indicating that the number of partial waves required in the outgoing channel decreases with increasing energy. Figure 9 shows 3-D representations of the (e,2e) differential cross sections at each energy from 1eV to 50eV excess energy as obtained from fitting the data to the parameterisation.
The 3-D surface is generated from a vector whose length is given by the magnitude of the differential cross section as the surface is generated throughout space for all angles (q,f).
The backward scattering region is towards the viewer, whereas the forward scattering region is away from the viewer.
The results shown in figure 9 show 3 dimensional representations of the (e,2e) differential cross sections derived from the parameterisation at the energies where experiments were conducted.
It is useful to establish a technique which allows interpolation between these results at the eight discrete excess energies, to enable the differential cross section to be estimated as a function of the three angular and one energy variables over the complete range of energies from threshold to 50eV excess energy. The (e,2e) differential cross section s is then projected onto a four dimensional space, whose axes are defined by the independant variables (s, q,f & Eexc). As this cannot be visualised as a single projection on these pages, it is instructive to map one of these variables onto the time co-ordinate. In this case, we choose the excess energy to be varied in time, whereas the other 3 variables are mapped onto conventional 3-dimensional co-ordinate space, as has been done in the previous figures.a€?Hence, once the DCS is parameterised as a function of energy as well as a function of the scattering angle, this parameterisation can be used to derive 3-D images at discrete energy intervals.
These images can then be projected as a moving film, where the time from the start to the end of the film depicts the energy change from 1eV to 50eV excess energy.
A cubic spline is interpolated through the parameters as a function of the ratio of excess energy to the ionisation energy of 24.6eV.

These are fitted using a ninth order polynomial fit which closely emulates the cubic spline through the data.
Details of these cubic spline fits to the Blalbl0 parameters can be found by accessing the appropriate interlink page splinefit.htm.
The b-parameters which define the normalised DCS as a function of energy and angle can be downloaded here as a text file. Although the b-parameters do not have a direct physical meaning, they allow the normalised DCS surfaces to be generated at any energy from 1eV to 50eV as has been discussed.
100 of these images have been generated at 0.5eV intervals, and compressed into a Quicktime movie.
Note that these files are around 3MB in size, so may take some time to download should internet access be busy. Additionally the evolution of the 44.6eV DCS as successive angular functions are added together can be seen!
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Refunds by law: In Australia, consumers have a legal right to obtain a refund from a business for goods purchased if the goods are faulty, not fit for purpose or don't match description. By submitting your bid, you are committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder. By clicking Confirm, you commit to buy this item from the seller if you're the winning bidder. By clicking Confirm, you're committing to buy this item from the seller if you're the winning bidder and have read and agreed to the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. By clicking 1 Click Bid, you commit to buy this item from the seller if you're the winning bidder. The Eclipse Foundation is presenting Helios In Action - a virtual conference where you can interact with project leads involved in the release and see demos of the new features. With this said, I recently decided that the PsychoPath XPath processor needed to migrate off of the Athena Common build script that it had been using to a Maven based build. Join Java and Eclipse expert Phil Quitslund as he presents best practices for creating effective, consistent, and robust user interface tests. Integrating BIRT with Spring in a Web applicationand Eclipse BIRT in Spring web applicationsare a couple of examples.There is not much information on how to include Spring Beans within a report design. Last week we held our first EclipseLink Summit here in Ottawa with attendees from Canada, Germany, India, and the US. We just need 189 more people to join by the end of July to hit our goal of 360 Friends of Helios.  If you haven’t already joined please consider joining today.
Side note: Last August after the disaster with bugfix propagation between different branches in the FindBugs project I've started to looking for a replacement for the SVN (which was the evil system). There are no groundbreaking changes - mostly some code polishing and few small enhancements, as most of my plugins are mature enough. At this year's Eclipse Summit Europe there was a very nice Xtext-related talk given by Sebastian Benz who is working at BMW Car IT.The talk was about how they used Xtext in order to develop a textual syntax and corresponding IDE for the AUTOSAR standard. These experiments have recently been carried out principally by two groups at Kaiserslautern group and at Manchester (see references for examples).
This region is now successfully modelled to a large degree using the Born approximation and its associated derivatives. Although theoretical interest in this region is increasing, no theory adequately explains the experimental data accumulated so far.
