Traditional Turkish Miniature & Paintings Workshop,Turkish Miniatures are he oldest surviving illustrations belong to the Uighur Turks.
We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and our teachers are professional in Traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor Paintings. Turkish Miniature & Painting Workshops,(2 Hours Lesson - Per Student ) ,2 - 5 Student,55 Euro ,6 - more 40 Euro ,1 Student,65 Euro ,Lesson Includes. The Historical Development of the Ottoman Court Miniature In the Ottoman era, miniature art was produced for more than three hundred years.
Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror was not only a truly great statesman but a cultured man of liberal outlook. In addition to portraits, a number of manuscript illuminations have survived from this period. Following his victories over the Safavids and Mamluks, which had hitherto been the two most powerful states in the Islamic world, Sultan Selim I (1512-20) brought a large number of artists to the Ottoman court in Istanbul, most of them from the Tabriz palace.
Besides the matchless illustrations in the Suleymanname, the reign of Suleyman has also left us important examples of portraiture.
The Oldest Turkish Illustrated Documents,The oldest illustrated documents on paper among Turkish tribes, are from the period succeeding Akhuns. Moslem Miniatures,The oldest miniatures found in Moslem circles are from the 9th, 10th, 11th centuries and they have been found in Egypt.
The 16th Century Ottoman Miniatures,The conquest of Istanbul was the first step into a new phase of the Ottoman cultural life. The beginning of the eighteenth century was the start of both opening to the Western world and increasing the necessary self-renovation efforts for the Ottoman Empire.
Levni Abdulcelil Celebi is the most accomplished and famous Ottoman painter of the early eighteenth century.
Levni has made a series of sultans’ portraits, ending with that of Sultan Mustafa II’s for Demetrius Cantemir’s book, The History of the Growth and Decay of the Ottoman Empire.
Levni was both a painter and a poet; he has expressed his artistic personality both visually, in his paintings and rhythmically in his poems. The point of view developed by Levni has both influenced later artists and opened a path of innovations in the Ottoman art of depiction. At different periods, depending on the centre of calligraphy at the time, the Arabic script was known variously as anbari, hiri and mekki in pre-Islamic times, and after the Hegira these were qualified by the term medeni.
Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking.
Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. The traditional instrument of the Turkish - Ottoman calligrapher is the kalem, a pen made of dried reed or bamboo; the ink is often in color, and chosen such that its intensity can vary greatly, so that the greater strokes of the compositions can be very dynamic in their effect.
The first of those to gain popularity was known as the Kufic script, which was angular, made of square and short horizontal strokes, long verticals, and bold, compact circles.The Diwani script is a cursive style of Arabic calligraphy developed during the reign of the early Ottomans (16th and early 17th centuries). Due to its rich subject matter, longevity, and freshness, Turkish miniature painting of the Ottoman period occupies a special place in the history of Islamic painting. We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and our teachers are professional in Traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor Paintings.
In our studio, we provide all the materials for our students including old miniature papers.
Ottoman miniatures and illuminated manuscripts were prepared mostly for sultans but also for important and powerful figures in their retinues. A distinctive feature of Ottoman miniature art is that it portrays actual events realistically yet adheres to the traditional canons of Islamic art, with its abstract formal expression. The nakka?’s (designer-painters), of the Ottoman court were required to illustrate daily events. Ottoman miniature painting, which was periodically affected by different artistic influences, was essentially a form of what can be called “historical painting”.
DESCRIPTION: Shown here are reproductions of an early road map of the imperial highways of the Roman world, covering the area roughly from southeast England to present day Sri-Lanka. This Colmar copy was found by Konrad Celtes (1459-1508), a German poet and scholar for the Emperor Maximilian I and later turned over to Konrad Peutinger (1465-1547), Chancellor of Augsburg, in 1508 in Augsburg and has since been known as the Tabula Peutingeriana or Peutinger Tables or Itineraries. In its design, the Peutinger Table makes no pretense of showing the whole world or even its major parts in correct proportion. The proportions of the Peutinger Map are such that distances east-west are represented at a much larger scale than distances north-south; for example, Rome looks as though it were nearer to Carthage than Naples is to Pompeii. In the Jansoon edition of the Peutinger Table (1652), the first sheet shows a section of southeastern England protruding from the title cartouche, with the roads and harbors marked.
The Colmar manuscript of the Peutinger Tables, also known as Codex Vindobonensis 324, is presently in the National Bibliothek, Vienna and has been divided into sections for preservation.
The Peutinger Map was primarily drawn to show main roads, totaling some 70,000 Roman miles (104,000 km), and to depict features such as staging posts, spas, distances between stages, large rivers, and forests (represented as groups of trees). Around the personification of Rome - a female figure on a throne holding a globe, a spear, and a shield - are twelve main roads, each with its name attached, a practice not adopted elsewhere. Ostia is shown with a harbor occupying about one-third of a circle, in a fashion similar to that of miniatures in the early manuscripts of Virgila€™s Aeneid. The road network is thought to have been based (at least within the empire) on information held by the cursus publicus, responsible for organizing the official transport system set up by Augustus. The part of the British section of the Peutinger Map that survives is so fragmentary that it covers only a limited area of the southeast, not even including London, and an even smaller area around Exeter. Owing to the shape of the map, the Nile could not be represented as a long river if it were made to flow northward throughout its course. Late antiquity is considered as a relatively autonomous historical period, that according to certain scholars is extended from 200 A.D. These maps were used with a multitude of functions, including the use of maps as cadastral and legal records, as aids to travelers, to commemorate military and religious events, as strategic documents, as political propaganda and for academic and educational purposes. The object of this study is focused on the cartographic genre of itineraria picta and more specifically on the Tabula Peutingeriana, a road map prepared in order to show the roads of the empire over a total distance of 104,000 km. According to actual cartographic terminology Tabula Peutingeriana is a typical example of a thematic road map preserving mainly the topology of geographic continuity rather than the conventional cartographic representation. Depicting in topological consistency the road network and offering travel information to its users (by showing the road network, the settlements, the staging posts, the partial distances, the cities of various type, depending on their size and significance etc. As discussed in the article by Dr Dimitris Drakoulis, a€?The study of late antique cartography through web base sourcesa€?, e-Perimetron, Vol.
The second most important road axis, the Via Egnatia, ran crosswise through the Balkans and provided communications between the Adriatic, the Aegean, and the Propontis, between Rome and Constantinople. The borders of the Roman Empire in his northern regions correspond to the flow of the river Danubius, while the eastern limits correspond to the flow of the Tigris River. The road network is represented with red distressed (zigzag) line, that denotes the corresponding changes of horses, with distances between stations, expressed in roman miles (milia passus = 1,4815 km) for all the territory. There exist three cities of the First Level, Roma, Constantinopolis and Antiocheia, represented as female incarnations, Tychai of the cities, that constitute the three capitals a€“ imperial residences of the Empire. There exist six Second Level cities, which are represented in the form of fortresses with walls, bastions and deferring number of towers. Most of the pictures represent Third Level cities, provincial capitals (metropoleis) and important commercial centers (Figure 7).
The network of settlements is supplemented with the insertion of stations - mansiones and points of change of horses - mutationes that constitutes the intermediary turning-points between the various central places. A number of settlements are represented according to particular uses and functions of space that are attributed with the particular characteristics of the shells that support the function.
There exist in total 33 temples located usually in colonies and points of local adoration, for example in the Balkans (Ad Dianam), in Africa, (Ad Herculem, Temple Jovis, Ad Mercurium, Temple Veneris), while in Egypt can be found three temples of Serapis and three of Isis. The defensive function is present in all the representations of cities, a fact that is considered in the context of a period after the imperial pax romana. Recreational functions are represented with thermal baths, portrayed with square structures, with a closed facade and in the center a swimming pool. Lighthouses are found in Alexandria, Egypt, in Chrissopolis [Uskudar] and in Jovisurius in the entry of Euxeinus Pontus. The iconographic system of the Tabula Peutingeriana is based upon a hierarchical structure that represents the settlements network, with a process of symbolic generalizations and personifications, in the period of the successors of Constantine the Great. The reliability of map has been placed under contestation by many scholars, in regard to the precision of settlements locations and distances that represent.
Albu, Emily, a€?Imperial Geography and the Medieval Peutinger Mapa€?, Imago Mundi, Volume 57, June 2005, pp. Drakoulis, Dr Dimitris, a€?The study of late antique cartography through web base sourcesa€?, e-Perimetron, Vol.
Fowden a€“ Athanasiadi P., a€?The successors of Great Constantinea€? (in Greek), Istoria Ellinikou Ethnous.
Salway, Benet, a€?The Nature and Genesis of the Peutinger Mapa€?, Imago Mundi, Volume 57, June 2005, pp. The Peutinger Map was primarily drawn to show main roads, totaling some 70,000 Roman milesA  (104,000 km), and to depict features such as staging posts, spas, distances between stages, large rivers, and forests (represented as groups of trees). As discussed in the article by Dr Dimitris Drakoulis,A  a€?The study of late antique cartography through web base sourcesa€?, e-Perimetron, Vol. This seller is currently away until May 31, 2016, and is not processing orders at this time.
