MenuFearless doesnt mean you're completely unafriad and it doesnt mean you're bulletproof, it means you have alot of fears.. Diagram of an AntibodyAn antibody molecule consists of two heavy protein chains (blue and light blue) combined with two light chains (green and light green). The two heavy chains are identical to one another and the two light chains are identical to one another, also.
The chemical structure of the protein chains is divided into 12 areas, or domains (pale blue and pale orange ovals).
The heavy chains each consist of three constant domains (CH1, CH2, and CH3) and one variable domain (VH). The Fc (Fragment crystallisable) region, or "tail," of the antibody is the part of the molecule which binds to receptors on the surface of cells like macrophages, neutrophils, and NK-cells. The antibody attaches itself to a complementary, or matching, antigen at its antigen binding sites, located at the ends of either of its two arms, or Fab regions (Fragment antigen binding). While shown outside of the domain areas for purposes of this illustration, the amino acid loops making up the Complementary Determining Regions (CDRs) are actually part of the variable domains (VL and VH). There are three CDR loops per variable domain (L1, L2, L3 on the light chains and H1, H2, H3 on the heavy chains), for a total of 12 loops for the antibody as a whole.
Antibodies are large Y-shaped protein molecules created by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects and pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and toxins.
During prenatal and neonatal stages of life, antibodies are provided to the fetus or infant through passive immunization by the mother.
It is estimated that humans are capable of generating about 10-billion different kinds of antibodies, primarily by varying the amino acid composition of the protein molecule.
While most antibodies are created in response to particular antigens, the immune system also produces "natural antibodies" that have not been in response to antigen exposure, immunization, or vaccination. The problem is that the membranes of phagocytes and invading cells both carry a negative charge, so they naturally repel one another. The antigen binding site of an antibody is located at the top of each of the two outstretched arms. Immunoglobulin alpha (IgA) is found in mucosal areas of the body including the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. Immunoglobulin delta (IgD) appears in very small amounts in the blood, but is mainly found as receptors on B-cells which have not yet encountered antigens, where its function is to activate the B-cell. An antigen is a foreign molecule which triggers the production of antibodies by the immune system (antibody generator).An allergen is an antigen that can cause an allergic reaction.
When an antibody stimulates a immune cell to be a more effective killer, the process is called antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, or ADCC.
T-helper (Th) cells are white blood cells which activate and mediate the activities of other immune system cells. Immunoglobulin epsilon (IgE) is involved in defending the body against parasites and allergens. Immunoglobulin mu (IgM) helps complement proteins to attack invaders by providing a bridge to which the proteins can attach themselves to an invader in order to begin their complement cascade.
In addition to changing the Fc region through class switching, B-cells can also change the antigen-binding (Fab) sections of their receptors through a process called somatic hypermutation. Sometimes, the immune system mistakenly recognizes the body's own healthy tissues as harmful substances and produces antibodies in response. You will get many compliments and turn many heads, while walking next to a Shiba.A Shiba can get you a lot of attention, and open doors to many social encounters.
The specific size and shape of the CDRs determines to which antigens the antibody can and will bind.