The Paris coplanar and Manchester Perpendicular plane results at an excess energy of 1eV ionising Helium as the target. In the experimentally inaccessible regions centred at x = 0A° and x = p the DCS is constrained to be positive and to have no points of inflection, and at the angles x = 0A° and p themselves the DCS is put equal to zero.
The choice of la, lb and l0 used to define the subset is arbitrary within the constraint that the angular functions must be unrelated.
These images are established by plotting the magnitude of the angular function against the angles theta and phi that are defined in the function.
These artificially generated points were given low weighting to minimise the constraints placed upon the fit. Consideration of the data sets at all excess energies established that 44 angular functions up to la, lb = 7 and l0 = 6 gave the best overall fit to the data.
The fitting parameters can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file by linking to the file Blalbl0.dat.
Further information can be obtained by linking from the figures to the appropriate WWW page. 3-D representations of the DCS calculated from the fitted parameters Blalbl0 for the 8 data sets from 1eV to 50eV. The 3D Quicktime movie can be downloaded at the end of this page by linking to the appropriate file. You've read and agreed to the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase your maximum bid amount. The two screenshots show the results when dynamically switching between the dark and the bright theme.
At the end of the event, we’ll have some frosty beverages and snacks ready for some great discussions! The annual simultaneous release has now grown to 39 projects with over 33 million lines of code, contributed by committers around the world.
Apple takes care of billing, taxes, and other administrative tasks, and in return takes a 30% cut of all sales. Sven and me will give a free one hour live seminar on Xtext introducing the framework and demonstrating its new fancy features in Helios.
Although I do enjoy a good Guiness I am also looking forward to the conference and the topics I am covering this week as well as the hours of travel to catch up on some pre-release tasks. The first half was about technical details and tips behind Android game development, but the second half was just about good game development for mobile platforms.
The user interface (UI) of an application is your front-line connection with the customer—if it doesn’t look good and work effectively the first time, your company reputation is at stake.
Since we launched the campaign 171 people have joined as a Friend of Eclipse.   Thank you, thank you, thank you! BTW, 5 of the plugins are hosted now on Eclipse Labs and using Mercurial as version control system behind. I quickly became the committer rights in the MercurialEclipse plugin - and now few months later I've managed all of my project updates in a full featured IDE without the command line. The name of the project is ARText and it is freely available to all AUTOSAR members as part of the Artop project.One of the biggest challenges when implementing the AUTOSAR standard is to create scalable solutions. The Wannier model parameterisation transformed to the (y,x) geometry is shown as a fit to the data. The function can either be positive or negative depending upon the value of theta and phi, and the sign is therefore represented by two colours, PURPLE indicating a positive magnitude and RED representing a negative magnitude.

The example here shows the method for finding the minimum of a 3-D Gaussian function of the form z = - exp(-x^2 + y^2). Higher resolution images together with a downloadable EPS file for each of the data sets can be obtained by linking to either of the above low resolution images. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. The rest goes directly to developers.For free applications, developers can make money by showing advertisements instead of on the sale of the app.
I don’t follow the software methodology space that closely but I was surprised by the fact that 1) 25% of the respondents don’t use a methodology and 2) the most popular, Scrum, has only 15% adoption.  The rest of the respondents identified over 18 different methodologies that they use for a development methodology.
In the survey, we asked a question about the corporate policies towards open source participation. AUTOSAR projects might become very, very big and in order to work with such huge projects the tools need to perform very well. This electron, and the incident electron that has lost almost all of its energy in the reaction have similar energies and therefore as they emerge from the reaction zone feel the Coulombic influence of each other and the ion core following ionisation. The scattering is more complex than in the threshold region, since the incident electron can penetrate deeper into the neutral target electron cloud, and therefore there is more complex interactions between the electrons and the core.
The Simplex, in this case a 2-D triangle whose vertices are defined by points on the surface, proceeds by reflection, contraction, expansion or shrinking along the surface as shown. In 2009 48% claimed they could contribute back to OSS but in 2010 only 35.4% claim they could contribute back. Even after 13 years of helping customers use TopLink and now EclipseLink I still find diagnosing, solving, and innovating in these areas some of the most interesting work I take part in.
Pretty much every mobile platform vendor is creating some sort of one stop shopping experience for their devices and it's a great vehicle for app developers to quickly get their wares into the hands of paying customers.
Xtext itself provides a concise language to describe DSLs, so that it takes only minutes to create a first draft of your language. The low relative velocity of the electrons allows them to mutually interact for sufficient time to tightly correlate their respective asymptotic directions. There is now a finite probability of exchange, capture, ingoing and outgoing correlations between all charged particles in the reaction.