By clicking Confirm bid, you commit to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder.
By clicking Confirm bid, you are committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder and have read and agree to the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. By clicking 1 Click Bid, you commit to buy this item from the seller if you're the winning bidder. DESCRIPTION: The English geographical culture in the 13th century is revealed in the unusual circumstance that four important 13th century mappaemundi - the Vercelli, Dutchy of Cornwall, Ebstorf and Hereford (see also #224, #226) - either are English or appear to have strong English connections.
In many cases it is possible to fix a terminus post quem, but rarely to find a terminus ante quem. If paleographers wish to date the script of documents, there are, for instance, different ways to describe the design of Gothic letters.
Especially the large sums of the 13th century have been discussed in our time, if the author is unknown. The problem of dating the Vercelli map relates to the fact that neither the author nor sponsor nor provenance is known. Carlo Errera discovered the Rotulus in 1908 when organizing the archive of the Chapter of Vercelli. In 1935 Anna Maria Brizio thought that the style of painting on the Vercelli map resembled Spanish miniatures of the Romanesque style thus favoring a painter from the first half of the 13th century. Stimulated by the Italian historian of cartography Roberto Almagiai, a geographer of the University of Turin, Carlo Felice Capello, studied the map and its history after 1951 and proposed in 1957 at the 17th Geographical Congress at Bani to attribute the map to the contemporaries of Cardinal Guala Bicchieri (d.1227).
Ordinarily the mappamundi of the Middle Ages in Western Europe is often of summary of knowledge drawn from different sources, concentrated in a picture offering places of interest from different historic periods. An important mark for a terminus post quem on the Vercelli map is the city of Alessandria in Lombardy, founded in 1167 and named in honor of Pope Alexander III probably the youngest city shown on the map. The placing of Jerusalem and of the earthly paradise on the Vercelli map differs from the other maps of large size.
In favor of an early dating of the Vercelli map there has often been discussed the position of Jerusalem because it is not placed in the center of the map. Early research on the Vercelli map thought that the style of painting reflected that of the Spanish miniatures.
When the Vercelli map is compared with its three sisters, there are only limited water areas displayed on it.
Mountains on the Vercelli map mostly are shown as three-leaved symbols, or chains, often looking like grapes.
England is scantily documented on the Vercelli map, a large part has been ravaged by time: it is placed in the surrounding ocean on the left side and at the edge of the inhabited world. All the figures - men, animals, and monsters alike - look slim and seem to belong to the Gothic style of painting. The experience of paleography should not be under-estimated when dating maps, though there are included many imponderables.
During the 13th century there was a considerable change from Gothic majuscule, developed from uncial forms, to usual Gothic minuscule, which became the regular script for epigraphy in the 14th century. Bagrow, Leo, History of Cartography (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1964), Plate XXV. George, Wilma, Animals and Maps (University of California Press), 1968, Figure 2.6 (one humped camel in Ethiopia). Errera, C., a€?Un mappamondo medievale sconosciuto nella€™Archivo capitolare de Vercelli,a€? Atti della R.
George, Wilma, Animals and Maps (University of California Press, 1968), 35-36, 60, 109, 125, 186.
A A  The medieval world map is a documentary and also a narrative authority for the historian: it reflects the knowledge as well as the view of the world. Our system administrators have identified an issue with one of our mail arrays related to a hardware failure of one storage member in the SAN. A creative yet pragmatic communicator with award-winning experience in narrative storytelling and news production.
Extensive experience in film production, with works featured in regional, national, and international film festivals. Proficiency in handling sensitive matters and communicating diplomatically with people of differing views. Strong skills and experience in research and in communicating through letters, emails, op-eds, social media, and speeches. Supervised support staff of 14, including legal secretaries, paralegals, and general office support.
Consistently maintained Number 1 or 2 ranking for order fulfillment in a team of 32 order pickers.
Created a system for finance managers that generated and emailed monthly financial reports and spreadsheets for on-time budget planning. Review your older jobs and accomplishments to be sure the language still communicates well. For instance, if you are more than 10 years out of school, drop your college activities unless they communicate something unique and amazing.
Imagine this situation: That job you held from 1993 to 1996 was once a significant part of your resume, worthy of five bullet points of accomplishments. Just as emptying your closet of old clothes helps you focus on and build a new wardrobe, eliminating old resume details helps you focus on and build a case for the newest phase of your career.
Replace some of the text with concise bullet points if you have chunks of text that are longer than three lines. Replace typefaces such as Times New Roman and Book Antiqua with a sans serif typeface like Trebuchet, and see if you like the difference.
Experiment with incorporating a strong left alignment rather than centered headings, to communicate energy rather than formality. College instructors sometimes ask me to recommend a text to use in their business writing classes.
I'm pleased to announce a complete new communications curriculum for college instructors.
One of my many favorite learning activities from the curriculum involves revising relationship-busting statements.
If you are a college instructor, you can find about more about the free curriculum and how to receive it.
If you are not a college instructor but want to try your hand at revising the statement above, please do! If you are holding back, thinking Well, it depends, you are with The Gregg Reference Manual.
Good proofreaders catch errors that would embarrass, torment, and diminish us if those errors appeared in print or online. If you have made certain style decisions on your own—for instance, you use Canadian spelling because you have Canadian clients—let your proofreaders know that.
If you are an expert in your field or industry, you have probably learned a lot of jargon--and you've earned the right to use it.
Abbreviations (including acronyms) without definitions or spelled-out versions: CRM, OD, EOM, OFA, ERISA, JCAHO. To recognize whether a term you want to use is jargon, ask yourself: Do our potential customers or clients, new employees and interns, and senior leaders use this term? Unless you define or explain it, do not use jargon in any communications outside your expert peer groups: reports to senior management, recommendations to the board, letters to customers, web sites, marketing packets, annual reports, newsletters, grant proposals, user manuals, etc. When writing to a mixed audience, avoid jargon in the subject line, title, or first sentences.
The eight and nineth century paintings found at Chotcho, there capital in Turfan, are the earliest examples of Turkish book illustrations known. In our studio, we give beginner, intermediate & advanced level of traditional Turkish Miniature & Watercolor painting lessons. For more info please send us an E-MAIL,history of Ottoman & Turkish Minature Paintings,Ottoman miniatures and illuminated manuscripts were prepared mostly for sultans but also for important and powerful figures in their retinues.
The earliest Ottoman Turkish miniatures were created under the patronage of Sultan Mehmed II some 150 years after the establishment of the Ottoman state. In spite of the fact that there was no tradition of portraiture in the Islamic world, he had his likeness painted just as Western monarchs did and for this reason invited Italian painters to his court. These works, which were probably produced in Edirne, bear traces of the Timurid and Karakoyunlu Turkmen miniature styles found in mid-fifteenth century Shiraz. A significant number of these artists had been those who the Safavids had earlier brought from Herat to Tabriz, along with the last Timurid sultan.The lengthy sultanate of Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-66), witnessed a gradual expansion and strengthening of the Ottoman borders. A number of these, noteworthy for their great originality, were both written and illustrated by a certain Nasuh al-Silahi, nicknamed Matraki because of his expertise in a sport called matrak. Turkish portrait painting, which began during the reign of Mehmed the Conqueror but suffered a decline under his immediate successors, was revived during these years by the Turkish navigator Haydar Reis, who used the pseudonym Nigari and whose most important works are preserved in the Topkapy Library. These documents dating from 717-719 are in Turkish, Chinese and Arabic and they belong to a Turkish emir who battled with Moslem armies in Pencikent near Samarkand.
The characteristics of the period in the field of paintings and miniatures may be summed up as the meeting of the eastern and western painting schools, as the widespread interaction and communication and as the widespread availability of display. The famous miniature painters of the age were master Osman, Ali ?elebi, Molla Kasim, Hasan Pasa and Litfi Abdullah. Although this period during which cultural relations with Europe were increasing is named “the westernization” or “the renovation” period, it is much too complicated to be explained in a single phrase.
The originals of these engraved portraits printed in the book have not survived to our day.
The fact that the title ‘Celebi’ is used with Levni’s name, shows that he was an educated, elegant, well mannered, respectable gentleman from a high social class within the Ottoman society.
The Koran, which was the first Islamic text compiled in book form, was first written in mekki-medeni hand in black ink on parchment, without diacritics or vowel signs.
In Persia and further east, meanwhile, kufi was transformed into a script known as mesrik kufisi, which was used until superseded by the aklam-i sitte scripts. It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under Suleyman I the Magnificent. The most important of these works are still preserved in the place in which they were produced, for example, Topkapy Palace in Istanbul, and other palaces of the Ottoman sultans.
Nearly all these paintings are concerned with important events of the day, such as Turkish victories, the conquest of fortresses, state affairs, festivals, formal processions, and circumcision feasts. To preserve the freshness of the works they prepared and to ensure that the orders of the sultan were carried out, they worked very rapidly, with the result that the Turkish miniature is devoid of fine and elaborate ornamentation. The bulk of Turkish miniatures comprise works of documentary value deriving from the depiction of actual events.