Also known as immunoglobulin, antibodies are manufactured by white blood cells called B-lymphocytes, or B-cells. The ability for the infant's immune system to independently develop antibodies then develops during the first one or two years of life. These natural antibodies travel through the blood and react mainly to carbohydrates found on the surfaces of bacteria, beginning an immune response without having to activate the adaptive immune system. They bind directly to antigens, effectively coating the surface of the invader, in order to prevent pathogens from entering or damaging healthy body cells.
In this process, white blood cells like macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells destroy invading micro-organisms by surrounding them, drawing them inside their own membranes, and then neutralizing them with enzymes. The antibody bridges that gap by attaching ("binding") itself to the antigen with one of its antigen binding sites, and linking to the phagocyte with its "tail," or Fc region. IgA is also present in saliva, tears, and breast milk, where its function is to coat the baby's intestinal mucosa to protect it from pathogens. Consequently, it is often found attached to mast cells and basophils, although eosinophils, monocytes, macrophages, and blood platelets also have IgE receptors. This essentially fine-tunes the B-cell to have a higher affinity for binding to its cognate antigen.
These antibodies, known as autoantibodies, have been implicated in a number of autoimmune disorders including lupus erythematosus, Grave's disease, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, among others.
Three are found on the heavy chain (H1, H2, and H3) and 3 on the light chain (L1, L2, and L3).
It is the only antibody that can pass through the placenta from mother to fetus, providing in utero protection. The antibody can also activate the phagocyte, making it a much more hungry and effective eater.
The type of class switching happens in response to the chemical messengers, or cytokines, which the B-cell encounters in its environment.
And, antibodies can mark pathogens through a process called opsonization so that the pathogens can be identified and neutralized by other immune cells. In fact, he naturally dislikes soiling his living space, and even prefers not to go in our backyard.Shiba Inus like having their humans around, in the general vicinity.
However, when there are strange people or strange noises around the house, Sephy will bark to alert me. Once I go and check things out, he stops barking.Sephy also has a great memory, and will alert me if anything is out of place around the house, or in a familiar neighborhood. One day, he started barking at the fence, because somebody had put a piece of wood on top of it – amazing!3. However, when left on his own, the Shiba will likely turn towards the Dark Side.Sephy is a great hiking buddy, and is always up for a new challenge.
He can easily learn and conquer an agility course, but he will only do it, if I make it worth his while.A Shiba running is a sight to behold, and a Shiba at play is poetry in motion. A doggy EinsteinDoggy Einstein.A Shiba Inu can learn many dog obedience commands, and he can learn them very quickly. He also thinks that he is much smarter than you, and will only obey you when it suits him.Sephy can quickly solve complex interactive dog toys and puzzles.
I am always trying out new ways to deploy his food in toys, because he figures things out so quickly.A Shiba will challenge us and keep us sharp and on our toes!5. If we ignore him and give him nothing to react to, he will quickly lose interest, and move on to something else.Sephy can also be very competitive. Like the evil, black SpidermanA Shiba is like the evil, black Spiderman.A Shiba Inu is capable of great feats of agility.


However, if left untrained, he will use his powers to destroy and cause great havoc in the household.If bored and lonely, he will escape by jumping over or burrowing under your fence.
He can squeeze through small holes, bite through leashes, and achieve amazing great escapes, that will make Houdini proud.If not properly supervised, Sephy will pull down items from counters, and shred them to pieces.
In that time, he pulled down a phone headset, dismantled it into little pieces, and arranged them in a strategic pattern all over the floor.
Another alternative is to put him in dog daycare, or to employ the services of a dog walker.4.
A Drama Queen My Shiba will whine, mope, and act like it is the end of the world, when he is unhappy about something (e.g.
If I am scared or stressed-out, he picks up on that immediately, and gets that way too – except with a thousand times more gusto!5. An accomplished singerA Shiba Inu does not bark much, but he has a wide range of vocal stylings.The most well known is the Shiba-scream, which is a high pitched, loud scream, that will make your blood curdle. He quickly learned that screaming is not very effective at getting him what he wants, and he stopped doing it. However, with a Shiba, it can be total hell.After a lot of desensitization work and management, Sephy still protests to some of these activities. He sometimes throws a fit when I pick him up, and he only likes human contact when the mood suits him.A Shiba is like dog royalty. He wants his subjects close enough to serve him, but not too close as to sully his royal person.7. What’s that?Shibas Inus think that you should be obedient to them and not the other way around. Shiba owners need to be creative and flexible when interacting with their dog.A Shiba is not to be trusted off-leash, unless in a fully enclosed area.Obedience?
However, my Shiba just enjoys eating grass, provided it is the right kind of grass.I recently found an article suggesting that there might be something to this grass connoisseur business after all. They are not lap dogs.A  Shibas areA energetic, extremely intelligent, and need a lot of mental and physical stimulation.
Siberian Husky - Which is Better?Shiba Inus and Siberian Huskies are two of my favorite dog breeds. Both breeds have some very endearing qualities, and also more than a few challenging quirks. I walk him in very public places and he loves loves attention from people and usually ignores other dogs. Yes, escape artist if not watched, smart,loves her kids, her toys, and to be walked played with and loved! Shibas need to be trained right and most owners are lazy and don’t take enough time to train them. Mine lives with 3 other non shibas and gets along with strange dogs as long as they too are polite.
This breed can have a really amazing and loving personality if they are raised and trained correctly.



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