When you try to achieve something, you are guaranteed to have obstacles that get in your way.
What always happens as you try to accomplish new goals is the difficulty level constantly increases as the process continues. The problem is that although this is definitely a repeatable cycle, it is not scientifically defined, so there is no way to tell exactly when the peak will hit or how long the sustained level of difficulty will remain.
When you try to achieve something, you are guaranteed to have obstacles that get in your way.A  The more experience you have, the easier it is for you to deal with the obstacles, and thus people begin to think you possess special skills or talents. Giving birth to a baby is so much more than a physical phenomenon; it engages parents-to-be in a transformational experience, a key life event full of emotion and meaning.
Effective teaching begins with a clear understanding of the fundamental principles of the subject matter; for example, a person who did not understand addition would be unable to help students struggling to understand multiplication. The roman alphabet was designed to represent the sounds of speech; alphabetic letters are a phonic code. Every advanced code is taught directly and explicitly: music notation code is taught as music code, math numerals are taught as a math code, and computer code is taught explicitly as a computer code. When students understand the alphabetic letters in this way, as representations of individual phonemes, they can begin converting written alphabetic symbols into spoken sounds (de-coding), and then blending written symbols into spoken words (reading); they can also begin encoding spoken sounds and words into written letters (writing), with accuracy and confidence. Once Tommy (or Taro) have learned an initial set of basic 1-sound-to-1-symbol (1-to-1) code correspondences ('ssssss' = s, 'nnnnn' = n), they can read with comprehension ('six cups on a big red bag') and also write with accuracy (it is a mop). Students who are actively learning and gaining ability are less likely to cause discipline problems. Clear understanding of fundamental principles also leads to clear distinctions, which are just as valuable. Presenting alphabetic print (mountain) as a word picture, and training students to memorize it as a complete letter pattern for the spoken word 'mountain' ignores the Alphabetic Principle, and discourages Taro and Hanako from working with the alphabetic code as a phonic code.
A careful look at almost every published beginning EFL curriculum quickly reveals that the Alphabetic Principle is ignored or treated as an after-thought.
Adding a separate 'phonics' activity workbook cannot compensate for the whole word guessing habits that are compelled by the main text. Most teachers readily accept that spoken language in classroom lessons should be 'comprehensible' (within or almost all within spoken language understanding) for students to progress in understanding and learning. Of course teaching the alphabetic code in a logical and gradual curriculum requires more understanding and work by the teacher; it involves careful selection and design of materials, as well as careful arrangement of class activities. Peter Warner (USA, 1953) has been teaching young students in Nagoya, Japan for twenty years, and has been applying the principles of Linguistic Phonics (see Diane McGuinness) to EFL for fifteen years.
When students understand the alphabetic letters in this way, as representations of individual phonemes, they can begin converting written alphabetic symbols into spoken sounds (de-coding), and then blending written symbols into spoken words (reading);A  they can also begin encoding spoken sounds and words into written letters (writing), with accuracy and confidence. A doula who accompanies a woman in labor mothers the mother, taking care of her emotional needs throughout childbirth.