250 the original tables were, themselves, copied from a larger original map of the first century A.D.
After Peutingera€™s death, two of the twelve sections of the Colmar manuscript were engraved and published in 1591 with annotated text and place-names taken from the sections reproduced.
It is merely a graphic compendium of mileages or basically an itinerary route map with the roads delineated predominantly by straight lines, often with curious jogs. The archetype may well have been on a papyrus roll, designed for carrying around in a capsa [tool box].
France, Spain, and North Africa with roads, cities and some prominent buildings are also depicted, along with major Mediterranean islands being Corsica and Sardinia. Its date of transcription is 12th or early 13th century, but it has long been recognized as a copy of an ancient map. It is not a military map, though it could have been used for military purposes but the words of Vegetius give an indication of its possible function. Constantinople is represented by a helmeted female figure seated on a throne and holding in her left hand a spear and a shield. This system, extended under the late empire to troop movements, relied very largely on staging posts at more or less regular intervals; couriers traveled an average of fifty Roman miles (74 km) a day. This can be well illustrated by a name in Italy otherwise recorded only (in corrupt form) in the Ravenna cosmography. Instead it is made to rise in the mountains of Cyrenaica and to flow a€?eastwarda€? to a point just above the delta.
According to the military manual of Vegetius (383a€“395), military commanders possessed itineraria that not only were written (scripta) but also contained drawings in color (picta).
Also, the display of world maps was part of an ideology of extended rule, used both by the emperor Theodosius II at Constantinople, in the fifth century, and later by Pope Zachary II in the Lateran Palace at Rome, in the eighth. It contains the network the main roads (about 100,000 km), the network of settlements, of overnight stations (mansiones) and stations of horse changing that were found in the routes that crossed the late empire.
The strongly deformed shape, mainly in terms of latitude, does not preserve any rational cartographic scale or orientation in any of Tabulaa€™s twelve sheets. In fragment XI, westwards the Euphrates River we find the text Areae fines Romanorum [end of roman limits] that is followed by representations of Mesopotamia, Persia and India.
Exception constitute the regions of Galatia, measured in galloroman leyges (leugae = 2,222 km), the regions of the Persian empire in parasangas, (6 km) and India expressed where the distance are in Indian miles (2 km). These are: Aquila (with 7 towers and a big residential complex), Ravenna (5 towers), Thessalonica (5 towers), Nikomedeia (8 towers), Nicaea (6 towers and a temple or basilica) and Ankara (7 towers) (Figure 6). The basic functional uses, which incorporate corresponding social practices and are drawn with their shells are: 1) religious, 2) political, 3) defensive, 4) recreational and 5) remaining uses. In Italy 15 structures are found, in the Balkans five, in the Asia Minor and in Syria one each, while in Africa there are eight such thermal complexes (Figure 13).
At the top are found three first level cities (Rome, Constantinople, Antiocheia) and then follow six second level cities (Aquilla, Ravenna, Thessalonica, Nicomedeia, Nicaea, Ancara).
The administrative organization and the provinces of late empire are not present and one would have to seek information in other texts of late antiquity (Laterculus Veronensis, Notitia Dignitatum and Hierocles Synekdimos) in order to have a picture of bigger administrative divisions. A., Romea€™s World, the Puetinger Map Reconsidered, Cambridge University Press, 2010, 357pp. Packaging should be the same as what is found in a retail store, unless the item is handmade or was packaged by the manufacturer in non-retail packaging, such as an unprinted box or plastic bag. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount.
The auxiliary historical scientist has to examine internal characteristics, and also the external, if the original document survived.
There is much discussion to accurately date them because they lack text from a book which they illustrate, which could explain the map-painting.
The style of painting and writing can be observed, though monumental elements make it survive for long periods. The ideas expressed on the Ebstorf map revive the opinion that Gervase of Tilbury may be not only the ideal but the real creator of it. The map survived at Vercelli; it was found in the 20th century only as a fragment and has been damaged by humidity. The Ebstorf map measures 358 to 356 cm, the Hereford map 165 to 135 cm, and the Cornwall map 157 to 157 cm.
Nobody before had paid attention to it because it was inventoried in the 18th century as an old sketch of a synoptic picture. Leo Bagrow in his History of Cartography in 1951 published a small black and white reproduction and mentioned a larger one to be more useful. Rarely did it qualify as a guide for travelers, although it might perhaps serve as a first pre-information for pilgrimage, as it instructs about places of history regarding the salvation of mankind. But this rule, first proclaimed by Saint Hieronymus when commenting on Ezekiel 5,5, was difficult to be executed on paintings because the model of the T-O Map had its centre in the intersection of the T-upright and the T-top stroke, and that was a place in the sea between the Don [Tanais], the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Nile. In addition to the important comparison with the maps of Ebstorf and Hereford, there is the comparison with the Isidore map of CLM 10058, a French map painted in Parisian surroundings according to the study of Gautier Dalche, and a product of the Victorine School.
This style of painting is traditional and has been found since the 8th century Beatus maps (#207). Ireland can be seen well, and there is some toponymic evidence: Cassel [Cashel], Mide [Meath] and Armagh can be identified. The slashed riding-gown of the French King Philip, as mentioned, was evidence of fashion of the second half of the 13th century, and the style of painting suggests this dating, too. The map-maker did not only change between everyday scripts and literary handwriting, he was also an artist and painter and used special monumental letters. The earthly paradise between INDIA and INDIA MEDIA with the tomb of Thomas below: ARMENIA, Ark of Noah, MEDIA, PERSIA, ARRABIA with the tomb of Simon and Judas and the Tower of Babel.
Proven ability in written and visual communication, with particular expertise in social media.
Eliminate early jobs such as working in a frozen yogurt shop (unless you are applying for a fast-food management position) and acting as a camp counselor (unless you are still in the counseling field).
For example, the SUMMARY OF QUALIFICATIONS shown in Tip 1 above includes this list, which might include links to online samples (indicated by underlining): letters, emails, op-eds, social media, and speeches.


Your resume should make you feel pleased, proud, and confident as you move into your future.
Both instructors and students can benefit from the tips on completing the assignment--tips about the purpose of the message, its audience, the communication strategy, and content. Students first recognize why the instructor statements below are relationship busters.
Don’t be the person about whom the proofreader says, “He insists it be this way despite what the dictionary and style manuals say.” And if you don’t understand a change your proofreader has made, ask questions to understand the correction rather than automatically reject it. Make proofreading a priority.Proofreading is as essential as planning, writing, formatting, editing, and printing. But I knew that Nordstrom had been open a few days earlier because my daughter told me she had stopped in. Nordstrom did not intend to turn away business from the many travelers who did not know about the old Nordstrom location. They record too much information--information that no one wants or needs beyond that moment in the meeting. By the time the notes get distributed, none of the information is likely to be relevant. If your readers get lost at the start of your message, it's you who have lost them--and lost the chance to communicate with them.
The most famous of these artists was Gentile Bellini, who is known to have painted a portrait of the young sultan when he visited Istanbul from September 1479 to December 1480.
The clothing and usage of color prove that these paintings were produced during the Ottoman period. Portraits of Sultan Suleyman, the great Barbarossa, and Sultan Selim II are among his works painted on single sheets. Seljuk Turks established the first school of miniatures in Baghdad within their vast empire covering Turkestan, Iran, Mesopotamia and Anatolia in the 12th century. While the Hisrev and Shirin, Sheraz school in the beginning of the 15th century, Iran Italian painters called by Mehmet the Conqueror continued their activities, Turkish artists on the other hand, carried on the domestic traditions. We should also mention the Persian, Albanian Bogdanian and Hungarian artists who largely contributed to the art of miniature in the cosmopolitan Ottoman society. Contrasting colours were used side by side with warm colours with an avant-garde approach in colour selection.
In the beginning of this process, Ottoman Art progressed along a path balanced between the traditional and the new. There is only a short piece of information about Levni in the ‘Mecmua-i Tevarih’ that Hafyz Huseyin Ayvansarayi wrote in the second half of the eighteenth century.
Kebir Musavver Silsilname (A3109) in the Topkapy Palace Museum Library is a series of sultans’ portraits that constitutes a turning point in Ottoman portraiture.
In one of his poems, the artist states that the pseudonym ‘Levni’ was attributed to him by others. The large scale form of kufi known as iri kufi, which was mainly used on monuments, was reserved for decorative purposes in combination with some elements of embellishment.
Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an. There are examples of miniature painting which date from the middle of the fifteenth to the beginning of the nineteenth centuries. Other museums and libraries in Istanbul also house rare manuscripts containing outstanding examples of Turkish miniature painting. The Ottoman painter arrived at a spare mode of expression, free of superfluous detail and focused on the essence of its subject. There is no exact proportion between the representation and the actual physical elements, but rather a road map that prefers to indicate the road system marked with stopping places and the most prominent towns, while neglecting geographic elements (represented only schematically). A second edition by Abraham Ortelius was published in Antwerp in 1598 as part of his Theatri Orbis Terrarum Parergon which contained eight of the twelve sections of the Table. Such dating is suggested by the three personifications placed on Rome, Constantinople (labeled Constantinoplis, not Byzantium) and Antioch; and it fits in well enough with biblical references on the map. The second page, comprising Segments III and IV, shows Italy with surrounding islands and landforms bordering adjacent seas. In his will of 1508, the humanist Konrad Celtes of Vienna left to Konrad Peutinger (in whose hands it had been since the previous year) what he called Itinerarium Antonini. They suggest that, whether or not the term itinerarium pictum [painted itinerary] was in current use, it is a convenient phrase for this unique map. But owing to the personification the city surround is formally shown as a circle, enlarged in proportion to the very narrow width of the Italian peninsula. Nearby is a high column (rather than a lighthouse) surmounted by the statue of a warrior, presumably Constantine the Great.
Apart from the personifications, cartographic signs include representations of harbors, altars, granaries, spas, and settlements. The most northerly place extant in Britain appears as Ad Taum; but it is very far removed from the river Tay.
On the Gulf of Naples, marked as being six Roman miles from Herculaneum and three miles each from Pompeii and Stabiae [Castellammare di Stabia], is shown a large building with the name Oplont[i]s. The delta itself is shown in less compressed form from south to north than most parts of the Peutinger Map. A number of natural and cultural characteristics are also recorded, such as, rivers, mountains and forests, distances between nodes, public buildings, holy places, thermal baths, etc. Despite its overall deformation, the distances, at least between the main cities, are defined with sufficient accuracy.
The deformations of the coastline course and of the geo-shapes in Tabula makes today its reading unfamiliar and complicated for the non-experts, but the thematic information contained is considered of great significance, mostly for the depiction and the semantics of the ancient road net- works in late roman antiquity. From that port, travelers crossed by sea to Dyrrachion and Apollonia and then on to Clodiana, passing various stations on the way around Lake Ohrid to the north, entering Macedonia toward Thessalonike.
A number of natural characteristics are represented also in graphic form, for example, mountain ranges (Monte Taurus), rivers (fl.
We have to note the absence of Alexandria which is represented with the use of a big lighthouse as symbol, but without a name, fact that is considered a copyista€™s error.
The first, exterior harbor that later was used only as space of reception of boats they were separated from the interior with a peninsula with the imperial Palatium, the theatre, the baths and the Forum.
Petrum, close to Rome, a reference to the Basilica that was built in the Vatican hill (Mons Vaticanus), by Constantine the Great and his mother Helen in the place of Circus Neronianus, inaugurated in the 326 A.D. Third level cities are numerous and constitute the provincial capitals, followed by groups of settlements with military, commercial, administrative, religious and recreational functions (walled cities, commercial centers, public administrative buildings, temples, thermal installations), while at the bottom of the hierarchy belong the towns (mansio) and villages (mutatio). However, at the settlements level, we consider that the map represents symbolically, but with precision, the hierarchy of network, fact that is particularly useful for the study of regional and urban organization of late antiquity. There is no exact proportion between the representation and the actual physical elements, but rather a road map that prefers to indicate the road system marked with stopping places and the most prominent towns, while neglecting geographic elements (represented only schematically).A  No copies of the original have survived but a copy of it, now in Vienna, was purportedly made in 1265 by a monk at Colmar who fortunately contented himself with adding a few scriptural names, and who seems to have omitted nothing important that appeared in the original.
A number of natural and cultural characteristics are also recorded, such as, rivers, mountains and forests, distances between nodes, public buildings, holy places, thermal baths, etc.A  The digital copy of the Biblioteca Augustana emanates from 1888 Konrad Millera€™s publication. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. And though the internal features are more fascinating, they are often objects of speculation, whilst external marks are of more consequence and confront the historian with a fait accompli. Therefore they need to be studied in isolation with regard to their content and to their appearance.
Since the original was destroyed in the Second World War, there remains only a limited argument with regard to external characteristics. The way of writing is somewhat cursive and often flighty and careless, in any individual case, few obliged to the rules of scholar writing of book-hands.
Their script is careful, often monumentally executed, especially for liturgical and biblical books, and this makes them look uniform.
As the original is destroyed, it is very dangerous to work with the excellent modern reproductions.
In 1911 Errera presented the world map, emphasized its information as regard to Spain and Italy, and dated it to the end of the 13th or the beginning of the 14th century, assisted by Romualdo Paste, and by G. As he lost the plates of his book during the Second World War and he was to reconstruct it, the models of his copies were only in general identified.
He visited England in 1216-18 and is known as a donor of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts to the school of Vercelli.
But the example also illustrates the difficulty to claim an internal argument for the terminus post quem. Instead of the Garden of Eden with Adam and Eve before a picturesque apple-tree, the Rotulus has in the eastern part a simple rectangle with frame and a cross inside, and it is filled with a didactic text explaining Asia and Paradisu Terrestris. The painter of the so-called Oxford map of about 1090-1110, who first gave to Jerusalem its place, made it a€?swima€? like an island at the meeting point of the waters on his geometrical drawing. The bird with a horseshoe in its beak is an a€?iron-eatera€?; it has the head of a goose, the body of a crane, the feet of a calf, and is to be identified as an ostrich. That would mean Philip III, who was the only one to visit Africa when he accompanied his father in 1270. Though the map of Munich is a small one, 26.6 cm of diameter, and never offered the place for the material of all the legends of the Descripti of Hugo of St. A world map is an individual production, but it is also the sum of conventional signs, often shaped as symbols taken from heraldry. Both are right in the idea, because Spain as well as England are countries which produced outstanding Latin maps during the Middle Ages. On the other hand, the Vercelli map displays waves in the sandy Sahara desert, a kind of sandhills.
The Vercelli map looks like a continental map of Mediterranean or West-European provenance, for instance Italy, France, or Spain, and a French king documents French interests. Although a map that was connected with a book was regularly executed by the same hand, it is not necessarily a matter of fact. Its observation might be of importance for dating maps according to their monumental legends. But the result might be, that though the idea of an English provenance as a gift of Cardinal Guala Bicchieri is a fascinating hypothesis, there are many arguments to consolidate the old opinion of Errera, Paste, and Faccio, who found as well external characteristics for the second half of the 13th century as they identified King Philip of France as Philip III, who visited Africa. Apply these tips to make your resume fresh and representative of who you are today, with an eye to tomorrow. Assignments cover explanations, requests, bad-news messages, inquiries, solicitations, messages saying no, complaint resolutions, a range of job-search messages, and other pieces. Instructors can never be sure where students may go wrong with a writing assignment that requires them to imagine themselves communicating on the job.
The course, Business Writing That Builds Relationships, developed out of my long-standing interest in diplomatic, relationship-building messages at work. Proofreading is finding and correcting errors and inconsistencies in documents that are virtual final drafts.
Know that occasionally something will slip by even after several editors and proofreaders have reviewed a document.
Readers are wondering not only Why are the doors locked? They want to know Can I shop today? Yet not providing more information caused readers to assume that they could not shop on a busy Saturday when they were ready to spend money.
Jargon is any specialist's language that non-specialists do not use and probably do not understand.
When you must write the same message to specialists and non-specialists (including people in your field who are not yet experts), use jargon. The people in these miniatures, especially male figures, have portrait quality, with their names inscribed below. In addition to these artists who had been brought from cities like Herat and Tabriz in the east, artists of other nationalities such as Hungarians, Albanians, Bosnians, Circassians, and Georgians were also found.
One of them relates to events from the time of Bayezid II and its illustrations depict conquered fortresses and cities (R.
His use of dark green, bordering on black as the backround of his portraits is one of the distinguishing features of the artist’s personal style.
This school has continued until the end of the 14th century, but the most important works and examples are from the 13th century. We can see this dual influence in the works of Sinan Bey from Bursa, who was the pupil of Hisamzade Sunullah and Master Paoli. According to the registers of the 16th century, the number of miniaturists in Sileyman the Magnificent's court only were 29 instructor-masters and 12 apprentice-pupils. The finish consisted of egg-white, starch, lead carbonate, gum tragacanth, salt of ammonia. Between the years 1703 and 1730, under the patronage of Sultan Ahmed III and his famous and powerful Grand Vizier, Nev?ehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha, opportunities were provided in all art fields. The author says that Levni Abdulcelil Celebi, started work as the apprentice of an illuminator when he came to Istanbul from Edirne; that he showed progress in his work and became a master working in the saz style. While painting these portraits, ending with that of Sultan Ahmed III, Levni used creative novelties taking traditional elements as a base. Meaning both ‘colorful’ and ‘varied’, the name ‘Levni’ truly describes his personality reflected in his very colorful and diverse style.
Calligraphy is especially revered among Islamic arts since it was the primary means for the preservation of the Qur'an.Ottoman Turkish calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. In time this style of writing divided into two forms; the sharply angled form being reserved for Korans and important correspondence.
The form of mensub hatti known as verraki mentioned above, which was generally reserved for copying books and therefore known as neshi (a derivation of the verb istinsah, "to copy"), was the prototype for the muhakkak, reyhani and nesih scripts which emerged in the early eleventh century.
