Sign up to stay informed with the latest heart-health related updates on MedicineNet delivered to your inbox FREE! Blood consists of a straw-yellow liquid called plasma and large numbers of red blood cells carrying the protein haemoglobin. Some materials are carried dissolved in plasma, much like sugar and carbon dioxide are dissolved in lemonade. Nitrogenous wastes such as urea, produced by the breakdown of proteins are carried dissolved in plasma. Products of digestion such as sugars, amino acids and vitamins are carried dissolved in blood plasma.
In the dot point 2.1, you learned that carbon dioxide is transported dissolved in blood, but that oxygen reacts with haemoglobin - it is not dissolved in blood. There are other oxygen transporting pigments in the animal kingdom but haemoglobin is present in many different kinds of animals, even some that live in the deepest parts of the ocean. 2.4 Students learn to compare the structure of arteries, capillaries and veins in relation to their function. The arteries branch into narrower and narrower tubes until the vessels are so narrow, that only one tiny red blood cell at a time can squeeze through. 2.5 perform a first-hand investigation using the light microscope and prepared slides to gather information to estimate the size of red and white blood cells and draw scaled diagrams of each. 2.6 Students learn to describe the main changes in the chemical composition of the blood as it moves around the body and identify tissues in which these changes occur. Small intestines: Digested food - glucose and lipids are added to blood and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. 2.7 analyse information from secondary sources to identify current technologies that allow measurement of oxygen saturation and carbon dioxide concentrations in blood and describe and explain the conditions under which these technologies are used.
Pulse oximetry can also aid in the measurement of carbon dioxide concentrations in blood but a more accurate method is to use an arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis machine. It follows that cells must be provided with a constant supply of oxygen and that carbon dioxide must be removed to prevent the cellsa€™ environment becoming too acid. 2.11 Students learn to describe current theories about processes responsible for the movement of materials through plants in xylem and phloem tissue. Unlike the movement of substance through phloem, transport through xylem is a passive process.


Transpirational pull: the most important cause of xylem sap flow is the evaporation of water from the surfaces of mesophyll cells to the atmosphere.
Root pressure: If the water potential of the root cells is more negative than the soil, usually due to high concentrations of solute, water can move by osmosis into the root from the soil. Australia is a generally dry continent and many Australian plants are adapted to survive in dry environments by having mechanisms to minimise water loss.
Blood carries food and oxygen to every cell in the body.A  It also carries carbon dioxide and waste products (nitrogenous waste from protein breakdown) away from every cell to be removed from the body.
Some materials are carried dissolved in plasma, much like sugar and carbon dioxide are dissolved in lemonade.A  Some substance combine with chemicals in the blood. Small intestines:A  Digested food - glucose and lipids are added to blood and transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein. The movement of food materials around a plant is termed translocation.A  It is accomplished by a process called phloem loading and unloading. This dot point will be (has been) covered in practical lessons.A A  Refer to your Practical Record Book. Arjuna Bark: this herb has been used in India (Ayurveda) for several centuries to control high blood pressure. You know that it's great to learn about new advances in health, and better ways that scientists and researchers are developing for us to live better, but what really drives the point home--helps us to appreciate these things more that personal stories and experiences?If you (or someone close to you) has had personal experience with what you've been reading about on this page, why not add your story to the record? Getting some exercise most days keeps your brain strong by increasing the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the brain. Exercising for at least 10 minutes a day working hard enough to break a sweat helps lower the risk of cancers of the colon, uterus and breast by reducing body fat, and by helping to move food through your body more efficiently. One of the best things you can do to prevent bone-weakening and loss as you age is to exercise. Getting to and staying at a healthy weight not only protects you from disease, it also helps you to look and feel better, improves self-esteem and reduces pressure on your joints helping them to last longer and have less pain. It takes 3,500 calories to burn 1-pound of fat so if you want to lose weight you will need to make small changes in your diet.
There is nothing like a good nighta€™s sleep to improve how you feel and your outlook on life.
Blood pressure is the force exerted on your artery walls as blood passes through them.A  It tells you if your blood is flowing smoothly.


Oxygen is required for good health and body function.A  Your respiratory system involves breathing in and out to distribute oxygen to body tissues and to remove waste (carbon dioxide) from the body. One of the best things you can do to prevent bone-weakening and loss as you age is to exercise.A  Building strength (weight lifting, resistance tubes, body weight) andA a€?weight bearinga€? exercises (exercises that support your body weight such as walking and jogging) are best to keep your bones strong. Being overweight results in lower self esteem and can cause many health problems.A  Exercise helps you burn more calories and increase your metabolism resulting in weight loss. There is nothing like a good nighta€™s sleep to improve how you feel and your outlook on life.A  Getting some exercise at least three hours before bedtime will help you sleep better and wake up feeling rested.
Working your body for at least 30 minutes most days of the week (working hard enough to break a sweat) can help prevent and manage diseases like type II diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cancer, depression and more. The cardiovascular system (heart and blood vessels) involves the circulation of your blood through your body.
Getting some exercise most days, choosing healthier foods and losing weight are effective ways to manage and prevent diabetes. Working your body forA  at least 30 minutes most days of the week (workingA  hard enough to break a sweat) can help prevent and manage diseases like type II diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cancer, depression and more.A  It also helps to control and manage weight and stress and helps you look and feel better.A  Exercise is the only proven method to add years to your life and life to your years a€“ so get moving today, youa€™ll be glad you did! If you have plaques in your arteries, your blood flow is interrupted and can cause life-threatening damage to your cardiovascular system. Getting some exercise most days of the week helps you breathe better, makes your lungs stronger and delivers nourishing oxygen throughout your body, making you feel refreshed and energized.
Getting some exercise most days, choosing healthier foods and losing weight are effective ways to manage and prevent diabetes.A  Moving your body not only helps your bodya€™s insulin work better it also removes excess sugar in the blood and helps your body become more effective at processing food. The resulting surface tension causes a negative pressure or tension in the xylem that pulls the water from the roots and soil. This causes water to move into the sieve-tube element by osmosis, creating pressure that pushes the sap down the tube. Each time your heart beats blood passes throughout your body bringing oxygen and to nourish your cells.
In sugar sinks, cells actively transport solutes out of the sieve-tube elements, producing the exactly opposite effect.



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