It has a stainless steel outer cover that doubles as the antenna for Bluetooth, WiFi, GPS, UMTS, and GSM. Helping customers learn what they need to know about their models and application use cases and translating them into their object-relational mappings, schema, and usage of their persistence layer is challenging and often poorly understand by Java developers.The persistence layer enables performance and scalability but there are many simple decisions developers can make while configuring and coding to their persistence layer which are made early in projects and have big effects late in projects when trying to reach their performance and scalability goals. And with systems like Valve's Steam, you also get this great experience on your desktops and laptops.The biggest advantage of markets, as Chris illustrated, is that it's also a great way to keep in touch with your customers. You don't have to deal with complex meta programming or multiple syntax alternatives as you do in internal DSL development.
We know it was tough to squeeze this additional work into your hectic pre-Helios schedules. This leads to both forward and backward scattering possibilities, depending upon the complexity of these interactions. There’s a camera and LED flash on the back, and two microphones for noise cancellation (like the Nexus One). If you're based in Germany's Ruhr area, you might want to visit the Eclipse Demo Camp in Dortmund. Customers tend to be brutally honest about what you've provided them, and it's good to get first hand looks at that feedback.
The feedback from all attendees was excellent.On the 3rd day of the Summit we focused more on the project itself. However, the folks at BMW Car IT wanted to develop AUTOSAR projects in a traditional text-based manner and given all the good experiences with tools like JDT or IntelliJ, it's clear that text-based IDEs can scale very well.In order to implement the language they first had tried the old Xtext version from oAW, which was way too slow. Apple has a good head start on Android, but Android is catching up fast.Most analysts feel it is inevitable that Android will surpass Android in the next couple of years given the dozens of partners producing the devices, all trying to compete with each other and with Apple in terms of price and features. It has grown up from a tiny little editor generator to a mature language development framework. Starting with a talk from Jeff McAffer (EclipseSource) on OSGi and Eclipse RT technologies. Then, later, when the new TMF Xtext came around they gave it another try and saw that the performance had been improved significantly.
But even for non-Xtext enthusiasts there will be nice demos, e.g on SAP's new graphical modeling framework "Graphiti", on developing Android apps with Eclipse and a lot more intriguing topics. Sebastian showed the following slide in his talk:After that he explained how they have solved a couple of other problems, such as supporting different releases of the standard or making the language extendable. According to Jobs, 300dpi is about the limit that the human retina can distinguish at 10-12 inches away from the eye, so he’s calling this the “retina display”. And even better it seems that they've had as much fun using Xtext as we had and still have when developing (and using) it.
Because the aspect ratio is exactly the same as older iPhones, no change is needed from developers and all old apps run unmodified. I'm not talking about syntax coloring for Vim, but something close to what modern Java IDEs offer.
Along with a bigger battery, the chip provides up to 7 hours talk time, 6 hours 3G browsing, and 300 hours of standby. We at itemis have already successfully implemented a couple of IDEs for various programming languages. The new device has a real gyroscope in addition to the accelerometer that is standard now in most smart phones.
The camera’s megapixels have been increased to 5, plus they’re using a backside illuminated sensor for higher quality. There’s a camera in the front too (more on that later).To go with the new camera, Apple has written a new app called iMovie for iPhone. It allows you to edit movies with transitions, music, titles, and so forth right on your phone. Formerly called “iPhone OS 4“, the new operating system has a ton of new features including multitasking, unified inbox, conversation threading, and so forth.
Double continuum wave functions and threshold law for electron atom ionisation, Physics Review A.
With the new iAd platform, there’s a standardized, supported platform to create in-app ads that don’t bounce the user out into the browser. Apple sells and hosts the ads, and developers get a 60% cut via iTunes connect (the same way you get paid for your apps).iAds will be enabled July 1st but Apple has been selling spots for 8 weeks. JP Morgan estimated the entire mobile ad market to be worth $250 million this year, so that’s a significant number.Originally Steve said he was going to highlight 8 features, but he couldn’t resist adding “one more thing”…9.
You can set it up so the other person sees you (via the front camera) or what you’re looking at (via the back camera). It uses other standards like H.264, AAC, SIP, STUN, RTP, SRTP, TURN, and ICE.So how much is all this going to cost you?

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