As decorative as it was communicative, Diwani was distinguished by the complexity of the line within the letter and the close juxtaposition of the letters within the word.In the teachings of calligraphy figurative imagery is used to help visualize the shape of letters to trace. In addition, Ottoman miniatures can be found in museums, private collections, and libraries around the world, most notably the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin. Ottoman miniatures are also records of contemporary events, filtered through the artists’ own concepts of reality. Numerous other engraved reproductions were made until 1753 when it was finally reproduced in its entirety. The map does not conform to the rules of any projection, nor is it possible to apply a constant scale to determine distances from place to place; for these measurements we have to refer to the figures written in by the author. In the extant map a north-south road tends to appear at only a slightly different angle from an east-west one, and distances are calculated not by the mapa€™s scale but by adding up the mileages of successive staging posts. This was not justified as a title: it is indeed a road map, but not connected with the Antonine emperors and different from the Antonine Itineraries. The distances are normally recorded in Roman miles, but for Gaul they are in leagues, for Persian lands in parasangs, and for India evidently in Indian miles. The Via Triumphalis is indicated as leading to a church of Saint Peter; the words ad scm [sanctum] Petrum are given in large minuscules on the medieval copy.
Antioch has a similar female personification, perhaps originating in a statue of the Tyche [fortune] of the city, together with arches of an aqueduct or possibly of a bridge.
This name, however, really consists of the ends of [Ven]ta [Icenor]um (Caistor Saint Edmund, Norwich), and the only unusual feature is ad, which may have belonged to an adjacent name. The distributaries of the Nile are shown to have many islands, three of them marked with temples of Serapis, three with temples of Isis, while the roads are somewhat discontinuous. The corpus of late antique cartography comprises two categories of sources: sources in written form (itineraria scripta) and depicted documents (itineraria picta). The map depicts the road network in the Roman Empire, almost 70,000 roman miles long which equals roughly 104,000 km of roads length and sea routes. This road was the continuation of the great military highway that began on the shores of the North Sea, ascended the valley of the Rhine, passed through Milan and Aquileia and then descended the valley of the Drava to cross the Sava River at Sirmium [Mitrovica].
It passed through Lychnidos and Herakleia Lynkestis (Bitola) and continued passing Lake Vegoritis and descending the upper valley of the Aliakmon to Pella.
The interior harbor was delimited by the deposits of unloading of boats and a gallery (porticus), which were renovated by Constantine the Great. The presence of Jerusalem in the map is of small importance, as the text next to her, that a€?first was called Jerusalem, but now Aelia Capitolinaa€?, makes reference to the emperor Adrian who gave this name to the city. Developing further the information it contains, scholars generally think that the Tabula Peutingeriana, despite the inaccuracy of the design, despite the fact that it does not obey to any type of projectional system, still constitutes an epitome of geographic knowledge of late antiquity, knowledge that is precious for the study of the historical geography of the Roman Empire. Historisch-geographischer AbriAY ihres mittelalterlichen Staates im A¶stlichen Mittelmeerraum (Byz. Apart from portolan charts, which mostly can be attached to certain workshops of chart-makers, only the 13th century produced large maps that survived before the time of the Renaissance and these four maps have the character of summarizing the totality of medieval knowledge. Therefore the legends do not always use normal script but designed capital letters, which are like epigraphic writing. As most of the historical documents are dated, there is no difficulty in finding records for comparison also for the different regions, if a single piece is lacking its date.
That is the reason, why the catalogues of manuscripts note only the presumed century, half of a century, or third of a century according to the character of letters.
Paleographic research cannot study the ductus of the hands, only perhaps the way of painting. It might be supposed that he remembered the large copy, the only one which we have today, in the publication of Youssouf Kamal, as the original map is in a bad condition.
This made Capello to promote an English provenance of the map and for dating it to around 1200, an intelligent hypothesis but an unproved one.
Only the portolan [nautical] charts, because of their inherent a€?functionalitya€?, are an exception with regard to this. Moreover, the Vercelli map offers many places, of which the knowledge seems to be unusual, for instance Friesach in Austria: these chapter-houses were founded in 1187and 1217. This area is not placed at the top outside the world outline but inside Asia between countries each named India. Later on, medieval map-makers preferred to displace the T somewhat to the west - that is on east-orientated maps below - in order to secure the center for Jerusalem in Asia. Exactly the same bird can be found on the Hereford map, yet it is not shown in Africa as the ostrich of the Ebstorf map, but in Northern Europe near the Don and the Maeotis at the border between Europe and Asia. Victor, there may have been a joint source, and the Vercelli map seems to belong to that tradition, even with regard to the placing of Jerusalem and Tyre. They exercised considerable influence on other countries, especially on the large maps of the 13th century.
There was almost certain contact with Beatus (#207), for example in mentioning the tombs of the apostles distributed over the whole earth.
And a map of large size may have been developed individually, separate from the associated book. Her interest in our work stems from her experiences working with immigrants on the Mexican border, when she attended college in Las Cruces, New Mexico. Reserve your jargon for use with people who understand and appreciate it--that is, your professional, industry, and company peer groups who are also specialists. However, define it, explain it, spell it out, give examples, and provide visual illustrations. After tese earliest examples, there was almost four centuries of time gap, which no book illustrations survived, until the preiod of the Suljuks in Anatolia. From documentary evidence we know that Sinan Bey and his student Siblizade Ahmed were the two artists singled out for training. All rooted in different artistic traditions, all working together on a salaried basis to carry out the directives of the palace.
Nigari was to become, next to Sinan, the master architect, the greatest Turkish portrait painter. Meanwhile, upon closure of the Heart academy for painting in the beginning of the 16th century, its famous instructor Behzat was met with a deserved esteem in Tabriz in 1512. Levni is the artistic extension of the tendencies and directions summarized as “westernization” that started to appear in the beginning of the eighteenth century.
He has introduced new understanding of painting his figures, compositions and his technique, in his miniatures that depict the circumcision ceremonies of Sultan Ahmed III’s heirs to the throne (1720).
Since this was most often used in the city of Kufa, it became known as kufi.The other form, which did not have sharp angles and could be written at far greater speeds, was employed in day-to-day uses, and due to its rounded, flexible character was suited to artistic application. The fact that Ottoman art fostered more portraiture than the art of any other Islamic culture, with the exception of Mogul India, is another indication of this trend towards realism. Also the Table was not apparently designed for military use, but instead gives prominence to trading centers, mineral springs, places of pilgrimage, mountain chains (in profile) and in three great cities (Rome, Constantinople and Antioch) set three rulers, believed to represent the sons of Constantine enthroned as symbols of a tripartite empire. 330 as a new Rome on the site of Byzantium, Antioch was recognized as the important bastion against the Parthians. A royal figure, probably a Pope, or perhaps an allegory of Christ the King is portrayed as representative of the city along with a building which resembles St. It was first published in 1591 by Markus Welser, a relative of the Peutingersa€™ and since 1618 n has generally been known as the Tabula Peutingeriana or translations of that phase. Nearby is the park of Daphne, dedicated to Apollo and other gods and famous for its natural beauty and as a leisure center. But since 1964 a large palace, which probably belonged to Neroa€™s empress PoppA¦a, has been excavated at Torre Annunziata, and it seems to authenticate the detail on the map.
On the Sinai desert we find the words desertum ubi quadraginta annis erraverunt filii Israelis ducente Moyse [the desert where the children of Israel who wandered for forty years guided by Moses], and there are other biblical references. The itineraria scripta, compiled in Latin, were works designed to provide assistance for travelers.
From there it crossed the Axios and the Echedoros (Gallikos) River before arriving at Thessalonica. With simpler representations are portrayed the passages between Europe and Asia, in present day Istanbul: Sycas in Europe), Chrisoppolis, in the Asiatic side (Figure 10).
It becomes comprehensible that in the period of mapa€™s creation, Christianity, even if present, is not found in the center of interest, in the context of later roman empire. But even the Vercelli map produces problems in establishing its origination because today it is in very bad condition, only a fragment, and it is faded by damp and partly illegible. The modern method of dating literary hands is the comparison with tables of dated and datable manuscripts of the same time and region: the famous old libraries publish their material in editions of large scale in all European countries.
That refers also to portolan charts of the later Middle Ages, which are not dated, though they offer toponymic clues and announce their provenance. That is the reason that the Vercelli map may be preferred here as a secondary theater of dispute.
Bagrow seems to have accepted the dating of Errera, as he mentions the map together with that of Hereford.
Though Capello announced a comprehensive study, Marcel Destombes followed his hypothesis and everybody after him, as the study of the original map was difficult. Gervase of Tilbury compares the variation of the world-picture with the crime of false witness in canon law, and even Paulinus Minorita at the beginning of the 14th century cautioned against a correction of the world-picture and only permitted the texts to be modernized. The handwriting of these legends might have been added later; even in Ireland legends may have been corrected or added at a later date. Nothing of this character is known from other maps, only the rosette of the paradise on the large Vatican map of Isidore of 775 has a comparable position. But many map-makers abandoned this rule - for instance Matthew Paris (#225), Ranulf Higden (#232), the Mela map of Reims, Pirrus de Noha (#239), Andrea Bianco (#241), Fra Mauro (#249), and Jean Mansel (#205). The legend on the Hereford map explains Ostricuis, capud anseris, corpus gruis, pedes vituli, ferrum comedit, a legend which would also be suitable for the Vercelli map.