They are advocates and a listening ear for birthing mothers, as well as facilitators to her partner.
The skills that they develop are medically proven to make a true difference in the experience of birth. In addition to medical care and the love and companionship provided by their partners, women need consistent, continuous reassurance, comfort, encouragement and respect. We are prepared to provide physical (non-medical), emotional and informational support to women and their partners during labor and birth, as well as to families in the weeks following childbirth.
In the same way, teaching (English) reading should begin with understanding the Alphabetic Principle. Consider the English word for the Indo-Arabic number 10: it's written by the letters t-e-n, precisely because those three code symbols (graphemes) represent the three speech sounds (phonemes) in the spoken word 'ten'. A phonic code is a phonic code: just as the phonic code of hiragana is taught in Japanese literacy instruction, English alphabetic letters should be taught explicitly as a phonic code for English speech sounds. Clear presentation of logical principles leads to clear understanding and effective lessons.
One remarkable aspect of providing clear systematic instruction of the alphabetic code is how well boys tend to respond once they realize that these strange letters are simply a code that can be used and solved, just like a puzzle. Kanji are usually presented as complete units, and students strain to memorize each as completed stroke patterns.
This leads to confusion with similar appearing words (mitten), and frustration as whole word memory capacity becomes overburdened. New vocabulary is introduced in full text without regard to its spelling patterns and code complexity (red, black, blue, orange) and gorgeous color pictures are shown alongside to encourage guessing.
Mixing conflicting methodologies at the initial learning stages is not a 'balanced' approach; conflict breeds confusion.
When we understand the Alphabetic Principle, it becomes equally apparent that the written language that students are asked to process should be 'decodable', that is, within the margins of their code instruction and understanding. Consider the English word for the Indo-Arabic number 10: it's written by the letters t-e-n,A  precisely because those three code symbols (graphemes) represent the three speech sounds (phonemes) in the spoken word 'ten'.
Part of knowing what 'dog' is, is being able to identify what is 'not dog'.A  As teachers, understanding the Alphabetic Principle also helps us understand what is not the Alphabetic Principle, and therefore helps us avoid confusing and misleading our students. A doula also provides support and suggestions for partners that can enhance their experiences of birth. We offer a loving touch, positioning and comfort measures that make childbearing women and families feel nurtured and cared for. Furthermore, those three code symbols are arranged carefully in a left to right sequence, so that when they are processed as phonic code from left to right, that processing produces the sound of the spoken word. There are several stages of logic and complexity in the English alphabetic code; introducing them carefully in a logical and practical manner allows the students to discover by experience that the code is both reliable and reversible.


As their discovery and ability grows, so does their confidence and accomplishment, providing motivation to learn and use more and more of the code system. Children are desperate to make sense of their growing world, and respond eagerly when their lessons produce personal success instead of frustration. Since many kanji (a±±) are indeed logographs (pictures of spoken words), that's a logical teaching and learning approach.
Even when some 'phonics' instruction is given elsewhere, whenever students are forced to deal with whole words that contain graphemes beyond their phonic understanding, their decoding effort is frustrated (and therefore discouraged), and they are encouraged to simply memorize the entire pattern as a word.
This is presenting printed words just as if they were logographic kanji, and forces the beginning student to look at them as if they were word pictures.
In actual application, the whole word guessing and memorizing habit is initially less demanding and therefore easily dominates, preventing a decoding effort from being the initial response. Surprisingly, Japanese children actually have an advantage over their English-speaking cousins: their first experience with written text is with hiragana, which they learn as a pure phonic code.
Since many kanji (a±±) are indeed logographsA  (pictures of spoken words), that's a logical teaching and learning approach. A postpartum doula continues that valuable emotional support and guidance, helping a family make a smooth transition into new family dynamics. In the postpartum period, a doulaa€™s guidance can empower and encourage new parents, inspiring self-confidence in parenting. Presented with an abundance of whole words in print (as in the case of a story book), students generally develop a strategy of guessing at the printed word based on the first letter and story context. In almost every published EFL curriculum, words are taught according to subject themes, without consideration of the beginning students' decoding ability: hat and blouse, bag and pencil, bus and unicycle. A child can memorize words and even sentences, but this image of success is only misleading both the student and teacher. They can quickly develop an initial phonic perception and response to alphabetic text as well, if they are provided with explicit, logical and systematic instruction of the alphabetic code as a phonic code of English speech phonemes. They can quickly develop an initial phonic perception and response to alphabetic text as well, if they are provided with explicit, logical and systematic instruction of the alphabetic code as a phonic code of English speech phonemes.A  It is not unusual to see second and third grade Japanese children reading and writing independently and accurately within twenty hours of their first English lessons. Such material interferes with a logical introduction of the alphabetic code, and prevents many students from gaining one. For effective lessons and comprehensible instruction, teaching reading should begin with understanding, and applying, the Alphabetic Principle.



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