The type is an antique one, and Tyre might be found in a remarkable position on the map of Saint Hieronymus. But the way of symbolizing these places is quite different: the three Beatus maps (Burgo de Osma, Ofia and Lorvao) preserved this information by displaying twelve heads of saints in the countries of their mission.
As maps of large size were set up in public places such as churches or teaching-halls, everybody who passed them was able to add something to or correct legends. Avoid calling, pinging, emailing, or standing over your proofreaders while they work—and dissuade others from interrupting them. Because I cringe when I see the phrase “thanks-you notes” in my book Business Writing With Heart, knowing that two proofreaders (including me) carefully reviewed it. Even a symbol as simple as $$$ must be defined for people who are not your regular readers or specialists in your area.
Another work of the same period is an undated copy of the Kulliyat-i Katibi (Complete Works of Katibi) (TSMK, R.989).
At first, the Persian influence, especially that of the Herat school during the Timurid period, was apparent. The second illustrates Sultan Suleyman’s military expedition against Hungary in 1543 and the Mediterranean campaign of Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha, the famous admiral Barbarossa, which took place in the same year 1608.
The age of Suleyman the Magnificent made visible to us through the portraits of Nigari, Matraki’s city topographies, and the Suleymanname was an extremely important period in Ottoman miniature painting, firmly establishing its subject matter and giving birth to a new style.The most characteristic examples of Ottoman miniature art were produced in the second half of the sixteenth century as a result of the patronage of Sultans Selim II (1566-74) and Murad III (1574-95). Samarkand was renowned during 6th-8th centuries by its drawing workshops where illustrations on wood, plaster and leather were made. After the text and tables were completed, the paper was handed to the miniaturists to be painted.
His personality and artistic talent, and the period’s conditions have mutually affected each other, opening the way for a new point of view in the Ottoman art of painting. Ayvansarayi continues to declare that he was the leading painter, until Sultan Mahmud Khan ascended the throne and depictions with perspective was introduced.
Surname-i Vehbi (A3593), in Topkapy Palace Museum Library, is named so after the poet of its text, Seyyid Vehbi. Turkish paintings, calligraphy, photography, music.When we speak of Turkish calligraphy, we refer to writing of aesthetic value in characters based on the Arabic script, which the Turks had adopted as their writing medium after their conversion to Islam. From the fifteenth to the twentieth centuries, royal portraits formed an integral part of the art of the book. Put the suggestion that this fourth century archetype was based on a much earlier map would account for the inclusion of Herculaneum, Oplontis, and Pompeii, which had been destroyed in the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. Peters Basilica (or the personage could be that of one of Constantinea€™s sons as previously mentioned).
Even though the temple of Apollo was burned down in 362, there were many other temples, so that this is not necessarily a guide to the dating.


The sign for a spa is an ideogram of a roughly square building with an internal courtyard, often with a gabled tower at each end of the near side. Or again, a much earlier discovery near Aquileia in 1830 appears to correspond to an entry on the Peutinger Map.
There is also an area in central Asia labeled Hic Alexander responsum accepit usq[ue] quo Alexander [Here Alexander was given the oracular reply: a€?How far, Alexander?a€?]. They recorded a network of itineraries over a vast area and listed the cities and stations on the routes that crisscrossed the empire, together with the distances between them. Then it followed the Lakes Koroneia and Volve before continuing to Apollonia and Amphipolis. The fact that Britannia, Spain and the western part of Africa are missing, leads scholars to suppose that part of the Tabula has been lost. However, since there was a good black and white copy made before 1935, this map in comparison with the Hereford map is a suitable object to demonstrate methodological problems of dating medieval maps in general, and especially to study external features in the way of auxiliary historical sciences.
Though it is also damaged, the pictures and the way of painting still may be studied in many instances. In 1976 Capello published his inquisition with detailed photographs of the manuscript map in spite of its poor condition. But it is a mistake to think it shocking if Paradise is omitted on maps of the 13th century; Matthew Paris (#225) omitted it, just as did John of Wallingford.
The source of the legend is Alexander Neckam, who also states that the ostrich likes to ingratiate himself by deception so that he swallows even iron.
This symbolic style of architecture represents the a€?ordinary type of towna€?, as seen from far away. Capello observed the change of majuscule and minuscule letters on the Vercelli map; that was really the change of monumental and common letters. Before you give a piece to a proofreader for a final review, make sure it has already gone through its rounds of revisions, if necessary. The minatures illustrate a fantasy world of demons, evil spirtis and sceens from nomadic life.
This work which contains the greatest number of miniatures from this early period is a copy of the Iskendername (Book of Alexander the Great) by the Turkish poet Ahmedi (Venice, Biblioteca Marciana, Cod. Paintings in this style were found mostly in the works of the famous poet Ali ?ir Nevai, written in an eastern dialect of Turkish.
The reigns of these sultans mark the classical period of Ottoman miniature art and the most productive era in historical painting. The miniatures were divided as 1)Illustration of books, compositions (depiction of certain subjects and events) and 2)portraits. The author states that Levni died in 1732, and that he is now buried across the Sadiler Tekkesi, opposite Akturbe, near the Otakcylar Mosque.
In this work there are 173 miniatures by Levni, exhibiting his talent for observation and his documentative attitude.
It was this form which began to give rise to new scripts after the development of pens with nibs of different widths in the eighth century.
The Arabic characters gradually assumed an aesthetic function after the advent of Islam, and this process gathered momentum from the mid-eighth century onwards, so that calligraphy was already a significant art discipline by the time the Turks joined the Islamic world. At the turn of the fifth - sixth centuries the world ocean was added and improvements were made to the seas; at about the same time, the influence of this map appears in a work by an anonymous cosmographer of Ravenna (#203), who made use of some new material recently added to his source.
Further south is the city of Naples drawn inland, next to it is a dark mound which might represent the buried cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.
Inexplicably the word tabula has been translated a€?tablea€? rather than a€?picturea€? or a€?mapa€? in popular usage. There are fifty-two such buildings represented, of which twenty-eight are at places specifically called Aquae; in some other cases there is reason to think that a place so denoted had prominent baths. A large bathing establishment, mentioned also by the elder Pliny, was discovered on the lower reaches of the river Isonzo.
Perhaps these ample descriptions, whether Christian or pagan, were added on otherwise empty space about the fifth or sixth century A.D.
The Itinerarium of Antoninus deals with the land and sea routes from western into Eastern Europe, from Gadeira (Cadiz, SW Spain) to Caesarea in Palestine and from the Crimea to Alexandria. After that it crossed the lower course of the Strymon River and the north slopes of Mount Pangaion on its way to Philippoi, after which it headed south toward the sea again, reaching it at Neapolis (Kavala). Proceedings of the International Conference Held in Amman, 7-9 April 1997 (SBF Collectio Maior 40), Jerusalem 1999, p. 79 and not rebuilt, except for parts of Pompeii.A  It is also perhaps easier, on this supposition, to see why certain roads are omitted, such as the major routes through the Parthian empire mentioned in the Mansiones ParthicA¦ [Parthian Stations] of Isidorus of Charax. The fragment of the Duchy of Cornwall map is too small to give an idea of painting and writing of the whole. Only the place of Jerusalem caused him any doubt because, since the time of the crusades, it was usually drawn as the center of the world on pictures and in texts; even the way of depicting the earthly paradise was unusual.
He commented on it carefully, tried to decipher the often illegible legends and to interpret them. On the other hand, Paradise is often to be found even on portolan-styled maps of the 15th century and other secular maps such as the Catalan Atlas (#235), the maps of Andrea Bianco (#241), Andreas Walsperger (#245) and Giovanni Leardo (#242), as well as on a map in German language of Hanns Rust (#253.2) in about 1500. The same idea seems to be found on the Isidore map of Munich (CLM 10058) of the 12th century, which is of French provenance and seems to be influenced by the ideas of Hugo of St. On the Vercelli map the king is not represented in a profitable way, because an ostrich puts its head in the sands and neglects its eggs.
Since the writing of the Vercelli Map is faded, it is extremely difficult to analyze the original, which also seems to have been corrected in the Middle Ages and to be completed, as the painter forgot different legends: Austria and Ireland belong to these parts of the map. There are also other Seljuk works in different styles showing evidence of Byzantian influence.Due to its rich subject matter, longevity, and freshness, Turkish miniature painting of the Ottoman period occupies a special place in the history of Islamic painting. However it was under Suleyman’s reign that Turkish painting began to acquire its distinctive and fundamental character.
Throughout most of these years, the Turkish and Persian works of Seyyid Lokman, the court-appointed ?ahnameci, were illustrated in rapid succession by selected painters working in the imperial studio. The most important development of the 9th century Uygur Turks in the art of painting, was accomplished by the painters and their school in the town of Kizilkent.
Moslems used these original illustrations in the translations; but although the text were not changed in the later translations, the miniatures were made differently. Sultan Selim Iran and Aleppo to Istanbul after the seizure of Tabriz and he ordered his men to create favourable conditions for those artists' work. Information on each page of the Surname-i Vehbi is given, yet details are included only about the miniatures which have been chosen due to both their distinction in the manuscript and the importance of the characters in the depicted scenes. Among the earliest of these were the celil reserved for large scale lettering, and tomar or tumar which was the standard large size pen used in official correspondence. Therefore it is necessary to begin with a brief review of the structure of Arabic characters and their development during the early centuries of Islam.
Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work. Since the Ravenna cosmographer names a certain Castorius as the author of his source in connection with material also found in the Tabula Peutingeriana, it has been inferred by early historians that this was the makera€™s name for the original. Segments V and VI illustrate the eastern Mediterranean by prominently showing the Grecian archipelago and present-day Turkey and Crete. It is now time to call it the a€?Peutinger Mapa€? to avoid any misconception that the original image was somehow carved on a table or was like a statistical table. 365-66 all three personified cities were important, since the pretender Procopius had his seat of power in Constantinople, Valentinian I in Rome and his brother Valens in Antioch. There are also in the Peutinger Map places with cartographic signs for granaries, denoted as rectangular roofed buildings.
This is probably the place given the cartographic sign for a spa, with the words Fonte Timavi [spring of the river Timavus]. In several areas research is in progress combining fieldwork with study of the Peutinger Map and of the history of place-names.
It must have taken its final form between 280 and 290 and is thought to be based on the figures provided by the department responsible for the cursus publicus, the roman imperial road office.
After Neapolis, the Via Egnatia headed northeast, through Akontisma (3 km from modern Nea Karvali) and turned inland to Topeiros, where the Nestos River was crossed.
As he was no medievalist, many mistakes apparently took place, which might have been corrected with the help of the reproduction in Kamal but Capello was unaware of it.
Moreover it is not quite clear what he is holding in his hand, a flag, a whip, a brush, or any attribute of his boldness. After all, if you aren’t going to defer to their knowledge of grammar, punctuation, and usage, why use them at all? To preserve the freshness of the works they prepared and to ensure that the orders of the sultan were carried out, they worked very rapidly, with the result that the Turkish miniature is devoid of fine and elaborate ornamentation. After his ten years on the throne, topographies of cities and fortresses and miniatures documenting the life of the Sultan gradually gained importance.
By taking the name of the Persian heroes in Firdausi’s famous epic poem, the original ?ahname, the Ottoman sultans sought to supplant-metaphorically-their Persian counterparts. Foremost among them was the master Osman, the greatest name in Ottoman historical painting and the artist who mostly shaped Turkish miniature art during the classical period. Their sense of light in pictures and their search for the influence and impression of shadow and light, served largely for the formation of Seljuk miniature school and canalized it.
Soon after Shah Kulu from Tabriz was leading these artists in an academy which was called by the Turks "Nakkashanei-i Irani" (The Persian Academy of Painting). The head painter used to draw the main composition with thin brushes and then his assistants and pupils painted in part by part. In such cases, ones should know the different styles of the other Moslem miniatures such as Iran and India.
Gild was used in architectural details, in the background and the ground of calligraphic works. This information clarifies that the artist went to the palace atelier, nakka?hane, when he arrived from Edirne, and at first worked in the saz style. Levni has also shown his sensitivity to the subject of human figures in an album of full body portraits now in the Topkapy Palace Museum Library (H.2164) of the period’s typical characters, depicted in his personal style. Pens with a nib width two thirds of that of the tomar pen were known as suluseyn, and those with nibs one third in width were known as sulus. The most succinct definition of calligraphy formulated by Islamic writers is, "Calligraphy is a spiritual geometry produced with material tools." The aesthetic values implied by this definition held true for centuries. The overall form of the Colmar edition, which is the basic form of the Tabula as it has reached us today, must have been fixed at this period, about A.D. The seventh Segment shows Cyprus, present-day Saudi Arabia, a large allegorical representation of the Holy City, and the area southeast to Mesopotamia. The alternative naming of the Peutinger Map as the a€?world map of Castoriusa€? has met with very little support. But in fact, although Valens set out for Antioch, he was diverted to fight Procopius and he cannot be correctly associated with the last-named city. Its fresh waters by the sea were regarded as an unusual phenomenon and obviously worth mapping.
Then continued eastward along the coast to Traianopolis and through Heraclea arrived to Constantinople (Figure 3). To the political and economic incentives was now added the desire of the pilgrims of the new Christian world to travel east to the Holy Land. Moreover, his attention was attracted to a bizarre bird with an iron horseshoe in its beak and a riding king sitting on it, who swings a brush or flag in his hand. Capello compared the legends with the maps of Ebstorf and Hereford as there are many similarities, and also referred to Beatus as a model. There are other connections between the Vercelli map and the Victorines with regard to scholastic ideas. Philip III is no person of glory in contrast to his father, and the connection with Africa might be a short-lived one.
The illustrations in this book dealing with Ottoman history constitute the earliest examples of ‘historical painting,’ which was to become the essence of Turkish miniature art. Though the tradition was already well established by the time of Suleyman, it was during his reign that the ?ahname acquired its formal character and bequeathed us some of the most magnificient examples of Turkish miniature art. It is known from documentary sources that Osman occupied a position in the court atelier from the first years of Selim II’s reign, becoming its most productive and prominent member during the years 1570-90. The miniatures of the antique age are disorganised and most of them have descriptive qualities. Kaaba depictions, sports and especially horse-riding scenes took place in the Turkish miniatures. Under this writing system most of the letters underwent a change of form according to whether they were positioned at the beginning, middle or end of a word.
500; although a few local corrections were made subsequently, for example, in the eighth and ninth centuries.
Variants of a two-gabled building were used to depict some settlements, but most were distinguished by no more than a name. A legend presents him as Philippus rex Francie; and Errera considered this small scene to be the key for dating the map. But since the Vercelli map was thought to be fairly illegible during the past decades, his hypothetic dating has always been accepted by recent research without criticism. The dislocation of Jerusalem on the Vercelli map is not extraordinary and should not be used as a mark for dating. There remains the question whether this fact allows a terminus ante quem, for instance only a short time after 1270.
The more a region was actually known, there was less space free for monsters, mysteries, old and historical places. The way of writing in western and southern parts of Europe precedes always that of Middle Europe.
If you want people to find you on the Internet, use both jargon and general terms so that both experts and non-experts can find you.
Following the death of Mehmed the Conqueror, during the reign of his son Sultan Bayezid II (1481-1512), artists were brought to the palace in Istanbul and set up in the nakka?hane (imperial studio). Suleyman appointed Arifi, who had gained renown for his poetry in Persian, to the position of ?ahnameci and assigned him the task of writing a complete history in verse of the Ottoman sultans. In addition to working with Lokman, he was responsible for illustrating the works of other writers as well. Among thousands of books in the library there are the oldest Turkish gilded and miniature manuscripts. It goes without question that the period beginning with Mehmet the Conqueror and ending with Sultan Selim I, was one of the most interesting and important phases in Turkish painting and miniatures. The head painter, the author and writer of the story were also depicted in some of the miniatures. They portrayed people in straight profiles or from the front instead of the three fourth profile seen in Persian miniatures. Turkish art of miniature, as all the other handcrafts, followed the historical line of the state and had its golden age during the 16th century. It is thought that Levni must have settle in Istanbul before 1710 and never left Istanbul after 1718. Other new writing styles which emerged (although all later fell into disuse) were riyasi, kalemu'n-nisf, hafifu'n-nisf and hafifu's-sulus. The idea of cutting the nib of the reed pen at an angle instead of horizontally was his, and an innovation which contributed enormous elegance to writing. When transformed into an art the characters took on highly elaborate shapes, and the rich visual impact attained when they were joined together, and above all the fact that the same word or phrase could be written in various ways opened the door to the infinite variety and innovation which is a prerequisite of art. The original roll at the time of its transcription in the early Middle Ages was of eleven sheets, but as such it was incomplete, since much of Britain, Spain, and the western part of North Africa were already missing at the time of copying; there may also have been an introductory sheet forming part of an earlier prototype version. Attempts to differentiate between types of settlements on the map and to establish criteria for the attribution of signs have not been entirely successful. Finally the center of the map is not quite exact, as the border is missing today at the poles. Even the architecture of the Hereford map resembles that of Vercelli: it is not English but European. But countries faraway, or of old tradition without new information, offered possibilities to fill the picture in order to avoid blank spaces on the map. The miniscule letters of the Vercelli map are typical for the 13th century, and they do not show the character of the beginning of the 14th century: There are no combined curves of different letters. In order to carry out the Sultan’s project, Arifi was given the most talented calligraphers and painters of the time. For many of these projects, he headed groups of artists chosen from the court atelier and directed their work. The oldest wooden print and illustrated book in the world belongs to Uygurs and is in the above library.
The subjects were taken from the antique age, whereas the style was influenced by oriental, Uygur painting.
Various styles and ways of expression were searched, the influences were are guide and syntheses were attained. The most refined lines forming the basis of the picture were the lines bordering spaces, the lines on coloured surfaces and the lines of facial expression. As their names indicate, some of the new scripts were based on tomar and written with pens which were specific fractions (half, one third, or two thirds) of the tomar pen. Once "the six hands" had taken their place in the art of calligraphy together with all their rules, many scripts apart from those mentioned above were abandoned, and no trace of them but their names remains today (for example, sicillat, dibac, zenbur, mufattah, harem, lului, muallak and mursel).Following the death of Yakut his conception of "the six hands" was carried by scribes who had trained under him from Baghdad to Anatolia, Egypt, Syria, Persia and Transoxania. Just as the characters could be written singly in several different ways, so there was an astonishing diversity of different scripts or "hands". It was evidently not, as was once thought, the work of the Dominican monk Konrad of Colmar, who in 1265 quite independently produced a mappamundi that he says he copied onto twelve parchment pages; the paleography suggests an earlier date. In addition, the symbols are not limited to the time of Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, but the these conventional map symbols are common for the middle of the 13th to the 14th century. The middle space of the four-lines-system is curtailed typical for the 13th century in cursive manner. During this period, portrait painting lost its importance and painters in the court atelier devoted their efforts mostly to the illustration of literary works.
In the period from 1558 until 1592, Osman and his team illustrated several of Lokman’s ?ahnames, which are written in Persian and in verse. The main characteristics of the Seljuk-Baghdad school were vigour, briskness, power of expression, caricature quality, over ornamentation, lack of scenery and accentuation of figures. In the process of scaling down, the scripts took on new characteristics of their own, while the word kalem, which referred to the writing instrument, also came to be used for the writing itself (for example, kalemu'n-nisf literally means "half pen"). New generations of calligraphers who trained in these lands dedicated themselves to the path taken by Yakut as far as their aptitude permitted.
The Arabic characters were adopted — primarily motivated by religious fervour by virtually all the peoples who converted to Islam, so that just a few centuries after the Hegira they had become the shared property of the entire Muslim world.
The second sheet of the Peutinger Map was treated as if it had been the first, with spellings of truncated names containing false initial capitals (for example, Ridumo for what was originally Moriduno).
Nurtured by the influence of Western Christian art on traditional Islamic miniatures, a truly original style of painting prevailed.
The first of these, which actually dates back to the final years of Suleyman’s reign, is called the Zafername (Book of Victories.
Another important aspect of this ind is that some manuscripts have been written in letters same with the ones on the Goktirk Orhun epitaphs. Before starting to study the Ottoman miniature, I shall refer to two more schools of miniature related to Turks.
Turkish miniature lived its golden age during that period, with its own characteristics and authentic qualities.
For scripts such as kisas and muamerat, which were invented for specific uses and did not involve the proportional scaling down of the pen, the term hat was used.Under the Abbasids, learning and the arts flourished, leading to a swelling demand for books in Baghdad and other major cities. The term "Arabic calligraphy", which is appropriate with respect to the early period, broadened in scope over time to become what more accurately might be described as "Islamic calligraphy". Hence a total of twelve sheets extant at the time of copying can be accounted for only by assuming that, when the copyist mentioned this number, he was including a title sheet.
It is interesting to see that, just as there is one personification in the West and two in the East, so two cities of the second rank, symbolically given walls, are in the West and four in the East. The bulk of Turkish miniatures comprise works of documentary value deriving from the depiction of actual events. This attitude has a main reason, and that is the inevitable necessity to know the contradictory schools in order to comprehend to one under study. The most renowned artists of the period were Kinci Mahmut, Kara Memi from Galata, Naksi (his real name Ahmet) from Ahirkapi, Mustafa Dede (called the Shah of Painters), Ibrahim ?elebi, Hasan Kefeli, Matrak_i Nasuh, Nigari (who portrayed Sultan Selim II and whose real name was Haydar.
To meet this demand the number of copyists known as verrak also rose, and the script which they employed in the copying of manuscripts was known as verraki, muhakkak or iraki. In the hands of the Ottoman Turks, these six scripts were poised to begin the ascent to their zenith.CALLIGRAPHY,calligraphy in istanbul,calligraphy in turkey,istanbul in calligraphy,Turkish - Ottoman Calligraphy Lessons in Istanbul. This writing system, known as nabati because it was used by the Nabat tribe in pre-Islamic times, derives from the Phoenician.
Important cities like Carthage, Ephesus, and Alexandria are not shown with a distinctive sign. Yet the texts are divided by the chapter symbols like in literary texts: maybe the map-maker had the text as a model, not a painting of large size. You only have to control it if you want to communicate with potential clients and customers, investors, sponsors, citizens, senior executives, and others who can help you achieve your goals.
Lokman’s second “book of kings, the ?ahname-i Selim Han”, is concerned with Selim II’s sultanate (TSMK, A.3595). The Chinese influence in the 14th century Mongolian miniatures, is felt in the landscapes made with Chinese ink.
The borrowed look of the figures indicate that they were the ordinary individuals of protocol in every period. From the end of the eighth century, as a result of the search for aesthetic values by calligraphers, writing forms according to specific proportions and symmetries became known as asli hat and mevzun hat.
In its early form, the script gave no clue of its future potential as such a powerfully aesthetic medium, the characters consisting of very simple shapes.
Another characteristic is a light incline to the right and the unequal measure for the middle line; the writer was apparently not an artist in writing.
New York, Kraus Collection), describes and illustrates events from the period of Osman Gazi the founder of the dynasty, up to Yyldyrym Bayezid, the ‘Thunderbolt.’ The fifth, known as the Suleymanname (Book of Sultan Suleyman is in the library of Topkapy Palace Museum and deals with the period between 1520-58 during the reign of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent. The third is the first volume of the ?ehin?ahname (Book of the King of Kings) and describes events that occurred between the years 1574-81 during Murad III’s reign (IUK, F.1404). The dominant characteristics of those pictures were Chinese style clouds, the curved lines and flower outlines.
One of the calligraphers who contributed to the development of writing, and the most outstanding among those of this period was Ibn Mukle (? With the emergence of Islam, however, and particularly after the Hegira, the Arabic script became the literary vehicle of the last Semitic religion. He often uses abbreviations even for names such as Johannes, that means he was accustomed to theological texts. Illuminated with 69 miniatures, the book, highly innovative in layout, set the standard for later ?ahnames.
The last ?ahname to emerge from this collaboration between Lokman and Osman was the second volume of the ?ehin?ahname, covering the years 1581-88 of Murad’s reign (TSMK, B.200). The numbers of those literate in the Arabic script multiplied rapidly, and in time it was perfected into a vehicle equipped to record the Koran, and hence the language as a whole, with precision. The elegance with which these court painters depict their subject marks a new stage in the development of the Ottoman miniature.
These ?ahnames, all with the same dimensions and layout, contain more than two hundred miniatures of a documentary nature, detailing important architectural works, military campaigns and major victories, important court ceremonies and celebrations, the sultans’ accession to the throne, and their deaths.URKISH MINIATURES,Turks had the tradition to illustrate manuscripts during the cultural periods before Islamic belief. Lettering complying with these rules was called mensuh hatti, a term meaning "proportional writing".While these developments were taking place, kufi script was enjoying its heyday, above all for copying korans.
Vowel signs known as hareke were invented to express the short phonemes which accompanied the consonants. Scenery and figures have been united in the Mongolian miniatures after the Chinese influence ended. The method of determining the sound of letters which resembled one another in form, by means of disparate positioning and diacritical marks was developed. They depict a number of victorious wars by which the Ottomans expanded their empire, such as the conquest of Rhodes, the siege of Belgrade, the Tabriz and Hungarian campaigns, the well known Mohacs episode and the seizing of Buda.Tarih-i SultanBayezid Nasuh al-Silahi al Matraki,A variety of other scenes are also portrayed, including royal hunts, the presentation of gifts to the sultan, and the receptions, of famous people like Admiral Barbarossa and Devlet Giray Han, who was the ruler of the Crimean Tatars.
No written or illustrated document has yet been found from the time of the Chinese Han dynasty, of Huns and Goktirks.Nevertheless, the large quantities of stone engravings, textiles,ceramics, works of art made of metal, wood, leather which have survived to the present day, prove that the above mentioned cultural circles were quite developed in other fields of art. Realism, portrait Characteristics, light and shadow, perspective were dominant in large figures. Artists like Matrak_i Nasuh who depicted the Iraqian campaign of Sileyman the Magnificent with details of the resting places and the Mediterranean ports, were very few. As time passed, the use of diacritics to distinguish the undotted from the dotted forms of the same letters was introduced. Both the diacritics, the vowel signs and the unmarked letter symbols took on decorative forms which played a major role in the development of writing as an art. The withering influence of natural conditions have prevented the survival of these first examples. Meanwhile, the frequently used definite article, consisting of the letters alif and lam, became a balancing element in the aesthetics of calligraphy.
Folk stories such as "Hisrev and Shirin", "Leyla and Mecnun" have been depicted in the poetic atmosphere of poet Sadi.



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